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Inorganics, Volume 7, Issue 9 (September 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum(III) (Alq3) and its derivatives, characterized by a [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Connecting Main-Group Metals (Al, Ga, In) and Tungsten(0) Carbonyls via the N2S2 Metallo-Ligand Strategy
Inorganics 2019, 7(9), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics7090115 - 13 Sep 2019
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Abstract
Tetradentate N2S2 ligands (such as bismercaptoethanediazacycloheptane in this study) have seen extensive use in combination with transition metals. Well-oriented N2S2 binding sites are ideal for d8 transition metals with square planar preferences, especially NiII, [...] Read more.
Tetradentate N2S2 ligands (such as bismercaptoethanediazacycloheptane in this study) have seen extensive use in combination with transition metals. Well-oriented N2S2 binding sites are ideal for d8 transition metals with square planar preferences, especially NiII, but also as a square pyramidal base for those metals with pentacoordinate preferences, such as [V≡O]2+, [Fe(NO)]2+, and [Co(NO)]2+. Further reactivity at the thiolate sulfurs generates diverse bi, tri, and tetra/heterometallic compounds. Few N2S2 ligands have been explored to investigate the possibility of binding to main group metals, especially group III (MIII) metals, and their utility as synthons for main group/transition metal bimetallic complexes. To open up this area of chemistry, we synthesized three new five-coordinate main group XMN2S2 complexes with methyl as the fifth binding ligand for M = Al, and chloride for M = Ga and In. The seven-membered diazacycle, dach, was engaged as a rigid stabilized connector between the terminal thiolate sulfurs. The pentacoordinate XMN2S2 complexes were characterized by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, +ESI-Mass spectra, and X-ray diffraction. Their stabilities and reactivities were probed by adding NiII sources and W(CO)5(THF). The former replaces the main group metals in all cases in the N2S2 coordination environment, demonstrating the weak coordinate bonds of MIII–N/S. The reaction of XMN2S2 (XM = ClGaIII or ClInIII) with the labile ligand W(0) complex W(CO)5(THF) resulted in Ga/In–W bimetallic complexes with a thiolate S-bridge. The synthesis of XMN2S2 complexes provide examples of MIII–S coordination, especially Al–S, which is relatively rare. The bimetallic Ga/In–S–W complex formation indicates that the nucleophilic ability of sulfur is retained in MIII–S–R, resulting in the ability of main group MIII–N2S2 complexes to serve as metalloligands. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Binuclear Complexes)
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Open AccessCommunication
Ir-Catalyzed Reduction of Carbonyl Compounds Using Biogenetic Alcohols
Inorganics 2019, 7(9), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics7090114 - 12 Sep 2019
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Abstract
Biomass has gained great attention as an alternative to fuel-derived chemicals. This report concerns new catalytic systems consisting of [IrCp*Cl2]2 (Cp*: Pentamethylcyclopentadienyl) for the reduction of aldehyde and biogenetic alcohols as hydrogen sources. [IrCp*Cl2]2 has been used [...] Read more.
Biomass has gained great attention as an alternative to fuel-derived chemicals. This report concerns new catalytic systems consisting of [IrCp*Cl2]2 (Cp*: Pentamethylcyclopentadienyl) for the reduction of aldehyde and biogenetic alcohols as hydrogen sources. [IrCp*Cl2]2 has been used as a transfer hydrogenation catalyst using fossil fuel-derived alcohols as hydrogen sources in the presence of a base. In contrast, our system does not require any base, and the reaction can proceed in water. Various types of biogenetic alcohols can be used as hydrogen sources, such as monosaccharides, oligosaccharides, and glycerol. Aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes, as well as ketones, were successfully reduced to the corresponding alcohols in the present system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Iridium Complexes)
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Open AccessArticle
“Intelligent” Pt Catalysts Based on Thin LaCoO3 Films Prepared by Atomic Layer Deposition
Inorganics 2019, 7(9), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics7090113 - 12 Sep 2019
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Abstract
LaCoO3 films were deposited onto MgAl2O4 powders by atomic layer deposition (ALD) and then used as catalyst supports for Pt. X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that the 0.5 nm films exhibited a perovskite structure after redox cycling at 1073 K, [...] Read more.
