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Children, Volume 6, Issue 6 (June 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) In this study, the severity of students’ ADHD symptoms was predicted by how they performed on [...] Read more.
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Open AccessCommentary
Errors in Clinician–Parent Communication during Neonatal Hospitalization
Received: 12 May 2019 / Revised: 18 June 2019 / Accepted: 20 June 2019 / Published: 24 June 2019
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Abstract
Error in clinician–parent communication is not a new issue in pediatrics. It has been the impetus behind national initiatives, namely, family-centered rounds. While family-centered rounds have proven effective, their success is dependent on the family being present during rounds. This does not always [...] Read more.
Error in clinician–parent communication is not a new issue in pediatrics. It has been the impetus behind national initiatives, namely, family-centered rounds. While family-centered rounds have proven effective, their success is dependent on the family being present during rounds. This does not always occur during prolonged hospitalizations, particularly in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). Current communication methods with parents not present during rounds rely heavily on the provider’s prerogative and ability to multitask. Thus, errors in communication are commonplace and are largely accepted as inevitable. For the sake of the parents of a patient in the NICU, a high-fidelity communication system is urgently needed. NICUs must move beyond the telephone and use modern innovations in communication technology. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Medical Cannabis Certification in a Large Pediatric Oncology Center
Received: 17 April 2019 / Revised: 6 June 2019 / Accepted: 10 June 2019 / Published: 17 June 2019
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Abstract
In Minnesota, medical cannabis was approved for use in 2014. From July 2015 to February 2019, our center certified 103 pediatric and young adult patients for the use of medical cannabis under the qualifying conditions of cancer and treatment-related symptoms. Here, we provide [...] Read more.
In Minnesota, medical cannabis was approved for use in 2014. From July 2015 to February 2019, our center certified 103 pediatric and young adult patients for the use of medical cannabis under the qualifying conditions of cancer and treatment-related symptoms. Here, we provide a review of the literature on medical cannabis use in pediatric and young adult cancer patients. We also provide demographic data on our patients certified for medical cannabis. The most common diagnoses were leukemia/lymphoma (36%), brain tumors (37%), and malignant solid tumors (26%). The most common indications were chemotherapy-related nausea, pain, and cancer cachexia. The age range at certification was 1.4–28.7 years (median 15.3 years). The time from cancer diagnosis to certification ranged from 0.5–197 months (median 8.9 months). The majority (94%) were certified during their first line of treatment. In the 32 patients who died from recurrent or progressive cancer, the time from certification to death was 1.3–30.3 months (median 4.4 years). Despite requesting certification, a subset (24%) never had medical cannabis dispensed. In our experience, pediatric and young adult oncology patients are interested in medical cannabis to help manage treatment-related symptoms. Ongoing analysis of this data will identify the therapeutic efficacy of medical cannabis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrative Medicine in Pediatric Oncology)
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Open AccessReview
Pediatric Massage Therapy Research: A Narrative Review
Received: 17 April 2019 / Revised: 22 May 2019 / Accepted: 3 June 2019 / Published: 6 June 2019
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Abstract
This narrative review on pediatric massage literature from the last decade suggests that massage therapy has positive effects on several pediatric conditions. These include preterm infant growth, psychological problems including aggression, gastrointestinal problems including constipation and diarrhea, painful conditions including burns and sickle [...] Read more.
This narrative review on pediatric massage literature from the last decade suggests that massage therapy has positive effects on several pediatric conditions. These include preterm infant growth, psychological problems including aggression, gastrointestinal problems including constipation and diarrhea, painful conditions including burns and sickle cell, muscle tone disorders including cerebral palsy and Down syndrome, and chronic illnesses including diabetes, asthma cancer, and HIV. Potential underlying mechanisms for the massage therapy effects include increased vagal activity and decreased stress hormones. Limitations of the literature include the need for more randomized controlled trials, longitudinal studies, and underlying mechanism studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Complementary and Integrative Movement Therapies for Children)
Open AccessArticle
An Overview on Acute Malnutrition and Food Insecurity among Children during the Conflict in Yemen
Received: 11 May 2019 / Revised: 29 May 2019 / Accepted: 31 May 2019 / Published: 5 June 2019
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Abstract
Background: This study aims to describe malnutrition among children under five and to describe the food insecurity status during the current conflict in Yemen. Methods: Data were obtained from a Yemeni nutrition surveillance program (pilot phase) targeting 4142 households with 5276 children under [...] Read more.
