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Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ., Volume 14, Issue 4 (April 2024) – 21 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Motivational climate relates to individual behaviors, emotions, and thoughts. This review quantified the relationships between motivational climate and hedonic well-being. An amount of 82 articles totaling 26,378 athletes met the inclusion criteria. The task or mastery climate relationships were medium in magnitude with positive affect and satisfaction, and small with negative affect. The ego or performance climate relationships were small in magnitude for positive affect, negative affect, and satisfaction. For moderation analyses, athlete level moderated the task and ego motivational climate and positive affect/satisfaction relationship. In summary, the finding that elite athlete correlations appeared dampened is important. Even with the damped relationships, practitioners should promote the task climate to maximize positive affect and satisfactions. View this paper
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13 pages, 298 KiB  
Article
The Relationship between Attitudes toward Death and Emotional Intelligence, Personality, Resilience, and Justice Beliefs: A Cross-Sectional Study of Midwives in Greece
by Evangelos Tzamakos, Dimitra Metallinou, Antigoni Sarantaki, Maria Tigka, Aikaterini Lykeridou and Christina Nanou
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2024, 14(4), 1101-1113; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe14040072 - 21 Apr 2024
Viewed by 493
Abstract
Midwifery practice inevitably includes miscarriages, stillbirths, and neonatal deaths. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between attitudes toward death and emotional intelligence, personality, resilience, and justice beliefs among midwives in Greece. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted from [...] Read more.
Midwifery practice inevitably includes miscarriages, stillbirths, and neonatal deaths. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between attitudes toward death and emotional intelligence, personality, resilience, and justice beliefs among midwives in Greece. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted from 2020 to 2022 among 348 midwives employed in public hospitals, in regional health authorities, or as independent professionals. Research instruments included the Death Attitude Profile—Revised, the Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale, the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire—Short Form, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, and the Belief in a Just World scale. The results revealed that greater emotional intelligence was significantly associated with higher scores in the escape acceptance subscale. Midwives scored low on the neutral acceptance subscale (2.9 ± 0.8), with the highest score being recorded in the escape acceptance subscale (4.6 ± 1.0), which was significantly associated with greater emotional intelligence. Neuroticism was significantly associated with the death avoidance, approach acceptance, fear of death, and escape acceptance subscales. Finally, the subscale of distributive justice beliefs for self and others was significantly associated with the subscales of death avoidance and approach acceptance. These findings highlight the nuanced perspectives within the healthcare community. As we delve deeper into the complexities of end-of-life care, understanding these diverse attitudes is crucial for providing comprehensive and empathetic support to both patients and healthcare professionals. Full article
15 pages, 1548 KiB  
Article
Temporal Fluctuations of Suicide Mortality in Japan from 2009 to 2023 Using Government Databases
by Ryusuke Matsumoto, Eishi Motomura and Motohiro Okada
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2024, 14(4), 1086-1100; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe14040071 - 21 Apr 2024
Viewed by 562
Abstract
In Japan, suicide mortalities consistently decreased before the COVID-19 pandemic (from 2009 to 2019) but, conversely, increased after the pandemic outbreak from 2020 to 2022. To provide up-to-date suicide statistics in Japan, this study determined the temporal fluctuations of standardized suicide mortalities (SMRs), [...] Read more.
In Japan, suicide mortalities consistently decreased before the COVID-19 pandemic (from 2009 to 2019) but, conversely, increased after the pandemic outbreak from 2020 to 2022. To provide up-to-date suicide statistics in Japan, this study determined the temporal fluctuations of standardized suicide mortalities (SMRs), disaggregated by sex and age, by joinpoint regression analysis using the government suicide database, named the “Basic Data on Suicide in Region”. From January 2009 to December 2023, three temporal fluctuation patterns of SMRs pertaining to working age and older adults were detected, such as attenuations of decreasing trends before the COVID-19 pandemic (from around the mid-2010s), a sharply increasing trend that coincided with the pandemic outbreak, and gradually decreased during the pandemic, but no changes at the end of the COVID-19 pandemic. In particular, the SMRs of working-age females sharply increased concurrently with the pandemic outbreak, whereas those of males did not change. However, before the pandemic, decreasing trends of the SMRs of working-age males diminished in the mid-2010s, but those of females consistently decreased. The SMRs of working-age males indicated non-significant but sharply increasing trends in early 2022, a trend that was not observed for females. In contrast to working-age adults, the SMRs of adolescents already began to increase in the mid-2010s and also indicated consistently increasing trends between the periods during and after the pandemic. These results suggest, contrary to our expectations, that the impacts of both the outbreak and end of the COVID-19 pandemic were limited regarding the increase in SMRs from 2020. Therefore, when revising suicide prevention programs in the post-COVID-19 era, it should be noted that focusing on pandemic-associated factors alone is not sufficient. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Disparities: The Emerging Trends and Pressing Challenges)
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18 pages, 324 KiB  
Article
“It’s a Lot of Closets to Come Out of in This Life”: Experiences of Brazilian Gay Men Living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus at the Time of Diagnosis and Its Biopsychosocial Impacts
by Felipe Alckmin-Carvalho, Henrique Pereira and Lucia Nichiata
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2024, 14(4), 1068-1085; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe14040070 - 19 Apr 2024
Viewed by 817
Abstract
We investigated the experiences of Brazilian gay men with HIV, focusing on the moment of diagnosis and its potential biopsychosocial impacts. This clinical–qualitative study involved 15 participants interviewed online and synchronously by a clinical psychologist in 2021. Thematic analysis was employed to analyze [...] Read more.
