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Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ., Volume 14, Issue 6 (June 2024) – 24 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The study of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) continues to be a topic of interest, due to the increasing prevalence and the numerous uncertainties it still presents. Parents raising a child with ASD face daily challenges to meet their specific needs. On the other hand, factors such as parenting style, parental sense of competence, individual characteristics of the caregiver, stress coping strategies, family and/or social support, or relationships can promote or hinder the optimal development of children. This study aims to review, in recent literature, the relationship between parenting styles and the well-being of these families, taking into account other related variables. View this paper
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19 pages, 950 KiB  
Article
Serial Mediation Models of Future Anxiety and Italian Young Adults Psychological Distress: The Role of Intolerance of Uncertainty and Non-Pathological Worry
by Giorgio Maria Regnoli, Gioia Tiano and Barbara De Rosa
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2024, 14(6), 1834-1852; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe14060121 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 142
Abstract
Previous research has already examined the relationship between Future Anxiety, a construct recently introduced in Italy, and mental health in young adults, although possible mediating variables in this relationship have so far never been investigated. The present study attempts to fill this gap [...] Read more.
Previous research has already examined the relationship between Future Anxiety, a construct recently introduced in Italy, and mental health in young adults, although possible mediating variables in this relationship have so far never been investigated. The present study attempts to fill this gap by exploring the incidence of Future Anxiety on psychological distress (i.e., Stress, Anxiety and Depression) in a group of 302 young Italian adults (18–30 years; M = 21.9; SD = 2.6; 49.0% males; 51.0% females), presenting and evaluating the simultaneous mediating effect of Intolerance of Uncertainty and Non-Pathological Worry. Findings highlighted how Future Anxiety had a positive and significant direct effect on Stress and Depression, but not on Anxiety. In the three serial mediation models proposed, Intolerance of Uncertainty and Non-Pathological Worry mediated the relationship between Future Anxiety and mental health outcomes. The results also confirmed the hypothesized serial mediation effect by highlighting how young adults with greater Future Anxiety experienced more Intolerance of Uncertainty, which positively affected Non-Pathological Worry levels and, in turn, exacerbated psychological distress. Finally, results indicated that female participants experienced more Stress, Anxiety, and Depression in relation to Future Anxiety compared to males. Starting from the review of main references on this subject, the results discussed provide new insights for understanding youth psychological distress. Finally, practical implications for the design of supportive interventions for this study’s target group are proposed. Full article
13 pages, 922 KiB  
Article
Assessing the Prevalence of School Burnout in German High Schools: Psychometric Properties, Gender Differences, and Cut-Off Criteria
by Diana Schaefer, Kirsten Schuchardt and Claudia Maehler
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2024, 14(6), 1821-1833; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe14060120 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 167
Abstract
School-related stress and burnout can have serious consequences for students’ well-being and academic outcomes. However, there are few studies that assess the prevalence of school burnout, especially in Germany. The present study aims to determine the percentage of N = 1117 high school [...] Read more.
School-related stress and burnout can have serious consequences for students’ well-being and academic outcomes. However, there are few studies that assess the prevalence of school burnout, especially in Germany. The present study aims to determine the percentage of N = 1117 high school students who are likely to suffer from school burnout—also with regard to differences in gender and grade level. For this purpose, two different cut-off criteria are compared. Prior to this, the psychometric quality of the MBI-SuS adapted to the school context is examined. The validity and reliability of the three-factor MBI-SuS could be confirmed. Scalar measurement invariance was found for grade level but only partially for gender. The overall prevalence of school burnout of 20.9% found with the common cut-off criterion fits international prevalences, whereas the prevalence of 4.6% (determined with our recommended content-related cut-off criterion) is in line with observations from clinical practice. Depending on the cut-off value, girls suffer slightly more from school burnout, but no differences were found with respect to grade level. Results indicate that a substantial proportion of students are at risk for school burnout, highlighting the importance of prevention and intervention. Criteria for cut-off values should be applied with caution. Full article
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18 pages, 547 KiB  
Article
Mothers’ Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy after a High-Risk or Normal Pregnancy: A Greek Longitudinal Cohort Study
by Panagiota Brani, Irina Mrvoljak-Theodoropoulou, Fani Pechlivani, Kleanthi Gourounti, Maria Iliadou, Ermioni Palaska, Panagiotis Antsaklis, Peter Drakakis and Maria Dagla
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2024, 14(6), 1803-1820; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe14060119 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 175
Abstract
Background: the objective of this longitudinal study (from pregnancy to the end of the sixth month postpartum) is to elucidate the association between maternal self-efficacy, defined as a mother’s confidence in her ability to breastfeed, and breastfeeding outcomes. Methods: This prospective cohort study [...] Read more.
