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Dent. J., Volume 4, Issue 1 (March 2016) – 7 articles

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Review
Direct Oral Anticoagulants in Dental Patients Including the Frail Elderly Population
Dent. J. 2016, 4(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj4010007 - 19 Mar 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3274
Abstract
Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) have led to a paradigm shift in the field of anticoagulation, providing safe and convenient anticoagulation without the need for regular blood testing. Currently, there are three major DOACs available—Factor Xa inhibitors (apixaban and rivaroxaban) and direct thrombin inhibitors [...] Read more.
Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) have led to a paradigm shift in the field of anticoagulation, providing safe and convenient anticoagulation without the need for regular blood testing. Currently, there are three major DOACs available—Factor Xa inhibitors (apixaban and rivaroxaban) and direct thrombin inhibitors (dabigatran)—that are available for use in atrial fibrillation and venous thromboembolism. While these agents have been shown to be as effective as warfarin, with a similar or better bleeding profile, there remains some concern of the use of these drugs in vulnerable populations, such as the frail elderly patients; particularly since reversal agents and drug monitoring are not routinely available. We aim to provide a review of the use of DOACs and the impact of DOACs on dental treatment in the elderly population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medically Compromised Patients in Dentistry)
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Review
Dental Undergraduate Views of Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs): A Literature Review
Dent. J. 2016, 4(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj4010006 - 19 Mar 2016
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2631
Abstract
Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs) are widely used in dental undergraduate assessment, often determining progression or graduation. Student evaluation of this assessment process is important, and this includes identifying the views of the student. The aim of this paper is to present a [...] Read more.
Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs) are widely used in dental undergraduate assessment, often determining progression or graduation. Student evaluation of this assessment process is important, and this includes identifying the views of the student. The aim of this paper is to present a review of the current literature regarding dental student perceptions of OSCEs. A search of the PubMed database covering the period 1975 to 2015 identified 121 possible papers from which only six were suitable for review. The remaining papers were excluded due to them not reporting on dental undergraduate views. Students perceived the OSCE to be a valid assessment in three studies, but not in one. The educational benefit of an OSCE is well supported by these studies. OSCEs can induce high levels of anxiety compared to other forms of assessments, but this did not affect student performance. The majority of students would chose to have a similar format of assessment again, showing support for OSCEs. Further research using larger cohorts of students could be undertaken in order to support these finding which would give added evidence for the continuing use of OSCEs as a valid method of both dental undergraduate education and assessment. Full article
Review
New Direct Oral Anticoagulants (DOAC) and Their Use Today
Dent. J. 2016, 4(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj4010005 - 11 Mar 2016
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 5797
Abstract
The ideal anticoagulant is oral, has a wide therapeutic range, predictable pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, a rapid onset of action, an available antidote, minimal side effects and minimal interactions with other drugs or food. With the development of the novel direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC), [...] Read more.
The ideal anticoagulant is oral, has a wide therapeutic range, predictable pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, a rapid onset of action, an available antidote, minimal side effects and minimal interactions with other drugs or food. With the development of the novel direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC), we now have an alternative to the traditional vitamin K antagonists (VKA) for the prevention and treatment of thrombosis. DOACs have limited monitoring requirements and very predictable pharmacokinetic profiles. They were shown to be non-inferior or superior to VKA in the prophylaxis or treatment of thromboembolic events. Particularly in terms of safety they were associated with less major bleeding, including intracranial bleeding, thus providing a superior benefit for the prevention of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. Despite these advantages, there are remaining limitations with DOACs: their dependence on renal and hepatic function for clearance and the lack of an approved reversal agent, whereas such antidotes are successively being made available. DOACs do not need regular monitoring to assess the treatment effect but, on the other hand, they interact with other drugs and interfere with functional coagulation assays. From a practical point of view, the properties of oral administration, simple dosing without monitoring, a short half-life allowing for the possibility of uncomplicated switching or bridging, and proven safety overwhelm the disadvantages, making them an attractive option for short- or long-term anticoagulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medically Compromised Patients in Dentistry)
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Review
Infection and Pulp Regeneration
Dent. J. 2016, 4(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj4010004 - 10 Mar 2016
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 4482
Abstract
The regeneration of the pulp-dentin complex has been a great challenge to both scientists and clinicians. Previous work has shown that the presence of prior infection may influence the characteristics of tissues formed in the root canal space after regenerative endodontic treatment. The [...] Read more.