We investigated the experiences of Brazilian gay men with HIV, focusing on the moment of diagnosis and its potential biopsychosocial impacts. This clinical–qualitative study involved 15 participants interviewed online and synchronously by a clinical psychologist in 2021. Thematic analysis was employed to analyze the data. Interpretations were grounded in Minority Stress Theory. Four thematic axes emerged, including “Diagnostic Revelation”, “Social and Internalized Stigma”, “Biopsychosocial Effects of Living with HIV”, and “Gratitude for Treatment Advances and the Brazilian Health System”. The diagnosis was often experienced as traumatic, exacerbated by the absence of empathy and emotional support from healthcare providers. Participants commonly reported guilt, fear upon learning of their HIV status, social isolation, loneliness, lack of social support, and damage to affective-sexual relationships. Many also noted a decline in mental health, even those without HIV-related medical complications. Despite over 40 years since the HIV epidemic began, the prevalence of homophobia and serophobia among gay men remains widespread, including within the multidisciplinary teams of specialized services. This indicates that the stigma associated with homosexuality and HIV persists, despite significant biomedical progress in the diagnosis and treatment of the infection, particularly in Brazil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Disparities in Mental Health and Well-Being)
13 pages, 295 KiB  
Article
Association between Levels of Loneliness, Laboratory Measurements, and Behavioral Aspects in a Primary Care Setting in Crete, Greece
by Panagiotis Volkos, Manolis Linardakis, Panagiotis Stachteas, Foteini Anastasiou, Athina Tatsioni, Marilena Kampa and Emmanouil K. Symvoulakis
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2024, 14(4), 1055-1067; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe14040069 - 18 Apr 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 827
Abstract
This paper examines potential associations of loneliness with laboratory data and specific psychosocial and behavioral attitudes. The sample collection took place in an urban Primary Health Care unit between May and July 2023, consecutively, and once exclusion criteria were implemented. Participants were aged [...] Read more.
This paper examines potential associations of loneliness with laboratory data and specific psychosocial and behavioral attitudes. The sample collection took place in an urban Primary Health Care unit between May and July 2023, consecutively, and once exclusion criteria were implemented. Participants were aged between 40 and 75 years. Routine laboratory test results upon study initiation and six months before were used. The University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Loneliness Scale (Version 3), blood glucose, serum lipids, Fibrosis-4 index, and Creatinine Clearance (CrCl) were assessed through hierarchical multiple logistic regression analysis. Based on full model (3rd) analysis, those who were engaged in an individual sport or activity or had contacts with more friends presented significantly lower odds for increased loneliness levels (odds ratio (OR): 0.28 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.09–0.91], p = 0.034 and OR: 0.76 [95%CI 0.66–0.88], p < 0.001, respectively). The consumption of alcohol was associated with increased loneliness (OR: 5.55 [95%CI 1.42–21.63], p = 0.014). Elevated triglyceride levels were linked with moderate or no loneliness (OR: 0.20 [95%CI 0.05–0.83], p = 0.026), while an increased LDL/HDL atherosclerotic index was related to increased subjective loneliness (OR: 4.50 [95%CI 1.12–18.13], p = 0.035). The need for holistic approaches—involving primary care personnel—in understanding and addressing loneliness, recognizing its multifaceted nature as well as the diverse factors that contribute to this issue, is considered challenging. Full article
11 pages, 644 KiB  
Article
Emotional Exhaustion Scale (ECE): Psychometric Properties in a Sample of Portuguese University Students
by Sílvia Ala, Francisco Ramos Campos and Inês Carvalho Relva
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2024, 14(4), 1044-1054; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe14040068 - 17 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1116
Abstract
Academic emotional exhaustion is the first stage of academic burnout syndrome, and it is necessary to assess it and intervene early, as the consequences can lead to harmful effects on psychological well-being. The main objectives of this study were to explore the psychometric [...] Read more.