Background: the objective of this longitudinal study (from pregnancy to the end of the sixth month postpartum) is to elucidate the association between maternal self-efficacy, defined as a mother’s confidence in her ability to breastfeed, and breastfeeding outcomes. Methods: This prospective cohort study was conducted among high-risk pregnant women (including those with conditions such as gestational diabetes, hypertension, pre-eclampsia, and other pathological medical conditions) and normal-risk pregnant women in Greece. The high-risk group included 164 women, while the normal-risk group comprised 154 women. Data were collected using validated psychometric scales, including the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, Maternal Antenatal Attachment Scale, and Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale. Results: Higher maternal self-efficacy was significantly associated with a longer duration and greater exclusivity of breastfeeding. A statistically significant relationship between the type of breastfeeding and the degree of breastfeeding self-efficacy was observed at multiple postpartum milestones: in the first and third 24 h postpartum, and at the end of the sixth week, third month, and sixth month postpartum. Conclusion: The findings underscore the critical role of maternal self-efficacy in breastfeeding success, influenced by individual psychological factors and broader socio-cultural contexts. Strengthening maternal self-efficacy is essential for improving breastfeeding outcomes. Full article
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17 pages, 1316 KiB  
Article
Effects of Transition from Remote to In-Person Learning in University Students: A Longitudinal Study
by Aline Siteneski, Melina de la Cruz-Velez, Karime Montes-Escobar, Julia Patricia Duran-Ospina, Carolina Fonseca-Restrepo, Mónica Daniela Barreiro-Linzán, Gusdanis Alberto Campos García and Joana Gil-Mohapel
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2024, 14(6), 1786-1802; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe14060118 - 19 Jun 2024
Viewed by 192
Abstract
Previous studies have shown that the transition from the University environment to remote learning impacted student mental health. Our study aimed to investigate the effects of university environment on anxiety and depressive symptoms in health sciences students. Students at the Technical University of [...] Read more.
Previous studies have shown that the transition from the University environment to remote learning impacted student mental health. Our study aimed to investigate the effects of university environment on anxiety and depressive symptoms in health sciences students. Students at the Technical University of Manabí, Ecuador, with 6–10 in-person semesters, who shifted to remote learning and then returned to face-to-face learning were selected. Students responded to the General Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). In addition, questions regarding social interaction, physical exercise, mood and sleep habits were also asked. This longitudinal study tracked 323 students during the return to in-person classes and term end. The results showed similar rates of anxiety (GAD-7, p = 0.011-p = 0.002) and depression (PHQ-9 p = 0.001-p = 0.032) among students at week 1 and week 15. Previous diagnosis of depression (OR, 0.171; CI 0.050–0.579, p < 0.005) was shown to correlate with depression levels in week 1, with no changes seen at follow-up. Anxiety levels were shown to be associated with a previous diagnosis of the disorder at week 1, but not at follow-up (OR 0.233; CI 0.085–0.643, p < 0.005). The return to in-person learning among university students maintained levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms, underscoring ongoing vulnerabilities to mental health disorders in this group. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Global Mental Health Trends)
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17 pages, 821 KiB  
Article
Facilitators and Barriers Perceived by German Teachers Considering Basic Life Support Education in School—A Qualitative Study
by Rico Dumcke, Claas Wegner, Sabine Wingen and Niels Rahe-Meyer
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2024, 14(6), 1769-1785; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe14060117 - 18 Jun 2024
Viewed by 259
Abstract
This qualitative study aims to analyse the personal qualification, attitudes and the pedagogical concepts of German teachers as experts in their profession regarding basic life support (BLS) education in secondary schools. Thirteen (n = 13) secondary school teachers participated in semi-structured expert [...] Read more.
This qualitative study aims to analyse the personal qualification, attitudes and the pedagogical concepts of German teachers as experts in their profession regarding basic life support (BLS) education in secondary schools. Thirteen (n = 13) secondary school teachers participated in semi-structured expert interviews and were interviewed for at least 20 to 60 min regarding BLS student education. Interviews were semi-structured with guiding questions addressing (1) personal experience, (2) teacher qualification for BLS and (3) implementation factors (e.g., personal, material and organisational). Audio-recorded interviews were analysed by content analysis, generating a coding system. School teachers provided a heterogeneous view on implementation-related processes in BLS education. Many teachers were educated in first aid, acknowledge its importance, but had no experience in teaching BLS. They want to assure being competent for teaching BLS and need tailored trainings, materials, pedagogical information and the incorporation into the curriculum. Also, the management of time constraints, unwilling colleagues, or young students being overwhelmed were commonly mentioned considerations. Concluding, teachers reported to be willing to teach BLS but a stepwise implementation framework incorporating practice-oriented qualification and educational goals is missing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Health Questionaries)
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12 pages, 308 KiB  
Article
Emotional Intelligence and Personality Traits of University Students in Dentistry, Medicine and Pharmacy Degrees
by Cristina Gómez-Polo, Javier Montero, María Portillo Muñoz, Maria Lobato Carreño, Beatriz Pardal-Peláez, Álvaro Zubizarreta-Macho and Ana María Martín Casado
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2024, 14(6), 1757-1768; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe14060116 - 17 Jun 2024
Viewed by 339
Abstract
Background: This study aimed to characterize dentistry, medicine and pharmacy students in terms of emotional intelligence (EI) and personality traits (PTs). It also sought to identify whether differences existed according to gender and degree program and the relationship between them. Methods: Students enrolled [...] Read more.