Background: This study aims to describe malnutrition among children under five and to describe the food insecurity status during the current conflict in Yemen. Methods: Data were obtained from a Yemeni nutrition surveillance program (pilot phase) targeting 4142 households with 5276 children under five from two governorates (Ibb and Sana’a). Results: Global acute malnutrition was found in 13.3% of overall screened children, while 4.9% had severe acute malnutrition (SAM) and 8.4% had moderate acute malnutrition. One-fifth of the children under six months of age were acutely malnourished, followed by children under two years at 18.5% based on weight-for-height z scores. Significant associations between malnutrition and other diseases included suspected measles at three times higher rates (4.5%, p < 0.00) among SAM cases than other children. Diarrhea, fever, and cough were significantly higher among the SAM group (p < 0.05). Most households depended on market food purchases in the month preceding this survey (84.7%). Household coping mechanisms to secure daily meals included borrowing food to survive, changing types and quality of food, and decreasing the number of meals per day; some families sent their children to live with relatives. Conclusion: Malnutrition is a serious public health problem. The humanitarian community needs to adopt alternative strategies to improve food security and the nutrition status in Yemen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Global and Public Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Children’s Physical Activity Levels Following Participation in a Classroom-Based Physical Activity Curriculum
Received: 29 March 2019 / Revised: 15 May 2019 / Accepted: 24 May 2019 / Published: 3 June 2019
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Abstract
A classroom-based physical activity curriculum offers an opportunity for students to be active during the school day to combat declining physical activity levels among this population. The effects of classroom-based physical activity curriculum on children of different weight categories is relatively unknown. Therefore, [...] Read more.
A classroom-based physical activity curriculum offers an opportunity for students to be active during the school day to combat declining physical activity levels among this population. The effects of classroom-based physical activity curriculum on children of different weight categories is relatively unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the differences in physical activity levels between male and female students, and between students of different weight categories following participation in a classroom-based physical activity curriculum intervention. A total of 210 3rd to 5th grade (age = 9.1 ± 0.1) students from one U.S. elementary school participated in a 4-week intervention. Students’ physical activity levels were measured using pedometers, quantified by step counts pre- and post-intervention. Results from the study indicated that students’ physical activity levels increased after participation in the intervention; male students’ physical activity levels were higher than female students. Additionally, there was an increase in physical activity levels regardless of weight categories, with students of healthy weight exhibiting the most increase following participation in the intervention. In view of the improvement of children’s physical activity levels following their participation in a classroom-based physical activity curriculum, it is recommended that training and resources be provided for teachers to easily implement the curriculum during the school day. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Global and Public Health)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Differential Diagnosis of Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis
Received: 19 April 2019 / Revised: 16 May 2019 / Accepted: 20 May 2019 / Published: 3 June 2019
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Abstract
The differential diagnosis of pediatric multiple sclerosis (MS) can be broad and pose diagnostic challenges, particularly at initial presentation. Among demyelinating entities, neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD), myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies (MOG-ab) associated disorders, and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) are now well-known as [...] Read more.
The differential diagnosis of pediatric multiple sclerosis (MS) can be broad and pose diagnostic challenges, particularly at initial presentation. Among demyelinating entities, neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD), myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies (MOG-ab) associated disorders, and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) are now well-known as unique disease processes and yet continue to overlap with MS in regards to clinical presentation and imaging. In non-inflammatory entities, such as metabolic disorders and leukodystrophies, an erroneous diagnosis of MS can be made even while applying appropriate diagnostic criteria. Knowing the epidemiology, typical clinical presentation, diagnostic criteria, and ancillary test results in each disease, can aid in making the correct diagnosis by contrasting these features with those of pediatric MS. Determining the correct diagnosis early, allows for efficient and effective treatment as well as appropriate prognostication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multiple Sclerosis and Demyelinating Disorders in Children)
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Open AccessReview
Ergonomic Challenges Inherent in Neonatal Resuscitation
Received: 1 May 2019 / Revised: 21 May 2019 / Accepted: 22 May 2019 / Published: 3 June 2019
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Abstract
Neonatal resuscitation demands that healthcare professionals perform cognitive and technical tasks while working under time pressure as a team in order to provide efficient and effective care. Neonatal resuscitation teams simultaneously process and act upon multiple data streams, perform ergonomically challenging technical procedures, [...] Read more.