Academic emotional exhaustion is the first stage of academic burnout syndrome, and it is necessary to assess it and intervene early, as the consequences can lead to harmful effects on psychological well-being. The main objectives of this study were to explore the psychometric properties of the Emotional Exhaustion Scale (ECE); to assess the association with suffering and positive well-being, using the MHI-5 Inventory; and to provide information on its validity and to compare it with these constructs. A total sample of 526 university students (81% female and 19% male) aged between 17 and 62 (M = 21.42 years and SD = 5.78) took part in this study. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were carried out. In the internal consistency assessment, the ECE was 0.89 and the MHI-5 was 0.81 (Cronbach’s alpha). Exploratory factor analysis was carried out with Varimax rotation and confirmatory analysis, obtaining the factor that explains 50.5% of the variance. The results indicated that the ECE has adequate psychometric properties for use with higher education students in Portugal. Its use by mental health professionals in higher education institutions could be very relevant for screening for emotional exhaustion and thus preventing possible serious pathologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Disparities in Mental Health and Well-Being)
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16 pages, 2513 KiB  
Article
Spatial Accuracy and Variability in Dart Throwing in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder and the Relationship with Ball Skill Items
by Faiçal Farhat, Achraf Ammar, Nourhen Mezghani, Mohamed Moncef Kammoun, Khaled Trabelsi, Haitham Jahrami, Adnene Gharbi, Lassad Sallemi, Haithem Rebai, Wassim Moalla and Bouwien Smits-Engelsman
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2024, 14(4), 1028-1043; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe14040067 - 16 Apr 2024
Viewed by 608
Abstract
The present study aimed to examine precision and variability in dart throwing performance and the relationships between these outcomes and bouncing, throwing and catching tasks in children with and without DCD. Children between the ages of 8 and 10 years (n = 165) [...] Read more.
The present study aimed to examine precision and variability in dart throwing performance and the relationships between these outcomes and bouncing, throwing and catching tasks in children with and without DCD. Children between the ages of 8 and 10 years (n = 165) were classified according to results obtained on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC-2) and divided into three groups: 65 children with severe DCD (s-DCD), 45 with moderate DCD (m-DCD) and 55 typically developing children (TD). All children performed the dart throwing test and the ball skill items of the Performance and Fitness Test (PERF-FIT). The accuracy and variability of dart throwing tasks were significantly different between TD and s-DCD (p < 0.01), and also between m-DCD and s-DCD (p < 0.01). Participants with s-DCD were also found to perform significantly worse on all PERF-FIT ball skill items than m-DCD (p < 0.001), and m-DCD were significantly poorer than TD (p < 0.001). The dart score and coefficient of variation of the long-distance task appear to be significant predictors for the ball skills and explain between 24 to 29% of their variance. In conclusion, poor results in aiming tasks using darts in children with DCD corroborate with the explanation of deficits in predictive control since the tasks require ballistic movements. Full article
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17 pages, 710 KiB  
Article
University Students’ Achievement of Meaningful Learning through Participation in Thinking Routines
by Nora Ramos-Vallecillo, Víctor Murillo-Ligorred and Raquel Lozano-Blasco
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2024, 14(4), 1012-1027; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe14040066 - 11 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1324
Abstract
This study was conducted among undergraduate students pursuing a Primary Education degree at the University of Zaragoza. Its primary aim was to enhance and elevate the quality of participation during theoretical sessions, thereby fostering meaningful learning that contributes to the improvement of academic [...] Read more.
This study was conducted among undergraduate students pursuing a Primary Education degree at the University of Zaragoza. Its primary aim was to enhance and elevate the quality of participation during theoretical sessions, thereby fostering meaningful learning that contributes to the improvement of academic performance among the participants. To achieve this objective, a quasi-experimental case study was meticulously crafted. This research design was structured to not only stimulate and augment participation but also to cultivate meaningful learning, ultimately enhancing students’ academic achievements. The study employed a comprehensive approach to monitor participation, utilizing observation records to track engagement levels, and anecdotal records to delineate the progression of sessions and the quality of responses. Through meticulous analysis, it can be deduced that the integration of thinking routines as a pedagogical tool in expository sessions significantly enhances student engagement. These routines effectively activate students’ prior knowledge, establishing meaningful connections with the subject matter at hand. Moreover, the incorporation of thinking routines has been observed to elevate the quality of student participation. By fostering reflective practices, aiding in the formulation of inquiries, promoting collaborative learning, and nurturing critical thinking skills, these routines play a pivotal role in enriching the educational experience and bolstering academic performance. Full article
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10 pages, 322 KiB  
Article
The Positive and Negative Suicidal Ideation Inventory among Portuguese Adolescents: Factor Structure and Gender Invariance
by Marta Brás, Ana Cunha, João Antunes and Cláudia Carmo
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2024, 14(4), 1002-1011; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe14040065 - 10 Apr 2024
Viewed by 447
Abstract
Suicide worldwide is an issue that needs to be addressed, and adolescents are an at-risk group. Assessing suicidal ideation is central to tackling the issue of suicide. The Positive and Negative Suicidal Ideation inventory is a widely validated measure of suicidal ideation, and [...] Read more.
