In this manuscript, we describe medical applications of each first-row transition metal including nutritional, pharmaceutical, and diagnostic applications. The 10 first-row transition metals in particular are found to have many applications since there five essential elements among them. We summarize the aqueous chemistry of each element to illustrate that these fundamental properties are linked to medical applications and will dictate some of nature’s solutions to the needs of cells. The five essential trace elements—iron, copper, zinc, manganese, and cobalt—represent four redox active elements and one redox inactive element. Since electron transfer is a critical process that must happen for life, it is therefore not surprising that four of the essential trace elements are involved in such processes, whereas the one non-redox active element is found to have important roles as a secondary messenger.. Perhaps surprising is the fact that scandium, titanium, vanadium, chromium, and nickel have many applications, covering the entire range of benefits including controlling pathogen growth, pharmaceutical and diagnostic applications, including benefits such as nutritional additives and hardware production of key medical devices. Some patterns emerge in the summary of biological function andmedical roles that can be attributed to small differences in the first-row transition metals.
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