LaCoO3 films were deposited onto MgAl2O4 powders by atomic layer deposition (ALD) and then used as catalyst supports for Pt. X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that the 0.5 nm films exhibited a perovskite structure after redox cycling at 1073 K, and scanning transmission electron microscopy and elemental mapping via energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (STEM/EDS) data demonstrated that the films covered the substrate uniformly. Catalysts prepared with 3 wt % Pt showed that the Pt remained well dispersed on the perovskite film, even after repeated oxidations and reductions at 1073 K. Despite the high Pt dispersion, CO adsorption at room temperature was negligible. Compared with conventional Pt on MgAl2O4, the reduced forms of the LaCoO3-containing catalyst were highly active for the CO oxidation and water gas shift (WGS) reactions, while the oxidized catalysts showed much lower activities. Surprisingly, the reduced catalysts were much less active than the oxidized catalysts for toluene hydrogen. Catalysts prepared from thin films of Co3O4 or La2O3 exhibited properties more similar to Pt/MgAl2O4. Possible reasons for how LaCoO3 affects properties are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Inorganic Solid-State Chemistry)
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Open AccessCorrection
Correction: First Principles Study of the Vibrational and Thermal Properties of Sn-Based Type II Clathrates CsxSn136 (0 ≤ x ≤ 24) and Rb24Ga24Sn112. Inorganics 2019, 7, 74
Inorganics 2019, 7(9), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics7090112 - 10 Sep 2019
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Abstract
Dong Xue and his Ph [...] Full article
Open AccessReview
The First-Row Transition Metals in the Periodic Table of Medicine
Inorganics 2019, 7(9), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics7090111 - 06 Sep 2019
Viewed by 456
Abstract
In this manuscript, we describe medical applications of each first-row transition metal including nutritional, pharmaceutical, and diagnostic applications. The 10 first-row transition metals in particular are found to have many applications since there five essential elements among them. We summarize the aqueous chemistry [...] Read more.
In this manuscript, we describe medical applications of each first-row transition metal including nutritional, pharmaceutical, and diagnostic applications. The 10 first-row transition metals in particular are found to have many applications since there five essential elements among them. We summarize the aqueous chemistry of each element to illustrate that these fundamental properties are linked to medical applications and will dictate some of nature’s solutions to the needs of cells. The five essential trace elements—iron, copper, zinc, manganese, and cobalt—represent four redox active elements and one redox inactive element. Since electron transfer is a critical process that must happen for life, it is therefore not surprising that four of the essential trace elements are involved in such processes, whereas the one non-redox active element is found to have important roles as a secondary messenger.. Perhaps surprising is the fact that scandium, titanium, vanadium, chromium, and nickel have many applications, covering the entire range of benefits including controlling pathogen growth, pharmaceutical and diagnostic applications, including benefits such as nutritional additives and hardware production of key medical devices. Some patterns emerge in the summary of biological function andmedical roles that can be attributed to small differences in the first-row transition metals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue First-Row Transition Metal Complexes)
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Open AccessArticle
An Optimised Compaction Process for Zr-Fumarate (MOF-801)
Inorganics 2019, 7(9), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics7090110 - 05 Sep 2019
Viewed by 428
Abstract
We reported a systematic approach aimed at identifying the optimal conditions for compaction of MOF-801, a small-pore zirconium-based metal–organic framework (MOF) containing fumaric acid as the linker, that can be easily synthesised in aqueous medium. Pellets of the MOF were prepared by compressing [...] Read more.