Suicide worldwide is an issue that needs to be addressed, and adolescents are an at-risk group. Assessing suicidal ideation is central to tackling the issue of suicide. The Positive and Negative Suicidal Ideation inventory is a widely validated measure of suicidal ideation, and yet, very little is known about its invariance across various groups. The present study aimed to adapt and test the PANSI’s structure in a Portuguese sample while testing its gender invariance. A total of 750 middle and high school students were recruited for the study, and data were collected on various suicide risk and protective factors, including the Portuguese-translated PANSI. Data were put through exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Kaiser’s criterion and scree plot both extracted two factors (64.10% variance explained). Confirmatory factor analysis also supported the PANSI’s structure (TLI = 0.943). The PANSI showed good reliability (α ≥ 0.83) and good construct and discriminative validity. The PANSI also exhibited scalar, but not strict, invariance. Overall, these results were similar to previous versions of this scale. The PANSI is a reliable measure of suicide risk among Portuguese adolescents. Future studies should further replicate these results in other cultures and expand on them by testing for invariance across other demographic variables. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Variables Related to Well-Being in Adolescence)
26 pages, 4584 KiB  
Review
A Systematic Review with a Meta-Analysis of the Motivational Climate and Hedonic Well-Being Constructs: The Importance of the Athlete Level
by Marc Lochbaum and Cassandra Sisneros
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2024, 14(4), 976-1001; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe14040064 - 9 Apr 2024
Viewed by 911
Abstract
Motivational climate is known to relate to individual behaviors, emotions, and thoughts. Hedonic or subjective well-being includes self-assessed positive affect (i.e., pleasant affect, moods, and emotions), negative affect (i.e., unpleasant affect, moods, and emotions), and life or domain-specific satisfaction. The aim of this [...] Read more.
Motivational climate is known to relate to individual behaviors, emotions, and thoughts. Hedonic or subjective well-being includes self-assessed positive affect (i.e., pleasant affect, moods, and emotions), negative affect (i.e., unpleasant affect, moods, and emotions), and life or domain-specific satisfaction. The aim of this review was to quantify the relationships between task and ego motivational climate scales and measures representing hedonic well-being with sports participants. Potential moderators of the motivational climate and hedonic well-being were examined. This review followed the PRISMA guidelines (PROSPERO ID CRD42023470462, registered 28 October 2023). From five relevant databases, one relevant review, and hand searching, 82 articles totaling 26,378 participants (46.3% female) met the inclusion criteria. The articles spanned publication dates from 1993 to 2023, representing 18 countries, various team and individual sports, and athletes competing in elite (e.g., Olympic) to grassroot (e.g., club sport) competitions. To meta-analyze the motivational climate and hedonic well-being relationships, the random-effects model was used. For the moderation analyses, the mixed-effects model was used. The task or mastery climate relationships were medium in magnitude with positive affect and satisfaction and small with negative affect. The ego or performance climate relationships were small in magnitude for positive affect, negative affect, and satisfaction. Evidence of bias existed in the motivational climate and hedonic well-being relationships. For moderation analyses, athlete level (i.e., elite vs. non-elite) moderated (p < 0.05) the task (elite, r = 0.23; non-elite, r = 0.34) and ego motivational climate (elite, r = −0.02; non-elite, r = −0.13) and positive affect and satisfaction combined relationships. In conclusion, the motivational climate and hedonic well-being relationships were stronger for the task climate than for the ego climate. The finding that elite athlete correlations appeared dampened is important for future research. Even with the damped relationships, practitioners, from the Olympics to local clubs, should ensure the promotion of the task climate to maximize positive affect and satisfactions in and around the sport experience. Full article
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13 pages, 302 KiB  
Article
Early Parenting Interactions and First-Time Mothers’ Postnatal Depression and Parental Competence
by Rachel W. E. Leong, Davinder Gill, Joanna Barlas and Patrick K. F. Lin
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2024, 14(4), 963-975; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe14040063 - 6 Apr 2024
Viewed by 710
Abstract
Objectives: Schema Therapy, an approach that integrates cognitive-behavioural and attachment principles, helps us understand the impact of early interactions with caregivers on adult mental health. These early interactions can be assessed through Schema Therapy-informed tools; however, these tools have yet to be [...] Read more.
Objectives: Schema Therapy, an approach that integrates cognitive-behavioural and attachment principles, helps us understand the impact of early interactions with caregivers on adult mental health. These early interactions can be assessed through Schema Therapy-informed tools; however, these tools have yet to be used with a postnatal population, which represents a period of vulnerability for new mothers. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the impact of positive and negative early parenting interactions on a first-time mother’s mental health and her sense of competence during the postnatal period, using recently revised and newly developed Schema Therapy-informed tools. Design: This is a cross-sectional study. Method: First-time mothers (N = 220) participated in an online survey within 12 months post-birth. Participants completed the Positive Parenting Schema Inventory (PPSI), Young Parenting Inventory—Revised (YPI-R2), Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), and Parenting Sense of Competence (PSOC) scale. The data were analysed using hierarchical multiple regression and mediational analysis. Results: Negative early interactions with mothers and fathers led to greater postnatal depressive symptomology, while positive early interactions with mothers led to fewer postnatal depressive symptoms. Mediation analyses revealed that postnatal depressive symptoms mediated early parenting interactions and participants’ sense of parenting competence as a new mother. Conclusions: The protective effects of positive early interactions with caregivers can help first-time mothers’ postnatal emotional adjustment and their sense of competence through diminished postnatal depressive symptoms. However, the enduring effects of negative early interactions with caregivers can contribute to a first-time mother’s risk of developing postnatal depression and negatively affect her sense of parental competence. Full article
9 pages, 295 KiB  
Article
The Psychometric Properties of the Positive and Negative Suicidal Ideation Scale among Portuguese Young Adults
by Marta Brás, João Antunes and Cláudia Carmo
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2024, 14(4), 954-962; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe14040062 - 4 Apr 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 801
Abstract
Preventing suicide has been a worldwide imperative for the last decade. Accurately assessing suicide risk is the first step towards prevention, and access to reliable tools that measure risk factors is essential to achieve this goal. The Positive And Negative Suicidal Ideation (PANSI) [...] Read more.
