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Long-Term Treatment Strategies of Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis, Including the use of Disease Modifying Therapies
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Differential Diagnosis of Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis

Department of Neurology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA
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Children 2019, 6(6), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/children6060075
Received: 19 April 2019 / Revised: 16 May 2019 / Accepted: 20 May 2019 / Published: 3 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multiple Sclerosis and Demyelinating Disorders in Children)
The differential diagnosis of pediatric multiple sclerosis (MS) can be broad and pose diagnostic challenges, particularly at initial presentation. Among demyelinating entities, neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD), myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies (MOG-ab) associated disorders, and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) are now well-known as unique disease processes and yet continue to overlap with MS in regards to clinical presentation and imaging. In non-inflammatory entities, such as metabolic disorders and leukodystrophies, an erroneous diagnosis of MS can be made even while applying appropriate diagnostic criteria. Knowing the epidemiology, typical clinical presentation, diagnostic criteria, and ancillary test results in each disease, can aid in making the correct diagnosis by contrasting these features with those of pediatric MS. Determining the correct diagnosis early, allows for efficient and effective treatment as well as appropriate prognostication. View Full-Text
Keywords: demyelination; pediatric multiple sclerosis; NMOSD; MOG-ab; ADEM; leukodystrophies; metabolic disorders demyelination; pediatric multiple sclerosis; NMOSD; MOG-ab; ADEM; leukodystrophies; metabolic disorders
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Galardi, M.M.; Gaudioso, C.; Ahmadi, S.; Evans, E.; Gilbert, L.; Mar, S. Differential Diagnosis of Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis. Children 2019, 6, 75.

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