Background: This study aimed to characterize dentistry, medicine and pharmacy students in terms of emotional intelligence (EI) and personality traits (PTs). It also sought to identify whether differences existed according to gender and degree program and the relationship between them. Methods: Students enrolled in dentistry (115), medicine (85) and pharmacy (57) degree programs participated voluntarily in the research, including 59 men and 198 women. The following questionnaires were used: (1) the Trait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS-24) to evaluate EI; (2) the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) to assess PT. The Qualtrics XM platform was used for data collection. Results: There were no statistically significant differences between three components of EI, either according to gender or degree program. The only difference in PTs was found in neuroticism, where women scored higher than men. There were statistically significant differences between students on different degree programs in openness to experience and responsibility. The five PTs correlated significantly with the three components of EI, except responsibility and emotional attention. The strongest associations were found between neuroticism and emotional repair (−0.439). Conclusions: High percentages of the student population were observed to have weaknesses in emotional clarity and emotional repair. Neuroticism is a personality trait that seems to occur more frequently in women. Full article
22 pages, 1737 KiB  
Article
The Relationship among Internet Addiction, Moral Potency, Mindfulness, and Psychological Capital
by Girum Tareke Zewude, Tun Zaw Oo, Gabriella Józsa and Krisztián Józsa
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2024, 14(6), 1735-1756; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe14060115 - 16 Jun 2024
Viewed by 460
Abstract
This research aimed to contribute to the literature on internet addiction (IA) and moral development among university students. Moral potency (MP) encompasses the interconnected dimensions of moral courage, moral ownership, and moral efficacy. Studies on the relationships between students’ problematic behaviors (e.g., IA) [...] Read more.
This research aimed to contribute to the literature on internet addiction (IA) and moral development among university students. Moral potency (MP) encompasses the interconnected dimensions of moral courage, moral ownership, and moral efficacy. Studies on the relationships between students’ problematic behaviors (e.g., IA) and cognitive processes like MP, mindfulness (MI), and psychological capital (PsyCap) are scarce in educational research. Therefore, this study investigated the relationships among IA, MP, MI, and PsyCap in university students. This study included 868 undergraduate students from a state university in Ethiopia, with 526 male students (60.6%) and 342 female students (39.4%). Participants’ ages ranged from 21 to 29 years, with a mean age of 22.31 and a standard deviation of 4.03. The findings indicated that IA was negatively correlated with MI, PsyCap, and MP. Both MI and PsyCap showed positive correlations with MP. Importantly, this study revealed that IA had a direct and negative impact on MI, PsyCap, and MP. Further, MI and PsyCap partially mediated and fully mediated the relationship between IA and MP. These findings suggest that cultivating MI and positive PsyCap among university students could be an important strategy to reduce the risks of IA and enhance their moral development. This study contributes to the limited research on the complex relationships between technology use, psychological resources, and moral functioning in emerging adulthood. Full article
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13 pages, 280 KiB  
Article
Dyadic Prenatal Coparenting Interaction Behaviors Predicting Postpartum Depressive Symptoms during the Transition to Parenthood
by Roi Estlein and Dana Shai
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2024, 14(6), 1722-1734; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe14060114 - 13 Jun 2024
Viewed by 304
Abstract
Postpartum depressive symptoms constitute a common yet serious complication of pregnancy and childbirth, but research on its association with coparenting is scarce. Furthermore, although coparenting dynamics start forming prior to the child’s birth, no research has explored dyadic prenatal coparenting dynamics as a [...] Read more.
Postpartum depressive symptoms constitute a common yet serious complication of pregnancy and childbirth, but research on its association with coparenting is scarce. Furthermore, although coparenting dynamics start forming prior to the child’s birth, no research has explored dyadic prenatal coparenting dynamics as a predictor of postpartum depressive symptoms. The current study assessed how dyadic prenatal coparenting behaviors predicted postpartum depressive symptoms in first-time parents. We conducted a dyadic mixed-method longitudinal study of 107 expectant couples with data collected prenatally, and at 3, 6, and 24 months post-birth. The results indicated that prenatal coparenting dyadic synchrony predicted low levels of depressive symptoms among first-time fathers 3 and 6 months after the birth, and a prenatal coparenting dynamic of dyadic negative escalation predicted high levels of depressive symptoms among first-time mothers at 3 and 24 months postpartum. The theoretical and practical implications are discussed. Full article
10 pages, 277 KiB  
Article
Psychometric Properties and Measurement Invariance of the English Version of the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) for Non-Native English Speakers
by Giusy Danila Valenti and Palmira Faraci
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2024, 14(6), 1712-1721; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe14060113 - 12 Jun 2024
Viewed by 402
Abstract
This cross-cultural study seeks to (a) investigate the internal structure of the English version of the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) when administered to non-native English speakers (i.e., Asian individuals and (b) test for measurement invariance with its Italian counterpart). The whole sample [...] Read more.
This cross-cultural study seeks to (a) investigate the internal structure of the English version of the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) when administered to non-native English speakers (i.e., Asian individuals and (b) test for measurement invariance with its Italian counterpart). The whole sample comprises 338 participants, including 167 Asian international university students residing in the United States (50.3% females; Mage = 23.82, SD = 3.78) and 171 Italian university students living in Italy (69.6% females; Mage = 22.38, SD = 4.24). The dimensionality of the scale is assessed through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and multi-group confirmatory factor analysis (MG-CFA) is employed to examine measurement invariance. The results confirm the one-dimensionality of the SWLS [χ2 = 9.815; df = 5; CFI = 0.989; TLI = 0.977; SRMR = 0.027]. Furthermore, achieving full strict invariance indicates that the SWLS items exhibit similar structures across both samples. The scale shows satisfactory internal reliability (α = 0.863, ω = 0.866). Overall, this study supports the cross-validity of the English version of the SWLS and underscores its robustness and suitability for assessing life satisfaction among non-native English speakers. Full article
12 pages, 1568 KiB  
Article
Construction and Validation of an Educational Technology to Promote the Health of Postmenopausal Women with Dry Eye Syndrome
by Álvaro Dantas de Almeida Junior, Italla Maria Pinheiro Bezerra, Sabrina Alaide Amorim Alves, Elisa Tristan-Cheever, Thiago Salati and Luiz Carlos de Abreu
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2024, 14(6), 1700-1711; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe14060112 - 12 Jun 2024
Viewed by 446
Abstract
The climacteric heralds a transition from reproductive to non-reproductive life in women, often accompanied by various clinical manifestations such as dry eye, impacting their quality of life. This study focuses on systematically developing and suitability an educational digital booklet to promote eye health [...] Read more.