We reported a systematic approach aimed at identifying the optimal conditions for compaction of MOF-801, a small-pore zirconium-based metal–organic framework (MOF) containing fumaric acid as the linker, that can be easily synthesised in aqueous medium. Pellets of the MOF were prepared by compressing the powder either in neat form or dry-mixed with binders (sucrose, polyvinylalcohol, polyvinylbutyral) under a range of pressures and for different times. The mechanical stability and durability of the pellets was tested by simple drop tests and shake tests, finding that addition of 5% of polyvinylbutyral was enough to produce highly resilient pellets that did not release significant amounts of powder upon cracking. The crystallinity, textural properties and CO2 adsorption performance of the MOF were successively assessed, observing the least change of the original properties in pellets compressed at 146 MPa for 15 s. Compaction at higher pressures impacted the performance more heavily, with no evident benefit from the mechanical point of view, whereas compression time did not have a relevant effect. The cyclic adsorption behaviour was tested, showing that the pellets retained as much as 90% of the CO2 working capacity, while displaying unaffected sorption kinetics, and 74% of the H2O working capacity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Coordination Polymers and Metal–Organic Frameworks)
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Open AccessCommunication
Propeller-Shaped Aluminum Complexes with an Azaperylene Core in the Ligands
Inorganics 2019, 7(9), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics7090109 - 03 Sep 2019
Viewed by 528
Abstract
Tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum(III) (Alq3) and its derivatives, characterized by a propeller-shaped three-dimensionally π-conjugated structure, have been intensively studied in the few past decades on account of their potential utility in optoelectronic applications. Reported herein are the synthesis and properties of π-extended Alq [...] Read more.
Tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum(III) (Alq3) and its derivatives, characterized by a propeller-shaped three-dimensionally π-conjugated structure, have been intensively studied in the few past decades on account of their potential utility in optoelectronic applications. Reported herein are the synthesis and properties of π-extended Alq3 complexes that contain an azaperylene core in each ligand. Intramolecular palladium-catalyzed direct C–H arylations or base-promoted arylations were employed to prepare these large Alq3 analogues. A single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of one of the obtained Al complexes revealed a unique three-dimensional packing structure within the crystal, i.e., a honeycomb packing along the ab-plane and columnar π-stacks along the c-axis. An Alq3 analogue with azaperylene-dicarboximide ligands exhibited deep blue color in solution with an intense absorption band that extended to 780 nm (λmax = 634 nm; ε = 58,000 M−1 cm−1). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organoaluminum Compounds)
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Open AccessReview
Brain–Barrier Regulation, Metal (Cu, Fe) Dyshomeostasis, and Neurodegenerative Disorders in Man and Animals
Inorganics 2019, 7(9), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics7090108 - 28 Aug 2019
Viewed by 299
Abstract
The neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimers, Parkinsons, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntingtons) and the prion disorders, have in common a dysregulation of metalloprotein chemistry involving redox metals (Cu, Fe, Mn). The consequent oxidative stress is associated with protein plaques and neuronal cell death. An equilibrium exists [...] Read more.
The neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimers, Parkinsons, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntingtons) and the prion disorders, have in common a dysregulation of metalloprotein chemistry involving redox metals (Cu, Fe, Mn). The consequent oxidative stress is associated with protein plaques and neuronal cell death. An equilibrium exists between the functional requirement of the brain for Cu and Fe and their destructive potential with the production of reactive oxygen species. The importance of the brain barrier is highlighted in regulating the import of these metals. Upregulation of key transporters occurs in fetal and neonatal life when brain metal requirement is high, and is downregulated in adult life when need is minimal. North Ronaldsay sheep are introduced as an animal model in which a neonatal mode of CTR1 upregulation persists into adulthood and leads to the premise that metal regulation may return to this default setting in ageing, with implications for the neurodegenerative diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metals in Neurodegenerative Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
Preparation and Characterization of Large Area Li-NASICON Electrolyte Thick Films
Inorganics 2019, 7(9), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics7090107 - 26 Aug 2019
Viewed by 378
Abstract
The preparation of solid electrolyte ceramic membranes is the object of intense study for its fundamental parts in the development of all solid-state batteries and improved battery separators. In this work, the procurement of large area solid electrolyte ceramic thick film membranes of [...] Read more.
