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Pharmacy, Volume 9, Issue 3 (September 2021) – 41 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Pharmacists play a vital role in recommending and providing vaccines to improve public health and are on the front line of mass immunization efforts. The objective of this study is to evaluate pharmacists’ perceptions of COVID-19 vaccines prior to emergency use authorization (EUA) amid a global pandemic. View this paper
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Article
Exploring Pharmacy Trainee Experiential Learning in a Full Scope Collaborative Rural Primary Care Practice: A Retrospective Chart Review
Pharmacy 2021, 9(3), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy9030155 - 15 Sep 2021
Viewed by 578
Abstract
Despite reported benefits of pharmacy trainees (e.g., pharmacy students, pharmacy residents) in hospital settings, limited research on the impact of these trainees has been conducted in rural primary care. To explore the potential benefits and impact of pharmacy trainees practicing in a supervised [...] Read more.
Despite reported benefits of pharmacy trainees (e.g., pharmacy students, pharmacy residents) in hospital settings, limited research on the impact of these trainees has been conducted in rural primary care. To explore the potential benefits and impact of pharmacy trainees practicing in a supervised collaborative rural primary care setting, a retrospective chart review was conducted. Drug therapy problems (DTPs) were classified using the Pharmaceutical Care Network Europe (PCNE V9) system. Valuation was measured using a validated tool developed by Overhage and Lukes (1999). Over 16 weeks on a part-time basis, pharmacy trainees (n = 3) identified 366 DTPs during 153 patient encounters. The most common causes for DTPs were related to patient transfers and the need for education. Drug level interventions carried out directly by trainees under supervision accounted for 13.1% of total interventions. Interventions that required prescriber authorization had an acceptance rate of 83.25%, 25% higher than previous acceptance rates found in urban primary care settings. About half (51%) of the interventions proposed and made by pharmacy trainees were classified as significant or very significant, suggesting these trainees added significant value to the pharmacy service provided to rural community residents. This study suggests that pharmacy trainees can be effective resources and contribute meaningfully to patient care in a collaborative rural primary care team setting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pharmacy Education and Student/Practitioner Training)
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Article
Changes in Japanese Pharmacists’ Recognition of Their Role in Community Public Health before and after the Spread of COVID-19
Pharmacy 2021, 9(3), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy9030154 - 09 Sep 2021
Viewed by 472
Abstract
Background: In our previous study regarding infection prevention after COVID-19, many Japanese citizen respondents had not received education/training on infection prevention. However, a total of 47.7% (n = 143) of these respondents wanted to receive education from healthcare professionals regarding the methods [...] Read more.
Background: In our previous study regarding infection prevention after COVID-19, many Japanese citizen respondents had not received education/training on infection prevention. However, a total of 47.7% (n = 143) of these respondents wanted to receive education from healthcare professionals regarding the methods and effects of infection prevention. Therefore, changes in recognition of the roles of Japanese pharmacists before and after COVID-19 were investigated. Methods: We conducted a survey to determine whether recognition of Japanese pharmacists’ roles, especially their role in public health in the community, changed after COVID-19. Results: A total of 93.9% (n = 307) of the pharmacist respondents showed an increased awareness of infection prevention. Before COVID-19, the hospital pharmacists (67.2%; n = 80) were more aware of infection prevention than were pharmacy pharmacists (51.7%; n = 74) and drugstore pharmacists (47.7%; n = 31). The number of pharmacists who felt that the role of pharmacists in the community had changed after the pandemic increased, but the numbers of community pharmacy pharmacists (51.8%; n = 74) and drugstore pharmacists (55.4%; n = 36) were found to be slightly higher than those of hospital pharmacists (47.9%; n = 57). Conclusions: In a society in which swift responses and changes are required, for individuals to work as medical personnel their ability to respond while always being aware of the needs of society is required now more than ever. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacist-Based Interventions for Health Behavior Change)
Project Report
Establishment of a Framework to Support Multi-Faceted Initiatives for Pharmacy-Practice Transformation: Lessons Learned
Pharmacy 2021, 9(3), 153; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy9030153 - 08 Sep 2021
Viewed by 511
Abstract
We describe the first two years of a multifaceted, five-year program to support sustainable pharmacist-provided health services in Alaska. In 2018, the Alaska Pharmacists Association funded the Sustainable Education and Training Model under Pharmacist as Providers (SETMuPP) to train and support pharmacists to [...] Read more.