The climacteric heralds a transition from reproductive to non-reproductive life in women, often accompanied by various clinical manifestations such as dry eye, impacting their quality of life. This study focuses on systematically developing and suitability an educational digital booklet to promote eye health practices and prevent problems among postmenopausal women. The methodological approach encompassed semi-structured interviews with women diagnosed with Dry Eye Syndrome (DES), then constructing the material integrating content, script, illustrations, and layout informed by the interview findings. Subsequent validation involved assessment by 24 health experts for content, appearance, and evaluation by a target audience of 22 women. The booklet attained high suitability scores, with a Global Content Validity Index (CVI) of 0.96, indicating superior suitability as judged by experts. Additionally, it achieved a Global CVI of 0.98 for validation by the target audience. In conclusion, the educational booklet emerges as a suitable and reliable resource for promoting eye heath among DES and non-syndrome women, offering significant potential for broader application in relevant populations. Full article
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12 pages, 451 KiB  
Article
A Patient-Centered Approach to Communication during Endoscopic Procedures: The Importance of Providing Information to Patients
by Osnat Bashkin, Rita Boltean, Revaya Ben-Lulu, Mor Aharon, Ruhama Elhayany, Avraham Yitzhak, Revital Guterman and Naim Abu-Freha
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2024, 14(6), 1688-1699; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe14060111 - 9 Jun 2024
Viewed by 334
Abstract
The study aimed to explore patients’ experiences and perceptions throughout the various stages of endoscopic procedures and examine the association between patient-centered communication and the patient’s experience. A total of 191 patients responded to pre- and post-procedure surveys that inquired about fear and [...] Read more.
The study aimed to explore patients’ experiences and perceptions throughout the various stages of endoscopic procedures and examine the association between patient-centered communication and the patient’s experience. A total of 191 patients responded to pre- and post-procedure surveys that inquired about fear and pain, patients’ satisfaction regarding the information provided to them, perceptions and experience. Pain was associated with post-procedure fear (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and negatively associated with reported patient experience at the end of the visit (r = −0.17, p < 0.01). Significant positive associations were found between patient experience and satisfaction from the information provided before (r = 0.47, p < 0.01) and the information provided after the procedure (r = 0.51, p < 0.001). A predictive model found that perceptions toward the physicians, satisfaction from information provided before discharge, and feelings of trust are predictors of the patient experience (F = 44.9, R2 = 0.61, p < 0.001). Patients’ satisfaction with information provided before and after the procedure can positively affect the patients’ experience, leading to a decrease in fear and anxiety and increasing compliance with medical recommendations. Strategies for PCC with endoscopic patients should be developed and designed in a participatory manner, taking into account the various aspects associated with the patient experience. Full article
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22 pages, 322 KiB  
Article
Cultural and Religious Equity and Disparity in the Group Climate Experience of Moroccan Girls in Dutch Residential Youth Care Settings
by Rabia Sevilir, Nienke Peters-Scheffer, Peer van der Helm, Dorien Graas and Robert Didden
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2024, 14(6), 1666-1687; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe14060110 - 8 Jun 2024
Viewed by 644
Abstract
Background: The group climate within residential youth care institutions is considered a transactional process, both within a group of youth from various cultural backgrounds and between them and their group workers. The ongoing interaction between the cultural characteristics of these girls may influence [...] Read more.
Background: The group climate within residential youth care institutions is considered a transactional process, both within a group of youth from various cultural backgrounds and between them and their group workers. The ongoing interaction between the cultural characteristics of these girls may influence the quality of the group climate. This study aimed to provide an in-depth account of the living group climate experiences and perceptions of Dutch girls with a Moroccan cultural background in Dutch residential groups. Method: Interpretative phenomenological analysis was employed to explore the girls’ group climate experiences. Result: Three major themes emerged, namely (a) level of involvement of Moroccan girls in their living group, (b) perceptions of Moroccan girls’ sense of belonging in a living group, and (c) cultural and religious equality or disparity results in two interaction patterns. The findings revealed that equality or disparity in language, culture, and religion affect Moroccan girls’ experiences and perceptions of the living group climate. A crucial finding was that cultural and religious disparity leads to interaction patterns wherein the girls pre-emptively exclude themselves from receiving support from native group workers. Conclusion: Professionals must be aware of the cultural and religious dynamics, including the interplay and impact of cultural and religious equality and disparity, influencing Moroccan girls’ group climate experiences. Full article
19 pages, 1200 KiB  
Article
Social Media News Headlines and Their Influence on Well-Being: Emotional States, Emotion Regulation, and Resilience
by Marilena Mousoulidou, Loukia Taxitari and Andri Christodoulou
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2024, 14(6), 1647-1665; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe14060109 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 944
Abstract
Today, many individuals read the daily news from social media platforms. Research has shown that news with negative valence might influence the well-being of individuals. Existing research that examined the impact of headlines on individuals’ well-being has primarily focused on examining the positive [...] Read more.
