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Beverages, Volume 2, Issue 1 (March 2016)

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Open AccessArticle
Exploring Retro-Nasal Aroma’s Influence on Mouthfeel Perception of Chardonnay Wines
Received: 31 December 2015 / Revised: 2 March 2016 / Accepted: 14 March 2016 / Published: 18 March 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1945 | PDF Full-text (670 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
There are many interactions that occur between taste and aroma that may impact perception. The main objective of this study was to ascertain whether the aroma fraction of wine should be considered when investigating relationships between chemical composition and sensory perception of mouthfeel. [...] Read more.
There are many interactions that occur between taste and aroma that may impact perception. The main objective of this study was to ascertain whether the aroma fraction of wine should be considered when investigating relationships between chemical composition and sensory perception of mouthfeel. Chardonnay wines with different mouthfeels were produced by altering the fermentation temperature (15 °C and 21 °C) of the alcoholic and malolactic fermentations (MLF) as well as the timing of MLF and the presence of a non-Saccharomyces yeast during alcoholic fermentation. Napping® and Ultra-flash-profiling were conducted using a panel of white winemakers. Each procedure was conducted twice: once with retro-nasal aroma (+R) and once without retronasal aroma (−R). Napping® results showed that retronasal aroma impacted mouthfeel perception. Ultra-flash profiling of +R and −R displayed similar descriptive terms used. Several terms appear to be related to retronasal aroma as they were used in +R and not in −R. It is unclear if these terms are due to interactions or due to associated learning. These results suggest that for some mouthfeel terms the volatile fraction plays a role and, to establish relationships between chemical composition and mouthfeel perception, it is important to consider both the volatile and nonvolatile wine fractions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alcohol Perception and Consumption)
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Open AccessArticle
A New Wine Tasting Approach Based on Emotional Responses to Rapidly Recognize Classic European Wine Styles
Received: 19 December 2015 / Revised: 15 February 2016 / Accepted: 19 February 2016 / Published: 1 March 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2555 | PDF Full-text (949 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Conventional tasting sheets are widely used to evaluate wine quality in wine tasting competitions. However, the higher scores are mostly obtained by international commercial wines, resulting in lower scores being awarded to the classic European wines. We hypothesize that this is due to [...] Read more.
Conventional tasting sheets are widely used to evaluate wine quality in wine tasting competitions. However, the higher scores are mostly obtained by international commercial wines, resulting in lower scores being awarded to the classic European wines. We hypothesize that this is due to the tasting methodology that fails to recognize this wine style. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to show the implementation of a new wine tasting approach to overcome this drawback. The proposed training technique is based on the emotional responses of the taster after smelling two wines of clearly opposite styles. The first wine is characterized by high aromatic intensity but low in-mouth intensity, perceived as disappointing to the taster, here defined as an “easy” wine. The second wine is characterized as a wine with low aromatic intensity but that provides an unexpectedly positive in-mouth experience, here defined as a “difficult” wine. These emotions are explained by the wine sensorial characteristics. The “easy” wine has an intense, simple smell with short persistence while the “difficult” wine has a low intensity, complex aroma, and long persistence. The first style corresponds to the international commercial wines most prized in international wine challenges. The second, frequently rejected by untrained tasters, is consistent with the “so called” classic European wines, and is characterized by light red or yellow straw colors, weak smell intensity, and aggressive mouth-feel. After no more than four training sessions and using the OIV tasting sheet, inexperienced tasters were able to score “difficult” wines equally as “easy” wines and understand their different attributes. In conclusion, this new tasting approach may be used by wine professionals to explain the characteristics of high quality wines that are not easily recognized by untrained consumers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fruit Beverages: Sensory Evaluation and Consumer Acceptance)
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Open AccessArticle
Perception and Description of Premium Beers by Panels with Different Degrees of Product Expertise
Received: 14 December 2015 / Revised: 5 February 2016 / Accepted: 16 February 2016 / Published: 26 February 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2015 | PDF Full-text (1455 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The present study compares subjects with varying degrees of product expertise with regards to their ability to provide a sensory profile of beverages. Eight premium beers were evaluated by three different panels using a Napping® test, followed by a descriptive task. Two [...] Read more.
The present study compares subjects with varying degrees of product expertise with regards to their ability to provide a sensory profile of beverages. Eight premium beers were evaluated by three different panels using a Napping® test, followed by a descriptive task. Two panels were constituted of consumers, classified according to their self-assessed product expertise into “Novices” (N = 14) and “Enthusiasts” (N = 26). The sensory panel at a large brewery, and a group of master brewers constituted the third panel (“Experts”, N = 15). The Napping® data from the three panels were digitalized using a coordinate system, whereas attributes were entered separately and treated as frequency table crossing products and attributes. The position data were analyzed by Hierarchical Multiple Factor Analysis (HMFA). Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) was used to test differences between the three panels with regards to the use of attributes. The HMFA results showed a separation of the samples into two distinct groups on the first dimension, whereas the second dimension highlighted the specificity of two of the samples. RV coefficients between partial configurations obtained from the three panels were all above 0.90, indicating high configurational similarity. In contrast, PLS-DA showed significant differences in the use of attributes, particularly between Experts and Novices, suggesting that product expertise is more associated with descriptive, rather than perceptual, ability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alcohol Perception and Consumption)
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Open AccessArticle
Quality Markers of Functional Tomato Juice with Added Apple Phenolic Antioxidants
Received: 8 October 2015 / Revised: 18 January 2016 / Accepted: 20 January 2016 / Published: 2 February 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1968 | PDF Full-text (1895 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Using natural antioxidants instead of synthetic additives for food stabilisation is at the forefront of research in food formulation. Matrix interactions and stability studies of the incorporated foods are necessary prior to further processing. In this study, apple peel phenolics were added to [...] Read more.