We describe the first two years of a multifaceted, five-year program to support sustainable pharmacist-provided health services in Alaska. In 2018, the Alaska Pharmacists Association funded the Sustainable Education and Training Model under Pharmacist as Providers (SETMuPP) to train and support pharmacists to navigate the insurance medical billing process for nondispensing healthcare services. The SETMuPP employed a three-pillar implementation approach: (1) training and practice support infrastructure, (2) PharmD curriculum augmentation, and (3) advocacy and legislative support. The first two years have demonstrated the effectiveness of triad partnerships between professional associations, state policy makers, and academic centers to catalyze meaningful practice transformation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacist Services Ⅱ)
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Article
Pharmacogenetics in Pharmaceutical Care—Piloting an Application-Oriented Blended Learning Concept
Pharmacy 2021, 9(3), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy9030152 - 06 Sep 2021
Viewed by 514
Abstract
To enable application-oriented training of Swiss pharmacists on pharmacogenetic (PGx) testing, an advanced, digital training program was conceptualized based on the Miller’s Pyramid framework, using a blended learning approach. The PGx advanced training program included an asynchronous self-study online module, synchronous virtual classroom [...] Read more.
To enable application-oriented training of Swiss pharmacists on pharmacogenetic (PGx) testing, an advanced, digital training program was conceptualized based on the Miller’s Pyramid framework, using a blended learning approach. The PGx advanced training program included an asynchronous self-study online module, synchronous virtual classroom sessions with lectures and workshops, and a follow-up case study for in-depth applied learning including the analysis of the participants’ PGx profile. The evaluation of the training program consisted of (a) an assessment of the participants’ development of knowledge, competencies and attitudes towards PGx testing in the pharmacy setting; (b) a satisfaction survey including; (c) questions about their future plans for implementing a PGx service. Twenty-one pharmacists participated in this pilot program. The evaluation showed: (a) a significant improvement of their PGx knowledge (mean score in the knowledge test 75.3% before to 90.3% after training completion) and a significant increase of their self-perceived competencies in applying PGx counselling; (b) a high level of satisfaction with the training program content and the format (at least 79% expressed high/very high agreement with the statements in the questionnaire); (c) a mixed view on whether participants will implement PGx testing as a pharmacy service (indecisive 8; agreed/completely agreed to implement 7/1; disagreed 3 (n = 19)). We consider ongoing education as an important driver for the implementation of PGx in pharmacy practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue E-learning in Pharmacy Education)
Article
Reimagining Pharmacy Education through the Lens of a Choose Your Own Adventure Activity—A Qualitative Evaluation
Pharmacy 2021, 9(3), 151; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy9030151 - 06 Sep 2021
Viewed by 473
Abstract
Background: Successful pharmacy curricula expose students to a variety of teaching and assessment methods to prepare students for clinical practice. However, development of clinical decision-making skills is often challenging for learners. To meet this need, the Choose Your Own Adventure (CYOA) Patient Case [...] Read more.
Background: Successful pharmacy curricula expose students to a variety of teaching and assessment methods to prepare students for clinical practice. However, development of clinical decision-making skills is often challenging for learners. To meet this need, the Choose Your Own Adventure (CYOA) Patient Case Format was developed to enhance traditional paper patient cases by integrating problem-based and case-based learning to improve pharmacy student learning. The objectives of this evaluation were to qualitatively evaluate the CYOA case format. The qualitative assessment of the student pharmacist’s learning experience utilizing this novel patient case format was used to formulate a template for extrapolation to other disease states. Methods: Focus groups were conducted with second year Pharm.D. students enrolled at the University of Tennessee Health Science Center (UTHSC) College of Pharmacy. The focus groups were conducted in Fall 2020, beginning the week after they were exposed to the CYOA case format. The corpus of data was analyzed thematically to identify themes using inductive coding. To establish the validity of this evaluation, the team met to assess the consistency of the data reduction methods and guard against methodological issues that could influence and affect coding decisions. Results: Participants were recruited until thematic saturation was achieved. Out of 25 participants, 23 participants provided demographic information, with 74% identifying as female. Thematic analysis identified three themes: (1) “It was just fun!” (2) Empowering Pharmacy Students through Groupwork: “Collaboration [is] going to be vital” and (3) Meeting the Need for Real-Life Scenarios: “This is a real person.” Conclusions: The data highlight that there are numerous advantages of adopting the CYOA format for delivering applied pharmacotherapy content. The CYOA format presents students with a realistic scenario that is fun and engaging and challenges students to justify their decisions regarding patient care in a structured group environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pharmacy Education and Student/Practitioner Training)
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Editorial
Using Technology to Enhance Teaching and Learning in Pharmacy Education
Pharmacy 2021, 9(3), 150; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy9030150 - 03 Sep 2021
Viewed by 464
Abstract
It was a privilege to serve as guest editors in Pharmacy for the Special Issue ‘Technology-Enhanced Pharmacy Teaching and Learning Strategies’ [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technology-Enhanced Pharmacy Teaching and Learning Strategies)
Article
The Use of Direct-to-Consumer (DTC) Pharmaceutical Advertisements in Televised and Print Formats as a Teaching Tool in a Pharmacy Curriculum
Pharmacy 2021, 9(3), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy9030149 - 02 Sep 2021
Viewed by 476
Abstract
The overall goal of this study was to employ direct-to-consumer advertisements (DTCAs) as a teaching tool in a Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) curriculum. The objectives of this pilot study were to investigate the following questions: 1. Do DTCAs generate student curiosity about the [...] Read more.
