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Technologies, Volume 3, Issue 2 (June 2015) – 7 articles , Pages 58-161

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Open AccessArticle
Automated Segmentation of MS Lesions in MR Images Based on an Information Theoretic Clustering and Contrast Transformations
Technologies 2015, 3(2), 142-161; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies3020142 - 05 Jun 2015
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2859
Abstract
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) plays a significant role in the current characterization and diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) in radiological imaging. However, early detection of MS lesions from MRI still remains a challenging problem. In the present work, an information theoretic approach to [...] Read more.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) plays a significant role in the current characterization and diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) in radiological imaging. However, early detection of MS lesions from MRI still remains a challenging problem. In the present work, an information theoretic approach to cluster the voxels in MS lesions for automatic segmentation of lesions of various sizes in multi-contrast (T1, T2, PD-weighted) MR images, is applied. For accurate detection of MS lesions of various sizes, the skull-stripped brain data are rescaled and histogram manipulated prior to mapping the multi-contrast data to pseudo-color images. For automated segmentation of multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions in multi-contrast MRI, the improved jump method (IJM) clustering method has been enhanced via edge suppression for improved segmentation of white matter (WM), gray matter (GM), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and MS lesions if present. From this preliminary clustering, a pseudo-color to grayscale conversion is designed to equalize the intensities of the normal brain tissues, leaving the MS lesions as outliers. Binary discrete and 8-bit fuzzy labels are then assigned to segment the MS lesions throughout the full brain. For validation of the proposed method, three brains, with mild, moderate and severe hyperintense MS lesions labeled as ground truth, were selected. The MS lesions of mild, moderate and severe categories were detected with a sensitivity of 80%, and 96%, and 94%, and with the corresponding Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) of 0.5175, 0.8739, and 0.8266 respectively. The MS lesions can also be clearly visualized in a transparent pseudo-color computer rendered 3D brain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medical Imaging & Image Processing)
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Open AccessArticle
Medical Image Processing for Fully Integrated Subject Specific Whole Brain Mesh Generation
Technologies 2015, 3(2), 126-141; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies3020126 - 21 May 2015
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4009
Abstract
Currently, anatomically consistent segmentation of vascular trees acquired with magnetic resonance imaging requires the use of multiple image processing steps, which, in turn, depend on manual intervention. In effect, segmentation of vascular trees from medical images is time consuming and error prone due [...] Read more.
Currently, anatomically consistent segmentation of vascular trees acquired with magnetic resonance imaging requires the use of multiple image processing steps, which, in turn, depend on manual intervention. In effect, segmentation of vascular trees from medical images is time consuming and error prone due to the tortuous geometry and weak signal in small blood vessels. To overcome errors and accelerate the image processing time, we introduce an automatic image processing pipeline for constructing subject specific computational meshes for entire cerebral vasculature, including segmentation of ancillary structures; the grey and white matter, cerebrospinal fluid space, skull, and scalp. To demonstrate the validity of the new pipeline, we segmented the entire intracranial compartment with special attention of the angioarchitecture from magnetic resonance imaging acquired for two healthy volunteers. The raw images were processed through our pipeline for automatic segmentation and mesh generation. Due to partial volume effect and finite resolution, the computational meshes intersect with each other at respective interfaces. To eliminate anatomically inconsistent overlap, we utilized morphological operations to separate the structures with a physiologically sound gap spaces. The resulting meshes exhibit anatomically correct spatial extent and relative positions without intersections. For validation, we computed critical biometrics of the angioarchitecture, the cortical surfaces, ventricular system, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) spaces and compared against literature values. Volumina and surface areas of the computational mesh were found to be in physiological ranges. In conclusion, we present an automatic image processing pipeline to automate the segmentation of the main intracranial compartments including a subject-specific vascular trees. These computational meshes can be used in 3D immersive visualization for diagnosis, surgery planning with haptics control in virtual reality. Subject-specific computational meshes are also a prerequisite for computer simulations of cerebral hemodynamics and the effects of traumatic brain injury. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medical Imaging & Image Processing)
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Open AccessArticle
Microwave Absorption of Barium Borosilicate, Zinc Borate, Fe-Doped Alumino-Phosphate Glasses and Its Raw Materials
Technologies 2015, 3(2), 111-125; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies3020111 - 19 May 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2842
Abstract
This study presents microwave absorption of raw materials used in barium borosilicate, Fe-doped alumina phosphate and zinc borate glass. Microwave absorption was investigated for the raw materials SiO2, Na2CO3, BaCO3, BPO4, Al(PO3)3, [...] Read more.
This study presents microwave absorption of raw materials used in barium borosilicate, Fe-doped alumina phosphate and zinc borate glass. Microwave absorption was investigated for the raw materials SiO2, Na2CO3, BaCO3, BPO4, Al(PO3)3, Mg(PO3)2, Al(OH)3, TiO2. The study shows that SiO2 could be heated directly above 1000 °C within 30 min at 1.5 kW microwave output (MW) power and 0.8 kW MW power is necessary to initiate heating (from 260 °C). Microwave heating of material with low dielectric loss has been investigated by increasing MW power. Microwave absorption of above glass systems has also been investigated. Dielectric properties such as loss tangent of glass as a function of temperature are presented. Glass melting under direct microwave heating was demonstrated for the studied glass systems. Temperature-Microwave power-Time (T-P-t) profiles for the three glasses indicate maximum MW output power ~1 kW, 0.65 kW and ~1 kW for barium borosilicate, zinc borate glass and alumino-phosphate glass for 60 g glass melting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microwave Energy Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
A Hybrid Feature Extractor using Fast Hessian Detector and SIFT
Technologies 2015, 3(2), 103-110; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies3020103 - 15 May 2015
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3163
Abstract
This paper addresses a new hybrid feature extractor algorithm, which in essence integrates a Fast-Hessian detector into the SIFT (Scale Invariant Feature Transform) algorithm. Feature extractors mainly consist of two essential parts: feature detector and descriptor extractor. This study proposes to integrate (Speeded-Up [...] Read more.