Preventing suicide has been a worldwide imperative for the last decade. Accurately assessing suicide risk is the first step towards prevention, and access to reliable tools that measure risk factors is essential to achieve this goal. The Positive And Negative Suicidal Ideation (PANSI) scale is a validated brief suicidal ideation scale that could prove useful to this goal due to its ability to measure both suicide risk and protective factors. The PANSI scale has been adapted to various languages and cultures across various clinical and non-clinical populations. Despite this, no Portuguese has been produced yet. The present study aimed to validate a Portuguese version of PANSI by evaluating its psychometric properties in a sample of 259 young adults. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the PANSI showed good psychometric properties (TLI = 0.95), good reliability for positive ideation (α = 0.84), and excellent reliability for negative ideation (α = 0.96). The scale also showed good discriminative ability through prediction of a previous suicide attempt and good construct validity in both subscales. The Portuguese adaptation of the PANSI scale is a reliable measure of positive and negative suicidal ideation that could prove useful in both clinical and research settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Health Questionaries)
13 pages, 585 KiB  
Article
Assessing We-Disease Appraisals of Health Problems: Development and Validation of the We-Disease Questionnaire
by Alexandra J. Vogt, Lasse Bartels, Isabella C. Bertschi, Fiona Mahler, Michael Grotzer, Daniel Konrad, Kurt Leibundgut, Jochen Rössler, Guy Bodenmann and Markus A. Landolt
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2024, 14(4), 941-953; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe14040061 - 3 Apr 2024
Viewed by 655
Abstract
In couples dealing with health problems, we-disease appraisals can influence dyadic coping strategies to alleviate distress. This study describes the development and validation of a self-report scale to assess we-disease appraisals of health problems. The newly developed We-Disease Questionnaire (WDQ) was administered in [...] Read more.
In couples dealing with health problems, we-disease appraisals can influence dyadic coping strategies to alleviate distress. This study describes the development and validation of a self-report scale to assess we-disease appraisals of health problems. The newly developed We-Disease Questionnaire (WDQ) was administered in three samples: parents of children with type 1 diabetes (n = 240) or cancer (n = 125) and individuals with visual impairment and their partners (n = 216). Reliability was measured by coefficient omega. To assess construct validity, correlations with other measures of individual and dyadic adjustment were examined. Descriptive statistics across all samples were compared. A 4-item version of the WDQ demonstrated good reliability and validity and showed meaningful associations with established scales. We-disease appraisals were highest among parents of children with cancer and lowest among couples with visual impairment. The WDQ is a reliable and valid measure that can be used across different health problems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Research in Clinical and Health Contexts)
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12 pages, 272 KiB  
Article
Enhancing Evidence-Based Practice Competence and Professional Skills Using Infographics as a Pedagogical Strategy in Health Science Students: Insights from the InfoHealth Project
by Eva-María Navarrete-Muñoz, Desirée Valera-Gran, Jonatan García-Campos, Carlos Lozano-Quijada and Sergio Hernández-Sánchez
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2024, 14(4), 929-940; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe14040060 - 2 Apr 2024
Viewed by 639
Abstract
Infographics have been recognised as effective visual tools for concise and accessible communication of data and information in various higher education disciplines, particularly in medical education. However, there is a lack of research on their impact on professional skills, difficulty levels, motivation, and [...] Read more.
Infographics have been recognised as effective visual tools for concise and accessible communication of data and information in various higher education disciplines, particularly in medical education. However, there is a lack of research on their impact on professional skills, difficulty levels, motivation, and overall satisfaction in health science students. Thus, the present study aimed to analyse the knowledge and usage of graphical resources among health science students and evaluate their competencies, the level of challenge they encountered, and their motivation and satisfaction after completing an infographic creation activity. The InfoHealth educational innovation project, conducted by five teachers from the Faculty of Medicine, served as the context for this study, with 143 students voluntarily participating. The intervention involved students working in groups of 2–3 and selecting their own topics for the infographics while receiving instruction, online guidance, and feedback from teachers. A questionnaire was administered to assess students’ perception of skill development and satisfaction with the activity. The findings revealed that schemes were the most recognized and used graphical summaries, compared to synoptic tables and Venn diagrams. The activity led to an increase in professional skills acquisition, motivation, and satisfaction, positively impacting students’ interest in evidence-based practice and reinforcing their knowledge. This study highlights the potential of infographics as a pedagogical tool for competency development and student engagement in health science education, suggesting the need for further research comparing infographics with traditional study methods and involving multidisciplinary teams to promote essential skills for future clinical practice. Full article
16 pages, 1768 KiB  
Article
An Interpretable Machine Learning Approach to Predict Sensory Processing Sensitivity Trait in Nursing Students
by Alicia Ponce-Valencia, Diana Jiménez-Rodríguez, Juan José Hernández Morante, Carlos Martínez Cortés, Horacio Pérez-Sánchez and Paloma Echevarría Pérez
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2024, 14(4), 913-928; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe14040059 - 2 Apr 2024
Viewed by 719
Abstract
Sensory processing sensitivity (SPS) is a personality trait that makes certain individuals excessively sensitive to stimuli. People carrying this trait are defined as Highly Sensitive People (HSP). The SPS trait is notably prevalent among nursing students and nurse staff. Although there are HSP [...] Read more.