The overall goal of this study was to employ direct-to-consumer advertisements (DTCAs) as a teaching tool in a Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) curriculum. The objectives of this pilot study were to investigate the following questions: 1. Do DTCAs generate student curiosity about the advertised drug and associated disease? 2. Can DTCAs help students understand and reinforce various pharmacological aspects of the drug? 3. How do students perceive DTCAs? A DTCA-based teaching tool was employed in a pharmacology course taken by P2 (second professional year) PharmD and final year (U4) Bachelor of Science (BS) in Pharmacology–Toxicology students. A voluntary online survey was administered to students to determine the effectiveness of this tool. Survey data were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. 70–85% of responding students indicated that this teaching tool was an effective visual aid for learning pharmacology and correlating the drug to disease state, mechanism of action, and adverse effects. Moreover, themes identified from the qualitative analysis suggest that this teaching tool may be useful to enhance patient counseling skills in students. The initial implementation of this DTCA-based teaching tool proved to be successful, and a similar approach can be easily implemented in other pharmacotherapy and laboratory courses. Further studies are needed to determine if this approach can improve patient counseling skills. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pharmacy Education and Student/Practitioner Training)
Article
Use of Team-Based Learning Pedagogy to Prepare for a Pharmacy School Accreditation Self-Study
Pharmacy 2021, 9(3), 148; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy9030148 - 27 Aug 2021
Viewed by 534
Abstract
Ensuring adequate engagement and preparation of all stakeholders in an accreditation self-study can be challenging for many reasons, including lack of motivation and inadequate understanding of expectations and procedures. The goal of this exploratory study was to determine whether using team-based learning (TBL) [...] Read more.
Ensuring adequate engagement and preparation of all stakeholders in an accreditation self-study can be challenging for many reasons, including lack of motivation and inadequate understanding of expectations and procedures. The goal of this exploratory study was to determine whether using team-based learning (TBL) pedagogy to deliver an accreditation preparation workshop could effectively prepare and engage participants. A Likert-scale questionnaire was administered to workshop attendees (n = 52) to determine whether they found TBL-based training helpful and whether it promoted engagement. Twenty-four attendees completed the survey (46%). More than 80% of participants strongly agreed or agreed with 12 statements relating to perceptions of self and participant engagement within team activities and the usefulness of team activities. More than 65% of participants strongly agreed or agreed with statements relating to the helpfulness of the TBL approach in preparing for the self-study (five questions). Subgroup analysis showed no significant difference in responses based on whether on not participants had previously been involved in an accreditation self study. Our data indicate that a TBL approach can be an effective way to engage and prepare stakeholders for an accreditation self-study, and that TBL pedagogy has utility outside of the classroom setting. Full article
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Article
Teaching Pharmacovigilance to Healthcare Students: Identifying Gaps and Opportunities for Improvement
Pharmacy 2021, 9(3), 147; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy9030147 - 26 Aug 2021
Viewed by 753
Abstract
The literature indicates that the limited pharmacovigilance knowledge demonstrated by healthcare professionals is the main reason for the underreporting of adverse drug reactions. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to investigate pharmacy, dental and medical students’ knowledge and attitudes to pharmacovigilance [...] Read more.
