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Beverages, Volume 1, Issue 4 (December 2015) , Pages 225-353

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Open AccessArticle
Performance of Hollow Fiber Ultrafiltration Membranes in the Clarification of Blood Orange Juice
Beverages 2015, 1(4), 341-353; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages1040341
Received: 15 October 2015 / Accepted: 27 November 2015 / Published: 5 December 2015
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1997 | PDF Full-text (296 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The clarification of blood orange juice by ultrafiltration (UF) was investigated by using three hollow fiber membrane modules characterized by different membrane materials (polysulfone (PS) and polyacrylonitrile (PAN)) and molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) (50 and 100 kDa). The performance of selected membranes was [...] Read more.
The clarification of blood orange juice by ultrafiltration (UF) was investigated by using three hollow fiber membrane modules characterized by different membrane materials (polysulfone (PS) and polyacrylonitrile (PAN)) and molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) (50 and 100 kDa). The performance of selected membranes was investigated in terms of productivity and selectivity towards total anthocyanin content (TAC), total phenolic content (TPC), and total antioxidant activity (TAA). All selected membranes allowed a good preservation of antioxidant compounds; however, the most suitable membrane for the clarification of the juice was found to be the PS 100 kDa membrane. In optimized operating conditions this membrane exhibited steady-state fluxes of 7.12 L/m2h, higher than those measured for other investigated membranes. Rejections towards TPC and TAA were of the order of 17.5% and 15%, respectively. These values were lower than those determined for PS 50 kDa and PAN 50 kDa membranes. In addition, the PS 100 kDa membrane exhibited a lower rejection (7.3%) towards TAC when compared to the PS 50 kDa membrane (9.2%). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Perceptions of Powdered Alcohol and Intentions to Use: An Exploratory Qualitative Assessment of Potential Palcohol Use by Young Adults
Beverages 2015, 1(4), 329-340; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages1040329
Received: 14 October 2015 / Revised: 11 November 2015 / Accepted: 17 November 2015 / Published: 1 December 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1849 | PDF Full-text (216 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
While there seems to be growing media intrigue over atypical forms of alcohol use, the utilization of the majority of novel consumption methods (e.g., eyeballing, slimming, alcohol without liquid (AWOL)) seems minimal. In 2014, however, several outlets suggested that powdered alcohol would soon [...] Read more.
While there seems to be growing media intrigue over atypical forms of alcohol use, the utilization of the majority of novel consumption methods (e.g., eyeballing, slimming, alcohol without liquid (AWOL)) seems minimal. In 2014, however, several outlets suggested that powdered alcohol would soon surface as a threat to public safety. The impetus of these fears was the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau’s approval for Lipsmark LLC to package a powdered alcohol product named “Palcohol”. Palcohol has yet to reach store shelves, but public outcry has been intense. Despite this reaction, little is known about whether the population will consider Palcohol a suitable alternative to traditional alcohol, particularly given its excessive predicted cost. In an exploratory effort to assess perceptions, use intentions, and fears related to Palcohol, 31 young adults were asked to view a 16-minute video about Palcohol and answer a series of questions about Palcohol, including whether and how they intend to use it. Results suggest that young adults intend to experiment with Palcohol following its release, but they have a number of concerns. While few expect to become habitual users of the product, many believe it will enable people to utilize alcohol in settings where its consumption is prohibited. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Entry into the European Union on the Slovak Beer Industry and Its Consequences for the Tax Taken from the Excise Duty on Beer
Beverages 2015, 1(4), 320-328; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages1040320
Received: 11 August 2015 / Revised: 4 November 2015 / Accepted: 13 November 2015 / Published: 25 November 2015
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Abstract
The following paper is concerned with the issue of increasing the excise duty on beer and its consequences for consumption of the studied product. The aim is to demonstrate the tax burden in relation to domestic producers and beer consumption in the domestic [...] Read more.
The following paper is concerned with the issue of increasing the excise duty on beer and its consequences for consumption of the studied product. The aim is to demonstrate the tax burden in relation to domestic producers and beer consumption in the domestic market. The time period considered is the 16 years from 1999 to 2014. Data on consumption and the evolution of excise duty rates were compared ex post and conclusions were drawn using an analysis of economic indicators. In general, it is the case that, by increasing the rates of the duty, governments expect to see an increase in the income side of the state budget, even though increases in tax lead to reductions in consumption. This is, however, only a short-term effect and, over a longer time frame, such measures have a negative effect not only on consumption, but also on domestic production and on the tax income in the state budget. Full article
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Open AccessBrief Report
Total Dietary Fiber Content of Selected Traditional Beverages in Egypt: A Brief Profile
Beverages 2015, 1(4), 311-319; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages1040311
Received: 24 September 2015 / Revised: 21 October 2015 / Accepted: 29 October 2015 / Published: 2 November 2015
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Abstract
Escalating obesity rates have become a major public health concern in North Africa and the Middle East. Culturally-congruent dietary health education and strategies continue to be warranted to address this increasing public health crisis. Knowledge and familiarity with traditional foods and their nutritive [...] Read more.