Sensory processing sensitivity (SPS) is a personality trait that makes certain individuals excessively sensitive to stimuli. People carrying this trait are defined as Highly Sensitive People (HSP). The SPS trait is notably prevalent among nursing students and nurse staff. Although there are HSP diagnostic tools, there is little information about early detection. Therefore, the aim of this work was to develop a prediction model to identify HSP and provide an individualized nursing assessment. A total of 672 nursing students completed all the evaluations. In addition to the HSP diagnosis, emotional intelligence, communication skills, and conflict styles were evaluated. An interpretable machine learning model was trained to predict the SPS trait. We observed a 33% prevalence of HSP, which was higher in women and people with previous health training. HSP were characterized by greater emotional repair (p = 0.033), empathy (p = 0.030), respect (p = 0.038), and global communication skills (p = 0.036). Overall, sex and emotional intelligence dimensions are important to detect this trait, although personal characteristics should be considered. The present individualized prediction model could help to predict the presence of the SPS trait in nursing students, which may be useful in conducting intervention strategies to avoid the negative consequences and reinforce the positive ones of this trait. Full article
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11 pages, 306 KiB  
Article
Emotional Regulation Mechanisms of University Students in Group Work Situations
by Lilyan Vega-Ramírez, Alda Reyno-Freundt, Christian Hederich-Martínez and Mª Alejandra Ávalos-Ramos
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2024, 14(4), 902-912; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe14040058 - 2 Apr 2024
Viewed by 759
Abstract
Universities are active agents of social change through knowledge, providing citizens with the necessary abilities to face professional challenges. This work aims to evaluate and analyse the adaptation of emotional regulation in learning situations of group work in virtual and hybrid (virtual and [...] Read more.
Universities are active agents of social change through knowledge, providing citizens with the necessary abilities to face professional challenges. This work aims to evaluate and analyse the adaptation of emotional regulation in learning situations of group work in virtual and hybrid (virtual and presential) environments, of a group of students of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences belonging to a Chilean university and a Spanish university. Method: A total of 107 students from a Chilean university and a Spanish university, all of them enrolled in the degree in Physical Activity and Sport Sciences, participated in the study. The instrument used was the Adaptative Instrument for Regulation of Emotions questionnaire. Results: The analysis of the data shows that there are some significant differences (p ≤ 0.05), between the groups of students who worked virtually and those who worked in hybrid situations, in the aspects related to personal motivations (learn from my classmates, not to disappoint my working group, and enjoying the experience of working in a group). The students who worked online resolved conflicts mainly through individual regulation mechanisms with significant differences in relation to the students who worked in hybrid mode. No significant differences were found in the socioemotional challenges or in the balance of the metacognitive experience. Conclusion: The group that worked in hybrid learning valued group purposes over personal purposes and used the social regulation mechanism over individual regulation in conflict resolution. On the other hand, the group that worked virtually valued group and personal purposes equally and used the mechanism of individual regulation and social regulation to solve difficulties. Differences between students who worked in virtual and hybrid environments may be due to greater social interaction and group dynamics in hybrid environments, as well as differences in culture and access to resources and technology. Full article
14 pages, 1850 KiB  
Article
Integration and Assessment of ChatGPT in Medical Case Reporting: A Multifaceted Approach
by Kuan-Chen Lin, Tsung-An Chen, Ming-Hwai Lin, Yu-Chun Chen and Tzeng-Ji Chen
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2024, 14(4), 888-901; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe14040057 - 30 Mar 2024
Viewed by 775
Abstract
ChatGPT, a large language model, has gained significance in medical writing, particularly in case reports that document the course of an illness. This article explores the integration of ChatGPT and how ChatGPT shapes the process, product, and politics of medical writing in the [...] Read more.
ChatGPT, a large language model, has gained significance in medical writing, particularly in case reports that document the course of an illness. This article explores the integration of ChatGPT and how ChatGPT shapes the process, product, and politics of medical writing in the real world. We conducted a bibliometric analysis on case reports utilizing ChatGPT and indexed in PubMed, encompassing publication information. Furthermore, an in-depth analysis was conducted to categorize the applications and limitations of ChatGPT and the publication trend of application categories. A total of 66 case reports utilizing ChatGPT were identified, with a predominant preference for the online version and English input by the authors. The prevalent application categories were information retrieval and content generation. Notably, this trend remained consistent across different months. Within the subset of 32 articles addressing ChatGPT limitations in case report writing, concerns related to inaccuracies and a lack of clinical context were prominently emphasized. This pointed out the important role of clinical thinking and professional expertise, representing the foundational tenets of medical education, while also accentuating the distinction between physicians and generative artificial intelligence. Full article
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18 pages, 707 KiB  
Article
The Moderating Effect of Body Appreciation on the Relationship between Self-Esteem and Life Satisfaction
by René Wodarz and Aleksandra M. Rogowska
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2024, 14(4), 870-887; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe14040056 - 28 Mar 2024
Viewed by 822
Abstract
Background: Although positive associations between life satisfaction, self-esteem, and body image have previously been established, differences in these variables by gender and age have yielded mixed results. Moreover, little is known about the interplay between self-esteem and body appreciation on life satisfaction. This [...] Read more.