Today, many individuals read the daily news from social media platforms. Research has shown that news with negative valence might influence the well-being of individuals. Existing research that examined the impact of headlines on individuals’ well-being has primarily focused on examining the positive or negative polarity of words used in the headlines. In the present study, we adopt a different approach and ask participants to categorize the headlines themselves based on the emotions they experienced while reading them and how their choice impacts their well-being. A total of 306 participants were presented with 40 headlines from main news sites that were considered popular based on the number of public reactions. Participants had to rate their emotional experience of the headlines following five emotional states (i.e., happiness, anger, sadness, fear, and interest). Emotion regulation strategies and resilience were also measured. In line with our hypotheses, we found that participants reported experiencing negative emotions more intensively while reading the headlines. Emotion regulation was not found to influence the emotional states of individuals, whereas resilience did. These findings highlight that individuals can experience heightened emotions without reading the entire news story. This effect was observed regardless of the headline’s emotional valence (i.e., positive, negative, or neutral). Furthermore, our study highlights the critical role of interest as a factor in news consumption. Interest significantly affects individuals’ engagement and reactions to headlines, regardless of valence. The findings underscore the complex interplay between headline content and reader engagement and stress the need for further research into how headlines are presented to protect individuals from potential emotional costs. Full article
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20 pages, 1265 KiB  
Article
Instructional Videos for Students in Dental Medicine: Rules of Design and Correlations with Their Habits as Internet Consumers
by Cristina Gena Dascalu, Claudiu Topoliceanu and Magda Ecaterina Antohe
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2024, 14(6), 1627-1646; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe14060108 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 467
Abstract
Multimedia resources, such as instructional videos, are currently enjoying a certain popularity in the training programs for medical and dental students. The major challenge is to create such resources with quality content that is approved by students. In order to answer this challenge, [...] Read more.
Multimedia resources, such as instructional videos, are currently enjoying a certain popularity in the training programs for medical and dental students. The major challenge is to create such resources with quality content that is approved by students. In order to answer this challenge, it is imperative to find out which features of instructional videos are considered to be necessary and useful by students, thus being able to excite them, to hold their attention, and to stimulate them in learning with pleasure. Aim: We investigated the opinions of a sample of 551 students from four medical universities in Romania, in order to identify the students’ preferred characteristics in instructional videos, both globally and comparatively on genders and age groups and also according to their general preferences for using internet services. Material and methods: We used univariate (hypothesis testing) and multivariate (two-step clustering) data analysis techniques and revealed three clusters of students, primarily determined by their perceptions of the visual appearance of the instructional videos. Results: The structure of the clusters by gender and age group was relatively similar, but we recorded differences associated with the students’ expressed preferences for certain internet services compared to others. The first identified cluster (35.4% of the cases) contains students who prefer instructional videos to contain images used only for aesthetic purposes and to fill the gaps; they use internet services mainly for communication. The second cluster of students (34.8%) prefers videos designed as practical lessons, using explanatory drawings and diagrams drawn at the same time as the explanations; they also use internet services mainly for communication. The last cluster of students (29.8%) prefer videos designed as PowerPoint presentations, with animated pictures, diagrams, and drawings; they are slightly younger than the others and use internet services mainly for information and communication, but also for domestic facilities. Conclusions: The students’ preferences for certain features of instructional videos depend not only on gender and age but are also related to their developmental background and general opinions about modern technologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Teaching Innovation in Higher Education: Areas of Knowledge)
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13 pages, 308 KiB  
Article
Postpartum-Specific Anxiety and Maternal–Infant Bonding: A Predictive Validity Study amongst Italian Women
by Chiara Ionio, Giulia Ciuffo, Paul Christiansen, Anna Maria Della Vedova, Victoria Fallon, Maria Francesca Figlino, Marta Landoni, Sergio A. Silverio, Martina Smorti and Alessandra Bramante
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2024, 14(6), 1614-1626; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe14060107 - 4 Jun 2024
Viewed by 336
Abstract
The role of anxiety is unknown in relation to postpartum bonding, unlike the well-known detrimental effect that postpartum depression has on the relationship between a mother and child. This study investigates how anxiety affects mother–infant bonding after childbirth, comparing the Italian version of [...] Read more.