The literature indicates that the limited pharmacovigilance knowledge demonstrated by healthcare professionals is the main reason for the underreporting of adverse drug reactions. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to investigate pharmacy, dental and medical students’ knowledge and attitudes to pharmacovigilance and pharmacovigilance education. The cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted at the University of Split School of Medicine in November 2020. In total, 350 students participated in the study. The results have shown that pharmacy students showed a significantly higher knowledge score compared to dental and medical students (P < 0.001). In total 92.2% of pharmacy, 21.8% of dental and 70.8% of medical students had knowledge of patients’ involvement in adverse drug reactions, reporting (P < 0.001). Interestingly, only 44.3% of all students knew that adverse drug reactions could be reported using a mobile application. Moreover, significantly more pharmacy students (74.4%) were aware of the adverse drug reactions monitoring center in Croatia, with 47.5% of dental and 39.2% of medical students correctly identifying it (P < 0.001). The results showed that most students felt that pharmacovigilance was not adequately covered in curricula; therefore, there is a great need to increase the knowledge and awareness of pharmacovigilance among students aspiring to become future healthcare professionals, and improve their reporting practice in clinical future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pharmacy Education and Student/Practitioner Training)
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Review
Clinical Pharmacy in Psychiatry: Towards Promoting Clinical Expertise in Psychopharmacology
Pharmacy 2021, 9(3), 146; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy9030146 - 21 Aug 2021
Viewed by 814
Abstract
Although clinical pharmacy is a discipline that emerged in the 1960s, the question of precisely how pharmacists can play a role in therapeutic optimization remains unanswered. In the field of mental health, psychiatric pharmacists are increasingly involved in medication reconciliation and therapeutic patient [...] Read more.
Although clinical pharmacy is a discipline that emerged in the 1960s, the question of precisely how pharmacists can play a role in therapeutic optimization remains unanswered. In the field of mental health, psychiatric pharmacists are increasingly involved in medication reconciliation and therapeutic patient education (or psychoeducation) to improve medication management and enhance medication adherence, respectively. However, psychiatric pharmacists must now assume a growing role in team-based models of care and engage in shared expertise in psychopharmacology in order to truly invest in therapeutic optimization of psychotropics. The increased skills in psychopharmacology and expertise in psychotherapeutic drug monitoring can contribute to future strengthening of the partnership between psychiatrists and psychiatric pharmacists. We propose a narrative review of the literature in order to show the relevance of a clinical pharmacist specializing in psychiatry. With this in mind, herein we will address: (i) briefly, the areas considered the basis of the deployment of clinical pharmacy in mental health, with medication reconciliation, therapeutic education of the patient, as well as the growing involvement of clinical pharmacists in the multidisciplinary reflection on pharmacotherapeutic decisions; (ii) in more depth, we present data concerning the use of therapeutic drug monitoring and shared expertise in psychopharmacology between psychiatric pharmacists and psychiatrists. These last two points are currently in full development in France through the deployment of Resource and Expertise Centers in PsychoPharmacology (CREPP in French). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pharmacy Practice and Practice-Based Research)
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Article
Pharmacist-Prescribed Hormonal Contraception: Does Didactic Hormonal Contraception Education Affect Student Pharmacist Perceptions of This Professional Activity?
Pharmacy 2021, 9(3), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy9030145 - 20 Aug 2021
Viewed by 753
Abstract
Since 2014, select states have allowed pharmacists to prescribe hormonal contraception (HC). This study describes student pharmacists’ perceptions of a pharmacist’s scope of practice, education, and interest, and identifies differences between students who have completed didactic HC content in their professional curriculum versus [...] Read more.
Since 2014, select states have allowed pharmacists to prescribe hormonal contraception (HC). This study describes student pharmacists’ perceptions of a pharmacist’s scope of practice, education, and interest, and identifies differences between students who have completed didactic HC content in their professional curriculum versus those who have not. A voluntary online survey was emailed to all students in three Georgia pharmacy schools. Descriptive statistics were reported. Likert square responses were dichotomized, and Chi square testing identified differences between groups. A total of 1256 students were invited, 35% completed the survey, of those 68% had received HC didactic content in their curriculum. Regardless of HC education, most students “agree” or “strongly agree” that pharmacists are adequately educated to prescribe HC (92% vs. 86%, p = 0.05) and prescribing HC is within the pharmacist’s scope of practice (89% vs. 84%, p = 0.12). Although not currently permitted in Georgia, most are interested in prescribing (97% vs. 96%, p = 0.5). Of the students who have received HC didactic content, 87% felt “moderately”, “well”, or “extremely well-educated” regarding HC prescribing clinical skills. Regardless of didactic training, pharmacy students believe pharmacists are prepared to prescribe HC and support pharmacist-prescribed HC as a part of their future professional scope of practice. Full article
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Article
Use of Face-to-Face Assessment Methods in E-Learning—An Example of an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) Test
Pharmacy 2021, 9(3), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy9030144 - 20 Aug 2021
Viewed by 718
Abstract
The spread of COVID-19 and social-distancing rules have increased the need for alternative learning environments with a focus on e-learning platforms. The objective of this study was to assess whether and to what extent the transition from traditional learning and assessment environment to [...] Read more.