The preparation of solid electrolyte ceramic membranes is the object of intense study for its fundamental parts in the development of all solid-state batteries and improved battery separators. In this work, the procurement of large area solid electrolyte ceramic thick film membranes of the Li-NASICON Li1.3Al0.3Ti1.7(PO4)3 (LATP) composition is attempted. Through the use of LATP powders from a sol–gel reaction, a slurry is formulated and tape casted. The green tapes are sintered using two sintering times. In both cases, ceramic thick films of a 5.5 × 5.5 cm2 area and ≈250 µm average thickness were obtained. The characterization indicated almost pure phase samples with a bi-modal microstructure composed of large and smaller grains, being larger for longer sintering time. The samples are porous and brittle, presenting very high “bulk” conductivity but lower total direct current (DC) one, as compared with the commercial Li-NASICON (OHARA) thick films with a similar area. The larger the grains, the poorer the total conductivity and the mechanical properties of the thick-films. The formation of poorly adhering grain boundaries as the grain size grows is responsible for the worsened properties. A better control of the microstructure is mandatory. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Covalent Si–H Bonds in the Zintl Phase Hydride CaSiH1+x (x ≤ 1/3)
Inorganics 2019, 7(9), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics7090106 - 21 Aug 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 361
Abstract
The crystal structure of the Zintl phase hydride CaSiH≈4/3 was discussed controversially, especially with respect to the nature of the silicon-hydrogen interaction. We have applied X-ray and neutron powder diffraction as well as total neutron scattering on a deuterated sample, CaSiD1.1 [...] Read more.
The crystal structure of the Zintl phase hydride CaSiH≈4/3 was discussed controversially, especially with respect to the nature of the silicon-hydrogen interaction. We have applied X-ray and neutron powder diffraction as well as total neutron scattering on a deuterated sample, CaSiD1.1. Rietveld refinement (CaSiD1.1, Pnma, a = 14.579(4) Å, b = 3.8119(4) Å, c = 11.209(2) Å) and an analysis of the neutron pair distribution function show a silicon-deuterium bond length of 1.53 Å. The Si–H bond may thus be categorized as covalent and the main structural features described by a limiting ionic formula Ca2+H(Si)2/3(SiH)1/3. Hydrogen atoms decorating the ribbon-like silicon polyanion made of three connected zigzag chains are under-occupied, resulting in a composition CaSiH1.1. Hydrogen-poor Zintl phase hydrides CaSiH<1 with hydride ions in Ca4 tetrahedra only were found in an in situ neutron diffraction experiment at elevated temperature. Hydrogen (deuterium) uptake and release in CaSiDx (0.05 ≤ x ≤ 0.17) is a very fast process and takes less than 1 min to complete, which is of importance for possible hydrogen storage applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structure, Properties, and Bonding in Solid State Compounds)
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Open AccessArticle
Thorium(IV) and Uranium(IV) Phosphaazaallenes
Inorganics 2019, 7(9), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics7090105 - 21 Aug 2019
Viewed by 370
Abstract
The synthesis of tetravalent thorium and uranium complexes with the phosphaazaallene moiety, [N(tBu)C=P(C6H5)]2−, is described. The reaction of the bis(phosphido) complexes, (C5Me5)2An[P(C6H5)(SiMe3)]2 [...] Read more.
The synthesis of tetravalent thorium and uranium complexes with the phosphaazaallene moiety, [N(tBu)C=P(C6H5)]2−, is described. The reaction of the bis(phosphido) complexes, (C5Me5)2An[P(C6H5)(SiMe3)]2, An = Th, U, with two equivalents of tBuNC produces (C5Me5)2An(CNtBu)[η2-(N,C)-N(tBu)C=P(C6H5)] with concomitant formation of P(SiMe3)2(C6H5) via silyl migration. These complexes are characterized by NMR and IR spectroscopy, as well as structurally determined using X-ray crystallography. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bonding in Actinide and Lanthanide Complexes)
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