The regeneration of the pulp-dentin complex has been a great challenge to both scientists and clinicians. Previous work has shown that the presence of prior infection may influence the characteristics of tissues formed in the root canal space after regenerative endodontic treatment. The formation of ectopic tissues such as periodontal ligament, bone, and cementum has been observed in the root canal space of immature necrotic teeth with apical periodontitis, while the regeneration of dentin and pulp has been identified in previously non-infected teeth. The current regenerative endodontic therapy utilizes disinfection protocols, which heavily rely on chemical irrigation using conventional disinfectants. From a microbiological point of view, the current protocols may not allow a sufficiently clean root canal microenvironment, which is critical for dentin and pulp regeneration. In this article, the significance of root canal disinfection in regenerating the pulp-dentin complex, the limitations of the current regenerative endodontic disinfection protocols, and advanced disinfection techniques designed to reduce the microorganisms and biofilms in chronic infection are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regeneration and Repair in Endodontics)
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Review
Regeneration and Repair in Endodontics—A Special Issue of the Regenerative Endodontics—A New Era in Clinical Endodontics
Dent. J. 2016, 4(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj4010003 - 27 Feb 2016
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 8335
Abstract
Caries is the most common cause of pulp-periapical disease. When the pulp tissue involved in caries becomes irreversibly inflamed and progresses to necrosis, the treatment option is root canal therapy because the infected or non-infected necrotic pulp tissue in the root canal system [...] Read more.
Caries is the most common cause of pulp-periapical disease. When the pulp tissue involved in caries becomes irreversibly inflamed and progresses to necrosis, the treatment option is root canal therapy because the infected or non-infected necrotic pulp tissue in the root canal system is not accessible to the host's innate and adaptive immune defense mechanisms and antimicrobial agents. Therefore, the infected or non-infected necrotic pulp tissue must be removed from the canal space by pulpectomy. As our knowledge in pulp biology advances, the concept of treatment of pulpal and periapical disease also changes. Endodontists have been looking for biologically based treatment procedures, which could promote regeneration or repair of the dentin-pulp complex destroyed by infection or trauma for several decades. After a long, extensive search in in vitro laboratory and in vivo preclinical animal experiments, the dental stem cells capable of regenerating the dentin-pulp complex were discovered. Consequently, the biological concept of ‘regenerative endodontics’ emerged and has highlighted the paradigm shift in the treatment of immature permanent teeth with necrotic pulps in clinical endodontics. Regenerative endodontics is defined as biologically based procedures designed to physiologically replace damaged tooth structures, including dentin and root structures, as well as the pulp-dentin complex. According to the American Association of Endodontists’ Clinical Considerations for a Regenerative Procedure, the primary goal of the regenerative procedure is the elimination of clinical symptoms and the resolution of apical periodontitis. Thickening of canal walls and continued root maturation is the secondary goal. Therefore, the primary goal of regenerative endodontics and traditional non-surgical root canal therapy is the same. The difference between non-surgical root canal therapy and regenerative endodontic therapy is that the disinfected root canals in the former therapy are filled with biocompatible foreign materials and the root canals in the latter therapy are filled with the host's own vital tissue. The purpose of this article is to review the potential of using regenerative endodontic therapy for human immature and mature permanent teeth with necrotic pulps and/or apical periodontitis, teeth with persistent apical periodontitis after root canal therapy, traumatized teeth with external inflammatory root resorption, and avulsed teeth in terms of elimination of clinical symptoms and resolution of apical periodontitis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regeneration and Repair in Endodontics)
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Article
Tobacco, Alcohol and Drug Use among Dental Undergraduates at One UK University in 2015
Dent. J. 2016, 4(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj4010002 - 25 Jan 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2710
Abstract
The aim of this study was determine the prevalence of tobacco, alcohol and illicit substance use among dental undergraduates at one UK university in 2015. A cross-sectional survey of all 344 dental undergraduates using an anonymous self-report questionnaire was carried out. The response [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was determine the prevalence of tobacco, alcohol and illicit substance use among dental undergraduates at one UK university in 2015. A cross-sectional survey of all 344 dental undergraduates using an anonymous self-report questionnaire was carried out. The response rate was 77%, of which 29% were male and 71% female. Tobacco smoking was reported by 23.6% of males and 12.2% of females, with only 1.6% of females reporting to smoke ≥10 cigarettes per day. Alcohol consumption was reported by 85.5% of males and 84% of females, and reported levels of alcohol consumption increased since becoming undergraduates. Binge drinking was reported by 35.3% of males and 41% of female students. Only 2.6% of males and 0.5% of females reported to be current regular users of cannabis. The vast majority of respondents claimed to have never used any illicit substance. The only other reported regularly used substances by males was Ecstasy (1.3%) and by females were LSD (0.5%), Ecstasy (1.5%), Cocaine (0.5%), Inhalants (0.5%) and Ketamine (0.5%). These results are encouraging. Fewer students reported smoking than in the general population, levels of binge drinking were considerably lower than previously reported figures, as were the numbers of regular users of cannabis and other illicit substances. Full article
Editorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Dentistry Journal in 2015
Dent. J. 2016, 4(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj4010001 - 21 Jan 2016
Viewed by 1818
Abstract
The editors of Dentistry Journal would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2015 [...] Full article
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