Background: Although positive associations between life satisfaction, self-esteem, and body image have previously been established, differences in these variables by gender and age have yielded mixed results. Moreover, little is known about the interplay between self-esteem and body appreciation on life satisfaction. This study aims to investigate the moderating effect of body appreciation on the relationship between self-esteem and life satisfaction, considering disparities between females and males and also between emerging adults (before the age of thirty) and older adults. Methods: A cross-sectional online survey was performed in Poland with a sample of 449 adults aged between 18 and 75 (M = 30.41, SD = 12.72), including 68% of women. The survey included the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), and Body Appreciation Scale (BAS-2). Results: Men scored higher than women in terms of life satisfaction and self-esteem, while older participants (age > 30) scored higher than younger individuals (age ≤ 30) in terms of life satisfaction, self-esteem, and body appreciation. The study confirmed positive and moderate correlations between life satisfaction, self-esteem, and body appreciation. The interactive effect of self-esteem and body appreciation on life satisfaction was also found by controlling for age and gender. Conclusions: Some intervention programs focused on increasing levels of self-esteem and body appreciation should be implemented, especially among women and emerging adults, to improve their well-being. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Body Image Perception and Body Composition in All Population)
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14 pages, 1018 KiB  
Article
Nocturnal Smartphone Use Affects Sleep Quality and Cognitive and Physical Performance in Tunisian School-Age Children
by Rihab Abid, Achraf Ammar, Rami Maaloul, Mariem Boudaya, Nizar Souissi and Omar Hammouda
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2024, 14(4), 856-869; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe14040055 - 28 Mar 2024
Viewed by 876
Abstract
Nocturnal smartphone use emits blue light, which can adversely affect sleep, leading to a variety of negative effects, particularly in children. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the effect of acute (AC) (one night) and repeated (RC) (five nights) nocturnal smartphone exposure [...] Read more.
Nocturnal smartphone use emits blue light, which can adversely affect sleep, leading to a variety of negative effects, particularly in children. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the effect of acute (AC) (one night) and repeated (RC) (five nights) nocturnal smartphone exposure on sleep, cortisol, and next-day performance in Tunisian children. Thirteen participants (seven girls and six boys, age 9 ± 0.6, height 1.32 ± 0.06, weight 34.47 ± 4.41) attended six experimental nights. The experiment started with a baseline night (BL) with no smartphone exposure, followed by repeated sessions of nocturnal smartphone exposure lasting 90 minutes (08:00 pm–09:30 pm). Actigraphy; salivary cortisol; the Stroop test (selective attention); choice reaction time (CRT); N-back (working memory); counter-movement jump (CMJ), composed of flight time (time spent in the CMJ flight phase) and jump height; and a 30 m sprint were assessed the morning after each condition. Both AC and RC shortened total sleep time (TST) (p < 0.01), with a greater decrease with RC (−46.7 min, ∆% = −9.46) than AC (−28.8 min, ∆% = −5.8) compared to BL. AC and RC significantly increased waking after sleep onset (3.5 min, ∆% = 15.05, to 9.9 min, ∆% = 43.11%) and number of errors made on the Stroop test (1.8 error, ∆% = 74.23, to 3.07 error, ∆% = 97.56%). Children made 0.15 and 0.8 more errors (∆% = 6.2 to 57.61%) and spent 46.9 s and 71.6 s more time on CRT tasks (∆% = 7.22 to 11.11%) with AC and RC, respectively, compared to BL. The high-interference index of the Stroop task, CMJ performance, and 30 m sprint speed were only altered (p < 0.01) following RC (0.36, Δ% = 41.52%; −34 s, Δ% = −9.29%, for flight time and −1.23 m, −8.72%, for jump height; 0.49 s, Δ% = 6.48, respectively) when compared to BL. In conclusion, one- or five-night exposure to smartphones disturbed the children’s sleep quality and their performance, with more pronounced effects following RC. Full article
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18 pages, 1071 KiB  
Article
How Is the Fear of War Impacting Italian Young Adults’ Mental Health? The Mediating Role of Future Anxiety and Intolerance of Uncertainty
by Giorgio Maria Regnoli, Gioia Tiano and Barbara De Rosa
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2024, 14(4), 838-855; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe14040054 - 26 Mar 2024
Viewed by 835
Abstract
The Russian–Ukrainian conflict is affecting mental health even in communities that are not directly involved in the war; added to this is the escalating conflict in the Middle East and its dangerous spread, which brings the war back to the center of the [...] Read more.