Neonatal resuscitation demands that healthcare professionals perform cognitive and technical tasks while working under time pressure as a team in order to provide efficient and effective care. Neonatal resuscitation teams simultaneously process and act upon multiple data streams, perform ergonomically challenging technical procedures, and coordinate their actions within a small physical space. An understanding and application of human factors and ergonomics science broadens the areas of need in resuscitation research, and will lead to enhanced technologies, systems, and work environments that support human limitations and maximize human performance during neonatal resuscitation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Concepts in Neonatal Resuscitation)
Open AccessReview
Long-Term Treatment Strategies of Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis, Including the use of Disease Modifying Therapies
Received: 22 March 2019 / Revised: 2 May 2019 / Accepted: 14 May 2019 / Published: 31 May 2019
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Abstract
Multiple sclerosis (MS) presenting in the pediatric years can lead to landmark disability levels younger in life than adult onset MS and so therefore early and effective treatment remains paramount for long-term outcomes. The goals of MS therapeutics in adults have widened to [...] Read more.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) presenting in the pediatric years can lead to landmark disability levels younger in life than adult onset MS and so therefore early and effective treatment remains paramount for long-term outcomes. The goals of MS therapeutics in adults have widened to address multiple mechanisms: anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and myelin repair, yet the optimal paradigm for MS therapies in the pediatric population is not known. Pediatric onset MS add complexities due to the ongoing development of the central nervous system and the immune system. Clinical trials have led to an increasing number of pharmaceutical therapies for adult onset MS (AOMS), one POMS randomized controlled trial is completed and other trials are ongoing, yet due to the low prevalence of POMS, the dynamic landscape and risk management of the MS disease modifying therapies (DMT) it remains more difficult to complete trials in POMS. There is consensus that controlled clinical trials leading to appropriate and safe therapies for POMS are important for a multitude of reasons that include unique pediatric pharmacokinetics, short and long-term safety, developmental issues, clinical benefits, and regulatory approval. This review will focus on new treatment goals, paradigm, strategies, monitoring, compliance, and products in the long-term treatment of POMS. The discussion will focus on these new concepts and the published data related to DMT use in POMS. This review provides significant insight into new concepts of treatment goals and current approaches to enhance the lives of the POMS patients now and in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multiple Sclerosis and Demyelinating Disorders in Children)
Open AccessArticle
Digital Attention-Related Augmented-Reality Game: Significant Correlation between Student Game Performance and Validated Clinical Measures of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Received: 18 February 2019 / Revised: 1 May 2019 / Accepted: 14 May 2019 / Published: 28 May 2019
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Abstract
As many as half of school children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), resulting in marked negative academic, social, and behavioral outcomes. The focus of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on real-world data from novel digital [...] Read more.
As many as half of school children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), resulting in marked negative academic, social, and behavioral outcomes. The focus of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on real-world data from novel digital sources, and the emergence of Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes to reimburse for digital monitoring and neurobehavioral testing suggest an increasing acceptance of the role of technology in augmenting clinical care and research. Empowered Brain is an augmented reality and artificial intelligence-based social-emotional communication aid for students with ASD. In this study, student performance on Empowered Brain is correlated to validated clinical measures of ADHD. Seven high school students with a diagnosis of ASD were recruited from a public high school. All students were assessed for severity of ADHD-related symptoms via three clinical gold-standard assessments, namely the Aberrant Behavioral Checklist (ABC), Social Responsiveness Scale 2 (SRS-2), and Teacher Report Form (TRF). Students used Empowered Brain over a one-week period. We measured the correlation of student in-game performance (as measured by point- and star-based rewards) relative to the hyperactivity subscale of the ABC (ABC-H), and the ADHD-subscale of the TRF. All seven students completed the study and managed to successfully use Empowered Brain. Students received a culminative total of 32 sessions, an average of 4.6 sessions per student (range 2–8). Student in-game performance demonstrated highly significant correlation relative to ABC-H (points: p = 0.0013; stars: p = 0.0013), and significant correlation to TRF ADHD scores (points: p = 0.012; stars: p = 0.012). No adverse effects were noted among students who used Empowered Brain. New technologies may herald novel ways of identifying and characterizing symptoms of ADHD in student populations. This study provides evidence that Empowered Brain in-game performance correlates with ADHD symptom severity in students with ASD. Larger samples are required to validate these findings, with more diverse participants that can also widen the generalizability of these findings to a broader range of brain conditions that manifest with inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Through further research, we may find that such technologies can help us to identify and longitudinally monitor such symptoms, and potentially aid in severity stratification and digital phenotyping. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Integrative Pediatrics)
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