This paper addresses a new hybrid feature extractor algorithm, which in essence integrates a Fast-Hessian detector into the SIFT (Scale Invariant Feature Transform) algorithm. Feature extractors mainly consist of two essential parts: feature detector and descriptor extractor. This study proposes to integrate (Speeded-Up Robust Features) SURF’s hessian detector into the SIFT algorithm so as to boost the total number of true matched pairs. This is a critical requirement in image processing and widely used in various corresponding fields from image stitching to object recognition. The proposed hybrid algorithm has been tested under different experimental conditions and results are quite encouraging in terms of obtaining higher matched pairs and precision score. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medical Imaging & Image Processing)
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Open AccessArticle
A Study on the Effect of Nano Alumina Particles on Fracture Behavior of PMMA
Technologies 2015, 3(2), 94-102; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies3020094 - 30 Apr 2015
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2778
Abstract
In the current research, the role of nano-sized alumina on deformation and fracture mechanism of Poly Methyl Methacrylate (PMMA) was investigated. For this purpose, PMMA matrix nanocomposite reinforced with different wt% of alumina (i.e., 5, 10 and 15) were fabricated using [...] Read more.
In the current research, the role of nano-sized alumina on deformation and fracture mechanism of Poly Methyl Methacrylate (PMMA) was investigated. For this purpose, PMMA matrix nanocomposite reinforced with different wt% of alumina (i.e., 5, 10 and 15) were fabricated using the compression molding technique. Tensile properties of produced nanocomposites were studied using Zwick Z250 apparatus at cross head speed of about 5 mm/min. In order to specify the role of alumina nanoparticles on deformation and fracture mechanism of PMMA, microscopic evaluation was performed using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The achieved results prove that tensile properties of PMMA depend on alumina wt%. For example, addition of 15 wt% alumina to PMMA causes an increase of about 25% modulus of elasticity. Micrographs taken from the fracture surface of PMMA and its nanocomposites show deformation and fracture mechanism of PMMA changes as alumina is added to it. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of the Science and Technology Narrative within Organ Donation and Transplantation Coverage in Canadian Newspapers
Technologies 2015, 3(2), 74-93; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies3020074 - 09 Apr 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3290
Abstract
Organ failure is one cause of death. Advancements in scientific research and technological development made organ transplantation possible and continue to find better ways to substitute failed organs with other organs of biological origin or artificial organs. Media, including newspapers, are one source [...] Read more.
Organ failure is one cause of death. Advancements in scientific research and technological development made organ transplantation possible and continue to find better ways to substitute failed organs with other organs of biological origin or artificial organs. Media, including newspapers, are one source of information for the public. The purpose of this study was to examine to what extent and how science and technology research and development are covered in the organ transplantation and organ donation (ODOT) coverage of n = 300 Canadian newspapers, including the two Canadian newspapers with national reach (The Globe and Mail, National Post). The study generated qualitative and quantitative data addressing the following issues: (1) which scientific and technological developments are mentioned in the ODOT coverage; and (2) what issues are mentioned in the coverage of scientific and technological advancements linked to ODOT. We found little to no coverage of many technological and scientific advancements evident in academic and grey literature covering ODOT, and we found little engagement with social and ethical issues already raised about these advancements in the literature. The only area we found to be covered to a broader extent was xenotransplantation, although the coverage stopped after 2002. We argue that the newspaper coverage of ODOT under reports scientific and technological advancements related to ODOT and the issues these advancements might raise. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Calcium Fluoroaluminosilicate Based Glass Ionomer Luting Cements Processed Both by Conventional and Microwave Assisted Methods
Technologies 2015, 3(2), 58-73; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies3020058 - 25 Mar 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2580
Abstract
Calcium fluoroaluminosilicate glasses (CAS) are used in the formulation of glass ionomer cements for dental applications. However, the cements obtained from CAS glasses were found to be radiolucent. In this study, the influence of substituting Zn, Sr and Mg for Ca of CAS [...] Read more.
Calcium fluoroaluminosilicate glasses (CAS) are used in the formulation of glass ionomer cements for dental applications. However, the cements obtained from CAS glasses were found to be radiolucent. In this study, the influence of substituting Zn, Sr and Mg for Ca of CAS glasses was investigated with respect to the structure and setting characteristics, mechanical properties, and radiopacity of cements designed for luting applications. Three glass compositions based on substitution of Zn, Sr and Mg for Ca at 1:1 molar ratio was synthesized. They were coded as the G 021 (Ca: Zn), G 022 (Ca: Sr), G 023 (Ca: Mg). G 021 and G 022 glasses were processed by conventional melt quench route, whereas G 023 was processed by microwave melt–quench route. Each glass was then mixed with Fuji Type I GIC liquid in order to evaluate the properties of novel cements at different powder/liquid ratios. X-ray diffraction and Fourier Transform-Infrared spectroscopy analysis confirmed the structure of the processed glasses. The average particle size of the processed glass powders was within specification limits for luting applications (<15 μm). The substitution of Zn, Sr and Mg for Ca at 1:1 molar ratio increased the reactivity of the respective glasses. This has been reflected in their respective setting characteristics and mechanical properties. The optimal combination of setting time, strength and radiopacity for the cements examined here was shown by G 022 cements. The microwave melting can be utilized for processing ionomer glasses as it did not alter the structure and properties of G 023 cement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microwave Energy Applications)
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