The spread of COVID-19 and social-distancing rules have increased the need for alternative learning environments with a focus on e-learning platforms. The objective of this study was to assess whether and to what extent the transition from traditional learning and assessment environment to the e-setting impacts the knowledge and skills acquired by students and their satisfaction with new e-solutions of taking the OSCE test. The study compared the results of three face-to-face (2018–2019) and one electronically conducted (2021) OSCE tests, as well as students’ feedback on the content and organization of the tests. For data analysis the one-way ANOVA test and post hoc multiple comparisons were used. The results demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of and students’ satisfaction with OSCE tests in the Zoom environment. However, more focus on communication techniques is required in a remote communication environment to better cover all patient health-related and drug communication aspects. There were identified differences between undergraduate students and practicing assistant pharmacists in assessing patients’ health problems and providing corresponding counseling. This result points to the need to implement the continuous development of patient-centered counseling techniques in the lifelong learning of pharmacists and the need to use innovative digital solutions, if applicable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue E-learning in Pharmacy Education)
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Article
Smoking Cessation at the Community Pharmacy: Determinants of Success from a Real-Life Practice
Pharmacy 2021, 9(3), 143; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy9030143 - 19 Aug 2021
Viewed by 816
Abstract
The objectives of this study are to report the contribution of pharmacists to smoking cessation and study the determinants of smoking cessation success in eight pharmacies in Portugal (south) between 2009 and 2019. A real-life study was conducted with a sample of smokers [...] Read more.
The objectives of this study are to report the contribution of pharmacists to smoking cessation and study the determinants of smoking cessation success in eight pharmacies in Portugal (south) between 2009 and 2019. A real-life study was conducted with a sample of smokers who participated in pharmacist consultations. The sample included 135 smokers (average age of 47.9 ± 1.21 years), 79 (58.5%) of whom were male. In parallel with the motivation and behavioral approach, 116 (85.9%) smokers received pharmacological therapies: 108 (80.0%) were treated with nicotine replacement products and eight (5.9%) with non-nicotine medications. The interventions resulted in 70 (51.9%) smokers complying with the quit day, of whom 59 (43.7%) were smoking-abstinent at the end of the first month. Success rates were reduced to 32.6%, 28.1%, and 20.7% at the end of the 3rd, 6th, and 12th months, respectively. Smoking cessation was more successful for the participants receiving pharmacological therapies (Fisher’s exact test, p < 0.001) and those who participated in more pharmacist consultations (χ2 = 59.994, p < 0.001) and more telephone sessions (χ2 = 17.845, p < 0.001). Pharmacists can contribute significantly to the promotion of smoking cessation. Smokers who are more thoroughly followed up by pharmacists showed increased success rates when compared with smokers having fewer sessions with pharmacists. Full article
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Article
Exploring Pharmacists’ Roles during the 2019–2020 Australian Black Summer Bushfires
Pharmacy 2021, 9(3), 142; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy9030142 - 19 Aug 2021
Viewed by 787
Abstract
Background: Australians are no strangers to sudden natural disasters, such as bushfires. The effects of a natural disaster can devastate local communities and health care services. Currently, limited research has explored the role of the pharmacist during a natural disaster. This study explores [...] Read more.
Background: Australians are no strangers to sudden natural disasters, such as bushfires. The effects of a natural disaster can devastate local communities and health care services. Currently, limited research has explored the role of the pharmacist during a natural disaster. This study explores the role of the Australian pharmacist during the 2019/2020 Black Summer Bushfires. Methods: Semi-structured phone interviews were conducted with ten community pharmacists who worked through the Black Summer Bushfires whose daily tasks and work environment were directly affected by the bushfires. Thematic analysis using NVivo®, a qualitative data analysis software was conducted. Results: Analysis of the transcripts generated six main themes: collaboration; trauma and mental health; power and communication; acute presentations; triaging and emergency prescribing. Pharmacists worked in close collaboration with doctors and members of the local community. They provided triaging services, timely health advice about chronic health problems, and managed acute issues, including wound and burn management and mental health support in traumatic conditions, sometimes without power and communication amenities. The challenges presented to pharmacists during the bushfires warranted creative and flexible approaches at times. Conclusion: This study highlights the need for mental health support and training for pharmacists, provisional prescribing privileges, and a clearer set of contingency regulations and legislation related to emergencies and natural disasters. Further research is warranted to gain greater insight into the roles undertaken by Australian pharmacists during natural disasters and their autonomy in decision making processes during such times. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacists as Providers of Care)
Article
Influence of Probiotics on the Development of Clostridioides difficile Infection in Patients Receiving Fluoroquinolones
Pharmacy 2021, 9(3), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy9030141 - 18 Aug 2021
Viewed by 816
Abstract
Fluoroquinolones are associated with an increased risk of Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI). Probiotic supplementation has been shown to reduce the risk of antibiotic-associated diarrhea with variable effects on CDI. The objective of this study was to evaluate receipt of probiotics on development of [...] Read more.