Escalating obesity rates have become a major public health concern in North Africa and the Middle East. Culturally-congruent dietary health education and strategies continue to be warranted to address this increasing public health crisis. Knowledge and familiarity with traditional foods and their nutritive value would assist public health practitioners in becoming culturally competent when educating on healthy eating patterns. The aim of this study is to provide a brief dietary profile of the total dietary fiber (TDF) contents of selected traditional beverages in Egypt. Five cookbooks for Egyptian food recipes were reviewed for traditional beverages. Beverage recipes (n = 19) were selected and reviewed for their TDF content using the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (Release 27). The published values for TDF content were tabulated and reported per 100 mL of consumable portions. The highest TDF content was found in carob juice (8.0 g) and the lowest found in peppermint tea (0.0 g) with an overall TDF mean content of 2.8 g. Traditional beverages could be regarded as important sources of TDF within a healthy Egyptian dietary pattern. Cultural awareness and familiarities to traditional foods and their respective dietary profiles should be encouraged as an objective towards building culturally-competent health professionals and combating obesity in Egypt. Furthermore, developments of a traditional Egyptian food nutrient database for public access should be explored. Full article
Open AccessReview
From Sugar of Grape to Alcohol of Wine: Sensorial Impact of Alcohol in Wine
Beverages 2015, 1(4), 292-310; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages1040292
Received: 30 August 2015 / Revised: 19 October 2015 / Accepted: 23 October 2015 / Published: 2 November 2015
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3633 | PDF Full-text (738 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The quality of grapes, as well as wine quality, flavor, stability, and sensorial characteristics depends on the content and composition of several different groups of compounds from grapes. One of these groups of compounds are sugars and consequently the alcohol content quantified in [...] Read more.
The quality of grapes, as well as wine quality, flavor, stability, and sensorial characteristics depends on the content and composition of several different groups of compounds from grapes. One of these groups of compounds are sugars and consequently the alcohol content quantified in wines after alcoholic fermentation. During grape berry ripening, sucrose transported from the leaves is accumulated in the berry vacuoles as glucose and fructose. The wine alcohol content continues to be a challenge in oenology, as it is also the study of the role of chemosensory factors in alcohol intake and consumer preferences. Several technical and scientific advances have occurred in recent years, such as identification of receptors and other important molecules involved in the transduction mechanisms of flavor. In addition, consumers know that wines with high alcohol content can causes a gustatory disequilibrium affecting wine sensory perceptions leading to unbalanced wines. Hence, the object of this review is to enhance the knowledge on wine grape sugar composition, the alcohol perception on a sensorial level, as well as several technological practices that can be applied to reduce the wine alcohol content. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alcohol Perception and Consumption)
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Open AccessArticle
Packaging Attributes of Antioxidant-Rich Instant Coffee and Their Influence on the Purchase Intent
Beverages 2015, 1(4), 273-291; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages1040273
Received: 17 August 2015 / Revised: 4 October 2015 / Accepted: 20 October 2015 / Published: 26 October 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2672 | PDF Full-text (623 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The present study aimed to identify the most important packaging attributes for purchasing a product not currently on the Brazilian market: antioxidant-rich instant coffee, a blend of roasted coffee and green coffee. Five package types of the same brand of instant antioxidant-rich coffee [...] Read more.
The present study aimed to identify the most important packaging attributes for purchasing a product not currently on the Brazilian market: antioxidant-rich instant coffee, a blend of roasted coffee and green coffee. Five package types of the same brand of instant antioxidant-rich coffee marketed in different countries were evaluated through a focus group. The attributes’ glass shape, glass lid color and label, information and brand were selected for the quantitative study. The purchase intent for the packaging images was evaluated with conjoint analysis. In general, an increased purchase intent was verified for more modern packages and browner labels that indicated roasted coffee. The consumers preferred the image of green and roasted coffee beans next to the cup of coffee and valued information about the product’s differentiation (the origin, type, quantity and functions of antioxidants) that was presented in the form of explanatory charts on the back of the packaging. Full article
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Open AccessReview
New Trends in Beverage Packaging Systems: A Review
Beverages 2015, 1(4), 248-272; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages1040248
Received: 8 September 2015 / Revised: 9 September 2015 / Accepted: 1 October 2015 / Published: 8 October 2015
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 4443 | PDF Full-text (576 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
New trends in beverage packaging are focusing on the structure modification of packaging materials and the development of new active and/or intelligent systems, which can interact with the product or its environment, improving the conservation of beverages, such as wine, juice or beer, [...] Read more.
New trends in beverage packaging are focusing on the structure modification of packaging materials and the development of new active and/or intelligent systems, which can interact with the product or its environment, improving the conservation of beverages, such as wine, juice or beer, customer acceptability, and food security. In this paper, the main nutritional and organoleptic degradation processes of beverages, such as oxidative degradation or changes in the aromatic profiles, which influence their color and volatile composition are summarized. Finally, the description of the current situation of beverage packaging materials and new possible, emerging strategies to overcome some of the pending issues are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beverage Packaging)
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Open AccessArticle
Using Automated On-Site Monitoring to Calibrate Empirical Models of Trihalomethanes Concentrations in Drinking Water
Beverages 2015, 1(4), 225-247; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages1040225
Received: 5 June 2015 / Revised: 27 August 2015 / Accepted: 12 September 2015 / Published: 5 October 2015
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Abstract
An automated, on-site trihalomethanes concentration data set from a conventional water treatment plant was used to optimize powdered activated carbon and pre-chlorination doses. The trihalomethanes concentration data set was used with commonly monitored water quality parameters to improve an empirical model of trihalomethanes [...] Read more.
An automated, on-site trihalomethanes concentration data set from a conventional water treatment plant was used to optimize powdered activated carbon and pre-chlorination doses. The trihalomethanes concentration data set was used with commonly monitored water quality parameters to improve an empirical model of trihalomethanes formation. A calibrated model was used to predict trihalomethanes concentrations the following year. The agreement between the models and measurements was evaluated. The original model predicted trihalomethanes concentrations within ~10 μg·L−1 of the measurement. Calibration improved model prediction by a factor of three to five times better than the literature model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water)
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Beverages EISSN 2306-5710 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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