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Extraction by Subcritical and Supercritical Water, Methanol, Ethanol and Their Mixtures

Institute of Chemistry, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904, Israel
Separations 2018, 5(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations5010004
Received: 5 November 2017 / Revised: 22 December 2017 / Accepted: 27 December 2017 / Published: 1 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Supercritical Fluid Extraction)
Hot, subcritical and supercritical water, methanol, ethanol and their binary mixtures have been employed to treat fuels (desulfurize coal and recover liquid fuels from coal and oil shales) and to extract valuable solutes from biomass. The properties of these solvents that are relevant to their extraction abilities are presented. Various extraction methods: accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE, but excluding supercritical carbon dioxide) with these solvents, including microwave- and ultrasound-assisted extraction, are dealt with. The extraction systems are extensively illustrated and discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: ethanol; methanol; water; pressurized liquid; supercritical extraction; fuels; biomass ethanol; methanol; water; pressurized liquid; supercritical extraction; fuels; biomass
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Marcus, Y. Extraction by Subcritical and Supercritical Water, Methanol, Ethanol and Their Mixtures. Separations 2018, 5, 4.

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