The role of anxiety is unknown in relation to postpartum bonding, unlike the well-known detrimental effect that postpartum depression has on the relationship between a mother and child. This study investigates how anxiety affects mother–infant bonding after childbirth, comparing the Italian version of the Postpartum Specific Anxiety Scale (PSAS-IT) with generalized measures of anxiety. Examining 324 non-randomly-selected participants responding to various scales, including the Edinburgh postnatal depression scale (EPDS), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), postpartum-specific anxiety scale (PSAS-IT), postpartum bonding questionnaire (PBQ), and baby care questionnaire (BCQ-2), initial results suggest a link between certain postpartum anxiety symptoms and attachment problems. Surprisingly, anxiety measured with the PSAS has no direct influence on attachment; however, it is a strong predictor of bonding, even when maternal age, general anxiety, and depression are taken into account, explaining 3% of the variance in scores (β = 0.26, p < 0.001). This emphasizes the importance of early identification and intervention of postpartum anxiety in promoting bonding between mother and child. Full article
17 pages, 517 KiB  
Article
Engagement in Youth Athletes as a Positive Experience in Sport: Implications of Gender, Age, and Competitive Level
by María Julia Raimundi, Ignacio Celsi, Mauro Pérez-Gaido, Vanina Schmidt, Isabel Castillo and Octavio Alvarez
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2024, 14(6), 1597-1613; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe14060106 - 4 Jun 2024
Viewed by 886
Abstract
The aim of this study was to examine athlete engagement and its relationships with indicators of the quality of the athlete’s sport experience, exploring potential differences according to gender, age, and competitive level. Furthermore, this study validated the Athlete Engagement Questionnaire (AEQ) in [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to examine athlete engagement and its relationships with indicators of the quality of the athlete’s sport experience, exploring potential differences according to gender, age, and competitive level. Furthermore, this study validated the Athlete Engagement Questionnaire (AEQ) in young athletes and confirmed its factor structure. A total of 1188 athletes (43.90% girls) from Argentina participated in the study, with a mean age of 15.92 (SD = 2.50). The participants completed the AEQ along with other measures of athletes’ quality of experience, such as motivation, enjoyment, and burnout. This study confirmed the multidimensional nature of engagement, showing positive associations with high-quality athlete experiences and revalidating the inverse relationship with burnout. Moreover, the study found differences in engagement dimensions (i.e., confidence, vigor, dedication, and enthusiasm) based on the interplay of gender, age, and competitive level. In general, male athletes, younger athletes, and those with a higher competitive level showed more engagement and interactions between these sociodemographic variables. The Argentinian version of AEQ exhibited optimal fit and reliability and good indexes of measurement invariance across gender, age, and competitive level. These findings validate the AEQ as a reliable tool for evaluating sport engagement among adolescents in Argentina. Engagement constitutes an indicator of an optimal experience linked to positive youth development through sports participation. Full article
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12 pages, 312 KiB  
Article
Adaptation of the Short Dark Triad (SD3) to Spanish Adolescents
by María Penado Abilleira, María-Luisa Rodicio-García, María-Paula Ríos-de-Deus and Tara Alonso del Hierro
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2024, 14(6), 1585-1596; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe14060105 - 4 Jun 2024
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Abstract
(1) Background: The dark triad refers to a personality configuration mainly characterized by the presence of Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy. Even though adolescence is a critical stage in the development of dark triad traits, to date, this construct has not been studied among [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The dark triad refers to a personality configuration mainly characterized by the presence of Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy. Even though adolescence is a critical stage in the development of dark triad traits, to date, this construct has not been studied among adolescents, mainly due to the lack of a measurement instrument adapted to this population. (2) Methods: Using a sample of 1642 adolescents, an adaptation of the Short Dark Triad (SD3) is proposed for this population. To this end, we performed a confirmatory factor analysis of the scale and examined its reliability and the intensity of the dark triad components by sex and sexual orientation. (3) Results: The adapted version of the scale (The Short Dark Triad—Adolescent Version; SD3-A) yielded good psychometric results. Confirmatory factor analysis corroborated the theoretical model of the three factors of dark personality. The results confirmed the greater presence of dark traits in male adolescents, and differences were observed based on sexual orientation. (4) Conclusions: The Short Dark Triad—Adolescent Version (SD3-A) is an effective and comprehensive instrument for the estimation of dark traits in adolescents and can be used as a screening test for this population. Full article
13 pages, 433 KiB  
Article
ADHD Symptoms in Middle Childhood: The Role of Child Attachment and Maternal Emotional Availability in an Inpatient Clinical Sample
by Michaela Augustin, Volker Mall and Maria Licata-Dandel
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2024, 14(6), 1572-1584; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe14060104 - 4 Jun 2024
Viewed by 388
Abstract
Background: Child ADHD symptoms are highly prevalent in middle childhood, alongside impairment in social functioning. The parent–child relationship has been shown to play an important role; however, studies investigating specific facets of the parent–child relationship in ADHD symptomatology in middle childhood have been [...] Read more.
Background: Child ADHD symptoms are highly prevalent in middle childhood, alongside impairment in social functioning. The parent–child relationship has been shown to play an important role; however, studies investigating specific facets of the parent–child relationship in ADHD symptomatology in middle childhood have been neglected. We assumed that higher ADHD symptoms were associated with both (1) lower maternal emotional availability (EA) and (2) lower child attachment security. Moreover, (3) we aimed to explore which specific EA dimensions were associated with ADHD symptoms. Methods: In a socio-pediatric clinic in Germany, 71 inpatient mother–child dyads (child age: M = 7.70, SD = 1.06; n = 54 boys) were assessed. Clinical data about child ADHD symptoms (Child Behavior Checklist 6–18 subscale “attention deficit/hyperactivity problems”), maternal EA (free play), and child attachment representation (Attachment Story Completion Task, GEV-B) were analyzed cross-sectionally. Results: Controlling for child oppositional behavior and sex, child ADHD symptoms were associated with overall maternal EA, and more specifically non-hostility, but not with child attachment representation. Conclusions: Our results imply that the role of parent–child interaction quality should be considered in the treatment of ADHD. Bidirectional effects cannot be ruled out. Full article
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11 pages, 468 KiB  
Article
Academic Burnout, Personality, and Academic Variables in University Students
by Elena Cuevas-Caravaca, Elisa Isabel Sánchez-Romero and Josefa A. Antón-Ruiz
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2024, 14(6), 1561-1571; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe14060103 - 3 Jun 2024
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Abstract
This study examines academic burnout syndrome and its relation to personal and academic variables among university students in nursing and early childhood education programs in Spain. A total of 606 university students (primary education: 49.7%; nursing: 49.7%) of both sexes (71.5% female) with [...] Read more.
