Plasma Processing for Carbon-based Materials

A special issue of C (ISSN 2311-5629).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2018) | Viewed by 26368

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, Meijo University, Shiogamaguchi, Tenpaku, Nagoya 468-8502, Japan
Interests: synthesis of diamond and carbon nanostructures including nanotubes and graphene; application of carbon nanostructures in the fields of energy generation and storage, electrochemical and bio-sensing, and cell culturing; plasma processing of materials including thin film formation, etching, and surface treatment; diagnostics of processing plasmas using spectroscopy and mass spectrometry

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Carbon-based materials include diamond, diamond-like carbon (DLC), amorphous carbon as well as several graphene-based nanostructures. They are promising materials that can be potentially used in the fields of mechanical, optical, electric, electronic, electrochemical, bio, agricultural, and environmental applications. Most of carbon-based materials can be synthesized using several plasma apparatuses. Morphology including crystallinity and structure as well as mechanical, electrical, and optical properties of carbon-based materials should be controlled according to their applications. Plasma processing has a significant role in fabricating carbon-based materials and achieving their practical use in many areas. In order to realize industrial application using carbon-based materials, processing plasma should be optimized depending on their use. Sometimes, it is desirable to develop novel plasma processing specific to the materials. This Special Issue covers development of plasma processes for the synthesis of carbon-based materials including diamond, DLC, amorphous carbon, and several graphene-based nanostructures; investigation on the post processes such as integration techniques including etching and surface functionalization; diagnostics of plasma used for the synthesis of carbon-based materials. Emerging applications using carbon-based materials are also welcome. Hopefully this Special Issue forms a valuable contribution to the knowledge of plasma processing of carbon-based materials and stimulates further development of these fields. We look forward to your submissions.

Prof. Dr. Mineo Hiramatsu
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • diamond
  • carbon nanotube
  • graphene
  • carbon nanostructures
  • DLC
  • amorphous carbon
  • plasma-enhanced CVD
  • sputtering
  • plasma synthesis of carbon-based materials
  • plasma etching
  • surface treatment and functionalization using plasma
  • plasma diagnostics
  • characterization of carbon based-materials
  • application of carbon based-materials