Fluoroquinolones are associated with an increased risk of Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI). Probiotic supplementation has been shown to reduce the risk of antibiotic-associated diarrhea with variable effects on CDI. The objective of this study was to evaluate receipt of probiotics on development of primary CDI among hospitalized patients receiving fluoroquinolones. A retrospective cohort was evaluated that consisted of two groups of 100 patients each, admitted August 2018 through August 2020 that received ≥3 days of definitive monotherapy with levofloxacin or ciprofloxacin within 72 h of admission. Primary outcome was incidence of CDI. Secondary outcomes included rates of C. difficile diagnostic stool testing, additional infectious diagnostic testing, and non-CDI related gastrointestinal side effects. Patients on fluoroquinolones who received probiotics had a non-statistically significantly lower incidence in overall cases of CDI compared to those who did not receive probiotics (0% vs. 3%, p = 0.246). Patients who received probiotics had statistically significantly fewer C. difficile diagnostic stool tests performed (4% vs. 16%, p = 0.005) and fewer additional infectious diagnostic testing performed (4% vs. 10%, p = 0.096), respectively. Further research is warranted to optimize and standardize probiotic prescribing in high-risk patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Antimicrobial Use in Hospitalized Patients)
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Article
Evaluation of a Novel Pharmacist-Delivered Adherence Improvement Service via Telehealth
Pharmacy 2021, 9(3), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy9030140 - 17 Aug 2021
Viewed by 720
Abstract
Nearly half of all patients prescribed a chronic medication do not adhere to their regimen. Conversion from a 30- to 90-day medication refill is associated with improved adherence. The objective of the study was to assess the change in proportion of days covered [...] Read more.
Nearly half of all patients prescribed a chronic medication do not adhere to their regimen. Conversion from a 30- to 90-day medication refill is associated with improved adherence. The objective of the study was to assess the change in proportion of days covered (PDC) in those who converted to a 90-day fill and those who did not after a telehealth pharmacist-delivered, medication adherence intervention. This retrospective review involved data collected between May and December 2018. Patients with ≤85% baseline PDC rates were targeted. One group included patients who converted to a 90-day fill after the pharmacist intervention. The comparator group did not convert to a 90-day fill. Differences in median end-of-year (EOY) PDC rates for each medication class were compared between groups. An alpha level of 0.05 was set a priori. Overall, 237 patients converted to a 90-day fill and 501 did not. There was no significant difference in age, sex, and total number of drugs per patient. A Mann–Whitney U test revealed statistically significant improvements in median EOY PDC in the group that converted to a 90-day fill (+9% vs. −3%, p < 0.001). Pharmacist-delivered telehealth interventions were associated with improved PDC rates in those who converted to a 90-day fill. Full article
Editorial
Preface: The Role of Pharmacists in Palliative and End of Life Care
Pharmacy 2021, 9(3), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy9030139 - 17 Aug 2021
Viewed by 737
Abstract
In this Special Issue exploring the role of pharmacists in palliative and end of life care, we sought articles that would shed light on the ways in which pharmacists could impact end of life care [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Pharmacists in Palliative and End of Life Care)
Article
Treatment of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria after Implementation of an Inpatient Urine Culture Algorithm in the Electronic Medical Record
Pharmacy 2021, 9(3), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy9030138 - 11 Aug 2021
Viewed by 776
Abstract
Ordering urine cultures in patients without pyuria is associated with the inappropriate treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB). In 2015, our institution implemented recommendations based on practice guidelines for the management of ASB and revised the urine culture ordering process to limit cultures in [...] Read more.