This study examines academic burnout syndrome and its relation to personal and academic variables among university students in nursing and early childhood education programs in Spain. A total of 606 university students (primary education: 49.7%; nursing: 49.7%) of both sexes (71.5% female) with an average age of 20.68 years (SD = 1.65) participated. An ex post facto retrospective single-group design was planned. The instruments used were the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey (MBI-SS) and the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). Nursing students, who reported more study hours, less sleep, and lower grades, had higher academic burnout scores. Linear regression models were proposed to analyze the relationship between academic burnout, personality, and sociodemographic variables. Nursing students scored higher in emotional exhaustion and lower in cynicism, and they scored higher in neuroticism and openness. Furthermore, 16.1% of the variance in academic burnout was explained by personality variables as well as the degree studied, course year, and study hours. These findings suggest the importance of considering both academic and personality variables in understanding academic burnout in university students. Full article
18 pages, 587 KiB  
Article
On the Construct of Subjective Risk Intelligence and Its Relationships with Personality, Emotional Intelligence and Coping Strategies: A Comparison between Adolescents and Adults
by Maria Guarnera, Rita Zarbo, Stefania Lucia Buccheri and Paola Magnano
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2024, 14(6), 1543-1560; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe14060102 - 1 Jun 2024
Viewed by 355
Abstract
The complexity of today’s scenario has made it necessary to investigate the need for individuals to make choices that entail increasing exposure to risk and uncertainty. Among the individual resources that could help people to cope with situations of uncertainty, the new construct [...] Read more.
The complexity of today’s scenario has made it necessary to investigate the need for individuals to make choices that entail increasing exposure to risk and uncertainty. Among the individual resources that could help people to cope with situations of uncertainty, the new construct of subjective risk intelligence (SRI), known as a person’s ability to effectively weigh the pros and cons of a decision in situations where not all the outcomes are foreseen, would seem to play a prominent role. Considering that personality and coping strategies have been shown to be significantly related in previous research, the present study investigates the relationships between subjective risk intelligence, emotional intelligence, personality traits and coping strategies in both adults and adolescents. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 1390 Italian people, divided into two subsamples of 641 adolescents and 749 adults. The results showed that SRI mediated the roles that personality traits and emotional intelligence have in coping strategies differently in the adult sample, in which the mediating role of SRI was found for avoidance coping, and in the adolescent sample, in which SRI influenced all of the antecedents analysed in the study for almost all of the identified coping strategies. In light of these findings, subjective risk intelligence could be activated to deal with uncertain and risky situations, influencing the choice of effective or ineffective strategies in both adults and adolescents. Full article
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16 pages, 605 KiB  
Review
Relationship between Parenting Educational Styles and Well-Being in Families with Autistic Children: A Systematic Review
by Elena Benseny Delgado, Wenceslao Peñate Castro and Alicia Díaz Megolla
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2024, 14(6), 1527-1542; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe14060101 - 30 May 2024
Viewed by 334
Abstract
The prevalence of diagnosed cases of autism has increased rapidly, which has raised interest in studying the variables related to the well-being of these families. The purpose of this paper is to review the recent literature on other variables related to family well-being, [...] Read more.
The prevalence of diagnosed cases of autism has increased rapidly, which has raised interest in studying the variables related to the well-being of these families. The purpose of this paper is to review the recent literature on other variables related to family well-being, such as parenting styles. We conducted a systematic review using the PRISMA check list and bias assessment with the aim of analyzing if the concepts of autism, well-being and parenting style are related. We screened 755 references from relevant databases like Scopus, Pubmed, PscyInfo EBSCO, Web of Science and Dialnet, updated on May 2024. Sixteen full text articles and abstracts were read. It was identified that the authoritative parenting style, as well as those based on warmth, establishing relationships and emotional bonding, and low expressed emotion were positively related to family well-being. On the other hand, authoritarian, permissive and overprotective styles, as well as critical, punishing and training-based, were negatively associated with well-being and quality of family life. Full article
13 pages, 483 KiB  
Article
Disparity in the Burden of Caring for Older Persons between Families Living in Housing Estates and Traditional Communities in Thailand
by Nadila Mulati, Myo Nyein Aung, Saiyud Moolphate, Thin Nyein Nyein Aung, Yuka Koyanagi, Siripen Supakankunti and Motoyuki Yuasa
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2024, 14(6), 1514-1526; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe14060100 - 28 May 2024
Viewed by 627
Abstract
Thailand’s rapid population aging and reliance on family-based long-term care requires research into disparities in family caregiver burden. Since the type of residence matters to the caregiving outcome, this research aimed to examine the difference in caregiver burden between residents of private housing [...] Read more.