Using natural antioxidants instead of synthetic additives for food stabilisation is at the forefront of research in food formulation. Matrix interactions and stability studies of the incorporated foods are necessary prior to further processing. In this study, apple peel phenolics were added to a commercial bottled tomato juice. The juice was opened and then stored in the presence of air in the headspace at 4 °C for four days to assess its physical-chemical stability (pH, turbidity, colour and total phenolic content) and nutritional content (ascorbic acid and total carotenoids); it was also stored at 4 °C for 10 days for the microbiological analysis. The antimicrobial capacity of the phenolic extracts was tested against a range of food borne pathogens and spoilage microorganisms. Results showed that apple peel phenolics could form complexes with colloidal pectins thus increasing the turbidity, even though this effect was not significant during the four-day storage; the colour of the enriched juice was brighter with enhanced yellowness due to added pigments such as flavonol glycosides. The presence of other natural antioxidants (ascorbic acid and carotenoids) in tomato juice was not affected by the addition of peel phenolics. Ascorbic acid was partially reduced during storage in all the juice samples; however, the presence of the added peel phenolics whose amount remained constant over time significantly contributed to a higher radical scavenging capacity compared to the control. The microbiological spoilage of the opened tomato juice was also delayed by two to three days in the presence of apple peel phenolics compared to the control. The antimicrobial capacity was due to a bacteriostatic effect of the phenolic extracts mostly against the growth of yeasts; the antimicrobial capacity was related to the acidity of phenolic acids and the presence of apple flavonoids such as flavan-3-ols. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Beverages in 2015
Received: 22 January 2016 / Accepted: 22 January 2016 / Published: 22 January 2016
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Abstract
The editors of Beverages would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2015. [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
An Exploratory Qualitative Exploration of the Personal Values Underpinning Taiwanese and Malaysians’ Wine Consumption Behaviors
Received: 23 September 2015 / Revised: 2 December 2015 / Accepted: 8 January 2016 / Published: 18 January 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2084 | PDF Full-text (866 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Augmented buying power of East Asian consumers has resulted in increased interest in these markets. Wine is a particularly promising sector to target as the number of East Asians choosing to drink wine rises. In order to serve these markets, companies must understand [...] Read more.
Augmented buying power of East Asian consumers has resulted in increased interest in these markets. Wine is a particularly promising sector to target as the number of East Asians choosing to drink wine rises. In order to serve these markets, companies must understand factors influencing consumers’ choices. The objective of this research was to understand how Taiwanese and Malaysian consumers’ personal values influenced their consumption decisions about wine. The means–end chain framework and associated semi-structured interview technique, value laddering, was used to elicit consumers’ preferred product attributes, the consequences of these attributes and the values that underpin these consequences. Data collection involved intercepting foreign travelers from Malaysia and Taiwan in New Zealand (20 Taiwanese and 20 Malaysian) to partake in a wine choice interview. The resulting findings are exploratory in nature. Analysis revealed the most preferred wine attributes for Taiwanese were “Price” and “Sensory Aspects”—that these attributes were linked to consequences “Financial Considerations” and “Satisfy Senses”—which in turn were linked to personal values “Self Direction” and “Achievement”. For the Malaysian participants, the attribute “Sensory Aspects” of wine was most important, as was the value “Hedonism”. This study adds to literature related to beverage consumption decision making by exploring cultural aspects. It also offers suggestions for practitioners interested in targeting these consumers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alcohol Perception and Consumption)
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Open AccessArticle
Sensory Description of Cultivars (Coffea Arabica L.) Resistant to Rust and Its Correlation with Caffeine, Trigonelline, and Chlorogenic Acid Compounds
Received: 30 September 2015 / Revised: 10 December 2015 / Accepted: 8 January 2016 / Published: 18 January 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2166 | PDF Full-text (1413 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Considering the importance of the chemical compounds in Arabica coffee beans in the definition of the drink sensory quality and authentication of coffee regions, the aim of this study was to evaluate, from principal component analysis—PCA—if there is a relation between the caffeine, [...] Read more.
Considering the importance of the chemical compounds in Arabica coffee beans in the definition of the drink sensory quality and authentication of coffee regions, the aim of this study was to evaluate, from principal component analysis—PCA—if there is a relation between the caffeine, trigonelline, and chlorogenic acid (5-CQA) content and the sensory attributes of the drink, and in this context, enabling the differentiation of cultivars in two coffee-producing regions of Brazil. We evaluated seven rust-resistant Coffea arabica cultivars, and two rust-susceptible cultivars in two cultivation environments: Lavras, in the southern region of Minas Gerais state, and Patrocinio in the Cerrado region of Minas Gerais. The flavor and acidity were determinant for differentiation of the cultivars and their interaction with the evaluated environments. Cultivars Araponga MG1, Catigua MG2, and Catigua MG1 are the most suitable for the production of specialty coffee in the state of Minas Gerais. A poor correlation was found between caffeine, trigonelline, 5-CQA contents, and fragrance, flavor, acidity, body, and final score attributes. However, these compounds enabled the differentiation of the environments. The PCA indicated superiority in the sensory quality of cultivars resistant to rust, compared to the control, Bourbon Amarelo, and Topázio MG1190. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coffee Beverage)
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Beverages EISSN 2306-5710 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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