Ordering urine cultures in patients without pyuria is associated with the inappropriate treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB). In 2015, our institution implemented recommendations based on practice guidelines for the management of ASB and revised the urine culture ordering process to limit cultures in immunocompetent patients without pyuria. The purpose of this study was to determine how the treatment of ASB has changed over time since altering the urine culture ordering process to reduce unnecessary cultures at an academic medical center. A quasi-experimental study was conducted for inpatients with urine cultures from January to March of 2014, 2015, 2016 and 2020. The primary outcome was the antibiotic treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria for over 24 h. The secondary outcomes were the total days of antibiotic therapy, type of antibiotic prescribed and overall urine culture rates at the hospital. A total of 200 inpatients with ASB were included, 50 at random from each year. In both 2014 and 2015, 70% of the patients with ASB received antibiotic treatment. Antibiotics were prescribed to 68% and 54% of patients with ASB in 2016 and 2020, respectively. The average duration of therapy decreased from 5.12 days in 2014 to 3.46 days in 2020. Although the urine cultures were reduced, there was no immediate impact in the prescribing rates for patients with ASB after implementing this institutional guidance and an altered urine culture ordering process. Over time, there was an observed improvement in prescribing and the total days of antibiotic therapy. This could be attributed to increased familiarity with the guidelines, culture ordering practices or improved documentation. Based on these findings, additional provider education is needed to reinforce the guideline recommendations on the management of ASB. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Antimicrobial Use in Hospitalized Patients)
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Article
EMDIA Case Series—Effective Medication Therapy Management (MTM) for Diabetes Type 2 Patients—A Proof of Concept Study
Pharmacy 2021, 9(3), 137; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy9030137 - 09 Aug 2021
Viewed by 820
Abstract
Background: A 2016 meta-analysis of pharmaceutical care for patients with diabetes mellitus showed that the following four components were most effective: (a) individual goal setting, (b) sending feedback to the physician, (c) reviewing the medication, and (d) reviewing blood glucose measurements. Methods: [...] Read more.
Background: A 2016 meta-analysis of pharmaceutical care for patients with diabetes mellitus showed that the following four components were most effective: (a) individual goal setting, (b) sending feedback to the physician, (c) reviewing the medication, and (d) reviewing blood glucose measurements. Methods: To formulate a hypothesis regarding the effect of these four pharmaceutical care components on glycemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus and the feasibility of these components in practice. Ten patients with type 2 diabetes were included in the case series and received medication therapy management over four months. Results: The four care components were feasible in everyday practice and could be implemented within one patient visit. The average visits were 49 and 28 min at the beginning and end of the study, respectively. The glycated hemoglobin values did not change over the study period, though the fasting blood glucose decreased from 142 to 120 mg/dl, and the number of unsolved drug-related problems decreased from 6.9 to 1.9 per patient by the study end. Conclusions: This case series supports the hypothesis that community pharmacists can implement structured pharmaceutical care in everyday pharmacy practice for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pharmacy Practice and Practice-Based Research)
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Article
Use of a Novel Clinical Decision Support Tool for Pharmacist-Led Antimicrobial Stewardship in Patients with Normal Procalcitonin
Pharmacy 2021, 9(3), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy9030136 - 06 Aug 2021
Viewed by 778
Abstract
In 2018, a clinical decision support (CDS) tool was implemented as part of a “daily checklist” for frontline pharmacists to review patients on antibiotics with procalcitonin (PCT) <0.25 mcg/L. This study used a retrospective cohort design to assess change in antibiotic use from [...] Read more.
In 2018, a clinical decision support (CDS) tool was implemented as part of a “daily checklist” for frontline pharmacists to review patients on antibiotics with procalcitonin (PCT) <0.25 mcg/L. This study used a retrospective cohort design to assess change in antibiotic use from pharmacist interventions after this PCT alert in patients on antibiotics for lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI). The secondary outcome was antibiotic days of therapy (DOT), with a subgroup analysis examining antibiotic use and the length of stay (LOS) in patients with a pharmacist intervention. From 1/2019 to 11/2019, there were 165 alerts in 116 unique patients on antibiotics for LRTI. Pharmacists attempted interventions after 34 (20.6%) of these alerts, with narrowing spectrum or converting to oral being the most common interventions. Pharmacist interventions prevented 125 DOT in the hospital. Vancomycin was the most commonly discontinued antibiotic with an 85.3% use reduction in patients with interventions compared to a 27.4% discontinuation in patients without documented intervention (p = 0.0156). The LOS was similar in both groups (median 6.4 days vs. 7 days, p = 0.81). In conclusion, interventions driven by a CDS tool for pharmacist-driven antimicrobial stewardship in patients with a normal PCT resulted in fewer DOT and significantly higher rates of vancomycin discontinuation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Antimicrobial Use in Hospitalized Patients)
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Concept Paper
Creation of a Pharmacy Student Longitudinal Rotation to Expand the Scope of an Antimicrobial Stewardship Program
Pharmacy 2021, 9(3), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy9030135 - 05 Aug 2021
Viewed by 808
Abstract
Allergy assessments and penicillin skin testing have emerged as a vital intervention for Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs (ASPs). Investment and involvement in such programs by ASPs, however, are often limited due to resources, time, and personnel constraints. Harnessing an underutilized resource, 4th-year advanced pharmacy [...] Read more.