Thailand’s rapid population aging and reliance on family-based long-term care requires research into disparities in family caregiver burden. Since the type of residence matters to the caregiving outcome, this research aimed to examine the difference in caregiver burden between residents of private housing estates and traditional village communities. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 1276 family caregivers of community-dwelling Thai older adults, in Chiang Mai province, Thailand. The caregiver burden was examined using the Caregiver Burden Inventory (CBI), and the care recipients’ dependency status was examined using Barthel’s Activity of Daily Living (ADL). Descriptive analysis, multivariate analysis of variance test, and multiple logistic regression analysis were performed. Family caregivers living in a traditional village community were 1.607 times more likely to experience emotional burden (adj. OR 1.607, 95% CI: 1.049, 2.462) and 2.743 times more likely to experience overall caregiver burden (adj. OR: 1.163, 95% CI: 1.163, 6.471) compared to those in the private housing estate group. Our findings showed significant differences in caregiver burden based on residential area, contributing with insights to evidence-based policies, interventions, and programs to minimize disparities and promote family caregivers’ health and well-being. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Disparities: The Emerging Trends and Pressing Challenges)
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13 pages, 310 KiB  
Article
Associations of Eating Habits with Self-Rated Health and Life Satisfaction in Adolescents: A 42-Country Cross-Sectional Study
by Sitong Chen, José Francisco López-Gil, Aamir Raoof Memon, Ran Bao and Xingyi Yang
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2024, 14(6), 1501-1513; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe14060099 - 23 May 2024
Viewed by 478
Abstract
Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the associations of eating habits with self-rated health and life satisfaction in adolescents using a multiple-country sample. Methods: Cross-sectional data from the Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC) 2013/2014 wave was used in this [...] Read more.
Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the associations of eating habits with self-rated health and life satisfaction in adolescents using a multiple-country sample. Methods: Cross-sectional data from the Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC) 2013/2014 wave was used in this study. A self-reported questionnaire was used to collect data on independent variables including breakfast on weekdays, breakfast at weekends, and consumption of fruits, vegetables, sweets, and soft dirks. Outcomes included self-rated health and life satisfaction. Regression models were used to assess the associations between the independent variables and the two outcomes, separately, after controlling for covariates. Results were presented using odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: Of all the study participants (aged 11–15 years), 50.8% were girls. Compared with no consumption of breakfast on weekdays, eating breakfast for five days had 1.22 times greater likelihood for improved self-rated health (OR = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.19–1.25, p < 0.001). Participants who ate breakfast for both days (OR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.36–1.46, p < 0.001) and one day (OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.08–1.17, p < 0.001) were more likely to experience improved self-rated health compared to never eating breakfast at weekends. Five or more days for fruit and vegetable consumption resulted in better self-rated health (all p < 0.001). Similar results were found in terms of the associations of breakfast, fruit, and vegetable consumption with life satisfaction. For example, a higher frequency of fruit intake was associated with enhanced self-rated health (e.g., OR for more than once daily = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.34–1.51, p < 0.001) compared to no fruit consumption. Similarly, a higher-frequency vegetable intake, such as more than once daily (OR = 1.33, 95% CI: 1.26–1.39, p < 0.001), was associated with improved self-rated health. Conclusions: Healthy eating habits, especially regular breakfast and a higher consumption of vegetables and fruit, are associated with better self-rated health and life satisfaction in school-aged children. Of note, the consumption of fruit would have the greatest impact on health and wellbeing outcomes. This study offers evidence that healthy eating habits can play a vital role in school-aged children’s health and wellbeing, highlighting the practical significance of educating adolescents to develop healthy eating habits. Full article
12 pages, 321 KiB  
Article
Associations between Stigma, Depression, and Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy in Brazilian Men Who Have Sex with Men Living with HIV
by Felipe Alckmin-Carvalho, Henrique Pereira, António Oliveira and Lucia Nichiata
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2024, 14(6), 1489-1500; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe14060098 - 23 May 2024
Viewed by 528
Abstract
Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a complex and multi-determined process that is influenced by psychosocial variables. Although international studies have pointed to the adverse impact of HIV stigma, sexual stigma, and depression on ART adherence among men who have sex with men [...] Read more.
Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a complex and multi-determined process that is influenced by psychosocial variables. Although international studies have pointed to the adverse impact of HIV stigma, sexual stigma, and depression on ART adherence among men who have sex with men (MSM) with HIV, less is known about this association among Brazilians. We aimed to (a) evaluate indicators of depression, stigma related to HIV and homosexuality, and adherence to ART in a sample of Brazilian MSM living with HIV; (b) assess possible correlations between the variables analyzed, and (c) assess the impact of HIV and sexual stigma and depression on ART adherence. This cross-sectional study comprised 138 Brazilian MSM living with HIV as participants. Scales used included: a sociodemographic/clinical questionnaire, the questionnaire for assessment of adherence to antiretroviral therapy (CEAT-HIV), the Beck depression inventory (BDI-II), the internalized homophobia scale, and the HIV stigmatization scale. The mean adherence score was relatively high (78.83, within a range of 17–89 points). However, we observed inadequate ART adherence (CEAT-HIV < 75) in 28 (20.2%) respondents. Participants reported high scores for internalized sexual stigma, perceived sexual stigma in the community, and HIV stigma. Symptoms of depression were identified in 48.47% of participants. We found negative correlations between depression, HIV stigma, and treatment adherence, but not between sexual stigma and ART adherence. HIV-related stigma and sexual stigma were positively correlated with depression. Our regression analysis indicated that each year of age at diagnosis of HIV increased adherence by 0.22 points, on average. Each additional BDI-II score reduced adherence to ART by 0.20 points. The high prevalence of depression, HIV stigma, and sexual stigma, and their adverse effects on ART adherence and mental health, point to the need to implement evidence-based interventions to reduce sexual and serological stigma in the general population, as well as to mitigate the negative impacts of stigma on MSM living in HIV in Brazil. They also highlight the importance of periodically screening for these variables among MSM treated in Brazilian public health services, especially among those with inadequate adherence to ART. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Disparities in Mental Health and Well-Being)
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