The Russian–Ukrainian conflict is affecting mental health even in communities that are not directly involved in the war; added to this is the escalating conflict in the Middle East and its dangerous spread, which brings the war back to the center of the contemporary social and economic horizon. The present study aims to explore the psychological impact of war in a sample of 310 Italian young adults (18–30 years; M = 22.0; SD = 2.6) while exploring the relationship between Fear of War and psychological distress and evaluating the mediating effects of Future Anxiety and Intolerance of Uncertainty in this relation. Findings highlighted how Fear of War positively and significantly affects Stress, Anxiety, and Depression, and, at the same time, how it fuels both Future Anxiety and Intolerance of Uncertainty. These constructs, in addition to positively affecting the mental health outcomes considered, mediate the relationship between Fear of War and youth psychological distress with a significant indirect effect observed in all three mediation models performed. Finally, significantly higher levels of psychological distress, Fear of War, and Future Anxiety are reported in women than in men. The findings are discussed with reference to the recent literature on the psychological impact of war and on contemporary youth psychological distress, indicating the importance of educational policies and targeted interventions aimed at supporting this target in coping with multiple contemporary collective stressors. Full article
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15 pages, 798 KiB  
Article
The Volunteer Functions Inventory (VFI): Adaptation and Psychometric Properties among a Portuguese Sample of Volunteers
by Cátia Martins, José Tomás da Silva, Saúl Neves de Jesus, Conceição Ribeiro, Maria Dulce Estêvão, Ricardo Baptista, Cláudia Carmo, Marta Brás, Rita Santos and Cristina Nunes
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2024, 14(4), 823-837; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe14040053 - 25 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1108
Abstract
The Volunteer Functions Inventory (VFI) is an instrument widely used to assess volunteers’ motivation based on the Functionalist Model of Omoto and Snyder. It assesses six factors that reflect several motivational functions. The VFI has been translated into various languages and validated in [...] Read more.
The Volunteer Functions Inventory (VFI) is an instrument widely used to assess volunteers’ motivation based on the Functionalist Model of Omoto and Snyder. It assesses six factors that reflect several motivational functions. The VFI has been translated into various languages and validated in different cultural contexts, but some studies have reported different factor structures (e.g., five or four factors). In the Portuguese context, previous studies have also shown inconsistent results. The aim of this study was to adapt and validate the VFI for Portuguese volunteers, testing several alternative models (nine models) using confirmatory factor analysis. The sample comprised 468 volunteers (76.3% women), aged from 13 to 81 years (M = 36.66, SD = 14.93). The results support the original interrelated six-factor model as the best-fitting one. The VFI showed good internal consistency and convergent validity. Significant correlations were found between the VFI factors, organizational commitment, and volunteers’ satisfaction. Overall, the six-factor VFI is a valid and reliable tool for measuring the motivational functions of Portuguese volunteers, with implications for practice and research in the volunteering field. Full article
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15 pages, 945 KiB  
Article
The Vaccination Fear Scale (VFS-6): Adaptation, Cross-Cultural Validation, and Invariance among Genders and Six Different Cultures, Applying Classical Test Theory (CTT) and Item Response Theory (IRT)
by Olga Malas, Nada Mallah Boustani, Mirko Duradoni, Dayo Omotoso, Asiye Şengül Avşar, Anastasiia Shyroka, Giulia Colombini and Angel Blanch
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2024, 14(4), 808-822; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe14040052 - 24 Mar 2024
Viewed by 780
Abstract
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic had a meaningful impact on several areas of human activity. With respect to psychological assessment, the requirements to study the fear of vaccination as a means to diminish negative behaviour towards vaccination had been reported. This study [...] Read more.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic had a meaningful impact on several areas of human activity. With respect to psychological assessment, the requirements to study the fear of vaccination as a means to diminish negative behaviour towards vaccination had been reported. This study aimed to evaluate the factorial invariance of the six-item Vaccination Fear Scale (VFS-6) across individuals and cultures. To achieve this goal, a sample of university students was recruited (n = 2535; mean age = 20.59, SD = 2.04; males: 26.75%, females: 73.25%) from Spain (n = 388; 15.3%), Italy (n = 376; 14.83%), Lebanon (n = 487; 19.21%), Nigeria (n = 561; 22.13%), Turkey (n = 410; 16.17%), and Ukraine (n = 313; 12.34%). The results showed that the most appropriate factorial structure, exhibiting excellent fit indices, was a model with two correlated factors (cognitive symptoms: items 1, 2, and 4; somatic symptoms: items 3, 5, and 6) for both the total sample and individual samples from each country and language (Spanish, Italian, Arabic, English, Turkish, and Ukrainian). Notably, the VFS-6 demonstrated configural, metric, scalar, and strict invariance across sex. Regarding countries and languages, configural invariance was observed between them. Also, metric invariance was observed between Spain, Italy, and Ukraine and between Lebanon, Nigeria, and Turkey, which indicates the presence of two well-differentiated groups of countries and the possibility of inferential analysis between them. Item Response Theory analysis suggested an appropriate level of discrimination and difficulty of the test. These significant findings lay the groundwork for future investigations into vaccination fear across diverse cultural backgrounds, providing valuable insights for addressing vaccination-related concerns worldwide. Full article
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