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

9 pages, 12583 KiB  
Article
Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes by Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition Using Fe1−xMnxO Nanoparticles as Catalysts: How Does the Catalytic Activity of Graphitization Affect the Yields and Morphology?
by Takashi Yanase, Takuya Miura, Tatsuya Shiratori, Mengting Weng, Taro Nagahama and Toshihiro Shimada
C 2019, 5(3), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/c5030046 - 8 Aug 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4121
Abstract
The choice of a catalyst for carbon nanotube (CNT) growth is critical to controlling the morphology and chirality of the final product. Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) can alleviate the requirements of the catalyst, i.e., they must be active for both the decomposition [...] Read more.
The choice of a catalyst for carbon nanotube (CNT) growth is critical to controlling the morphology and chirality of the final product. Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) can alleviate the requirements of the catalyst, i.e., they must be active for both the decomposition of the source gas and graphitization in the conventional thermal CVD. However, it is still not well understood how the catalytic activity of the graphitization affects the yield and quality of CNTs. In this paper, we systematically investigated the influence of the catalytic activity of graphitization by tuning the composition of Fe1−xMnxO (x = 0–1) nanoparticles as catalysts. As the Mn component increased, the number of CNTs decreased because Mn has no catalytic function of the graphitization. The quality of CNTs also affected by the inclusion of the Mn component. Our study may provide useful information to develop a new catalyst for CNT growth in PECVD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma Processing for Carbon-based Materials)
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10 pages, 4550 KiB  
Article
Atmospheric Pressure Plasma-Treated Carbon Nanowalls’ Surface-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (CNW-SALDI-MS)
by Takayuki Ohta, Hironori Ito, Kenji Ishikawa, Hiroki Kondo, Mineo Hiramatsu and Masaru Hori
C 2019, 5(3), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/c5030040 - 18 Jul 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3807
Abstract
Carbon nanowalls (CNWs), vertically standing highly crystallizing graphene sheets, were used in the application of a surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SALDI-TOF-MS). The CNW substrates solved the issues on interferences of matrix molecules and alkali metal addition ions in low-weight molecule detection. [...] Read more.
Carbon nanowalls (CNWs), vertically standing highly crystallizing graphene sheets, were used in the application of a surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SALDI-TOF-MS). The CNW substrates solved the issues on interferences of matrix molecules and alkali metal addition ions in low-weight molecule detection. Before SALDI sample preparations, the hydrophobic CNW was treated by atmospheric pressure plasma for exposing hydrophilicity to the CNWs’ surface. Detection of water soluble amino acids, arginine, was demonstrated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma Processing for Carbon-based Materials)
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10 pages, 5989 KiB  
Article
Plasma Oxidation Printing into DLC and Graphite for Surface Functionalization
by Tatsuhiko Aizawa, Kenji Wasa and Yoshiro Nogami
C 2019, 5(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/c5010011 - 11 Mar 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2980
Abstract
A diamond-like carbon (DLC) film, coated on a AISI420-J2 stainless steel substrate and vertically aligned graphite (VAG), was structured by high-density plasma oxidation to work as a DLC-punch for micro-stamping and DLC-nozzle array for micro-dispensing, in addition to acting as a copper-plated thermal [...] Read more.
A diamond-like carbon (DLC) film, coated on a AISI420-J2 stainless steel substrate and vertically aligned graphite (VAG), was structured by high-density plasma oxidation to work as a DLC-punch for micro-stamping and DLC-nozzle array for micro-dispensing, in addition to acting as a copper-plated thermal spreader, respectively. Thick DLC films were micro-patterned by maskless lithography and directly plasma-etched to remove the unmasked regions. Thick VAG (Ca plates were micro-patterned by screen-printing and selectively etched to activate the surface. Raman spectroscopy as well as electric resistivity measurement proved that there was no degradation of VAG by this surface activation. Wet plating was utilized to prove that copper wettability was improved by this surface treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma Processing for Carbon-based Materials)
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11 pages, 4163 KiB  
Article
Electrochemical Reaction in Hydrogen Peroxide and Structural Change of Platinum Nanoparticle-Supported Carbon Nanowalls Grown Using Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition
by Masakazu Tomatsu, Mineo Hiramatsu, Hiroki Kondo, Kenji Ishikawa, Takayoshi Tsutsumi, Makoto Sekine and Masaru Hori
C 2019, 5(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/c5010007 - 24 Jan 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4096
Abstract
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) reactions on platinum nanoparticle-decorated carbon nanowalls (Pt-CNWs) under potential applications were investigated on a platform of CNWs grown on carbon fiber paper (CFP) using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Through repeated cyclic voltammetry (CV), measurements of 1000 [...] Read more.
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) reactions on platinum nanoparticle-decorated carbon nanowalls (Pt-CNWs) under potential applications were investigated on a platform of CNWs grown on carbon fiber paper (CFP) using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Through repeated cyclic voltammetry (CV), measurements of 1000 cycles using the Pt-CNW electrodes in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution with 240 μM of H2O2, the observed response peak currents of H2O2 reduction decreased with the number of cycles, which is attributed to decomposition of H2O2. After CV measurements for a total of 3000 cycles, the density and height of CNWs were reduced and their surface morphology changed. Energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) compositional mapping revealed agglomeration of Pt nanoparticles around the top edges of CNWs. The degradation mechanism of Pt-CNWs under potential application with H2O2 is discussed by focusing on the behavior of OH radicals generated by the H2O2 reduction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma Processing for Carbon-based Materials)
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9 pages, 2467 KiB  
Article
Investigation of Nanographene Produced by In-Liquid Plasma for Development of Highly Durable Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells
by Vladislav Gamaleev, Kengo Kajikawa, Keigo Takeda and Mineo Hiramatsu
C 2018, 4(4), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/c4040065 - 23 Nov 2018
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3978
Abstract
Recently, polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) are attracting a lot of attention owing to their small size and relatively low working temperature (below 80 °C), which enables their usage in automobiles and household power generation. However, PEFCs have a problem with decreased output [...] Read more.
Recently, polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) are attracting a lot of attention owing to their small size and relatively low working temperature (below 80 °C), which enables their usage in automobiles and household power generation. However, PEFCs have a problem with decreased output caused by corrosion of amorphous carbon, which is commonly used as a catalytic carrier. This problem could be solved by the usage of carbon nanostructures with a stronger crystal structure than amorphous carbon. In this work, nanographene supported by Pt nanoparticles was synthesized and examined for possible applications in the development of PEFCs with increased durability. Nanographene was synthesized by in-liquid plasma generated in ethanol using alternating current (AC) high voltage. A membrane electrode assembly (MEA) was constructed, where Pt nanoparticle-supported nanographene was used as the catalytic layer. Power generation characteristics of the MEA were evaluated and current density for the developed MEA was found to be approximately 240 mA/cm2. From the electrochemical evaluation, it was found that the durability of Pt nanoparticle-supported nanographene was about seven times higher than that of carbon black. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma Processing for Carbon-based Materials)
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16 pages, 7553 KiB  
Article
Microwave-Driven Plasma-Mediated Methane Cracking: Product Carbon Characterization
by Randy Vander Wal, Arupananda Sengupta, Evan Musselman and George Skoptsov
C 2018, 4(4), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/c4040061 - 8 Nov 2018
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 6697
Abstract
Methane is the primary industrial H2 source, with the vast majority produced by steam reforming of methane—a highly CO2- and water-intensive process. Alternatives to steam reforming, such as microwave-driven plasma-mediated methane decomposition, offer benefits of no water consumption and zero [...] Read more.
Methane is the primary industrial H2 source, with the vast majority produced by steam reforming of methane—a highly CO2- and water-intensive process. Alternatives to steam reforming, such as microwave-driven plasma-mediated methane decomposition, offer benefits of no water consumption and zero CO2 process emissions while also producing solid carbon formed by pyrolytic reactions and aided by a plasma reactive environment. The economic viability of pyrolytic methane decomposition as a hydrogen source will depend upon the commercial applications of the solid carbon product—which, in turn, will depend upon its physical and chemical characteristics. This study focuses on material characterization of the solid carbon (secondary) product. Characterization by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy reveals forms ranging from graphitic to amorphous. Thermogravimetric analyses reveal three forms by their differing oxidative reactivity, while X-ray diffraction analyses support the different crystalline forms as suggested by Thermogravimetric analysis. Plasma perturbation of the radical pool, elevating radical temperatures and boosting concentrations, is proposed as altering the reaction paths towards solid carbon formation, resulting in the different sp2 forms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma Processing for Carbon-based Materials)
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