Allergy assessments and penicillin skin testing have emerged as a vital intervention for Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs (ASPs). Investment and involvement in such programs by ASPs, however, are often limited due to resources, time, and personnel constraints. Harnessing an underutilized resource, 4th-year advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) students, allows for expanded ASP involvement and scope of practice. We aim to outline and provide insight on how 4th-year APPE students serve as an asset to an ASP. Through our novel longitudinal rotation experience, APPE students complete penicillin allergy assessments, patient education, and work alongside a clinical pharmacist to refer patients for penicillin skin testing if appropriate. Students also achieve many of the education standards required by the Accreditation Counsel for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) for graduation within the Doctor of Pharmacy degree while developing a strong foundation in antimicrobial stewardship and gaining invaluable knowledge for their future. The addition of APPE pharmacy students to our ASP has also enabled our program to achieve its goals and expand involvement and reach within our facility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Antimicrobial Use in Hospitalized Patients)
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Article
Concomitant Cannabis Misuse and Associations with Depression, Pain and Substance Misuse among Patients Prescribed Opioids
Pharmacy 2021, 9(3), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy9030134 - 04 Aug 2021
Viewed by 936
Abstract
Background: Cannabis use is common among individuals with pain who are prescribed opioids, occurring in approximately 10% of this population. This study aims to explore the relationship between non-medical cannabis use and other health risks among individuals filling opioids at community pharmacies. Methods: [...] Read more.
Background: Cannabis use is common among individuals with pain who are prescribed opioids, occurring in approximately 10% of this population. This study aims to explore the relationship between non-medical cannabis use and other health risks among individuals filling opioids at community pharmacies. Methods: This study was an exploratory secondary data analysis of a National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN)-sponsored study, Validation of a Community Pharmacy-Based Prescription Drug Monitoring Program Risk Screening, examining the relationship between risky cannabis use and depressive symptoms, pain, overdose, and other substance misuse among individuals filling opioid prescriptions in community pharmacies (N = 1440). Results: Participants reporting moderate- to high-risk compared to low-risk cannabis use were more likely to report depressive symptoms (adjusted OR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.11–2.56), history of overdose (adjusted OR = 2.15, 95% CI = 1.34–3.44), and moderate- to high-risk use of alcohol (adjusted OR = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.28–3.45), opioids (adjusted OR = 2.50, 95% CI = 1.67–3.76), sedatives (adjusted OR = 2.58, 95% CI = 1.72–3.86), stimulants (adjusted OR = 4.79, 95% CI = 2.83–8.01), and tobacco (adjusted OR = 3.60, 95% CI = 2.47–5.24). Conclusions: Community pharmacies may be valuable sites for identifying, studying, and intervening with substance use problems. Full article
Communication
Potential Excess Intravenous Antibiotic Therapy in the Setting of Gram-Negative Bacteremia
Pharmacy 2021, 9(3), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy9030133 - 03 Aug 2021
Viewed by 909
Abstract
(1) Background: Excessive intravenous therapy (EIV) is associated with negative consequences, but guidelines are unclear about when switching to oral therapy is appropriate. (2) Methods: This cohort included patients aged ≥18 years receiving ≥48 h of antimicrobial therapy for bacteremia due to Escherichia [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Excessive intravenous therapy (EIV) is associated with negative consequences, but guidelines are unclear about when switching to oral therapy is appropriate. (2) Methods: This cohort included patients aged ≥18 years receiving ≥48 h of antimicrobial therapy for bacteremia due to Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Acinetobacter, or Stenotrophomonas maltophilia from 1/01/2008–8/31/2011. Patients with a polymicrobial infection or recurrent bacteremia were excluded. Potential EIV (PEIV) was defined as days of intravenous antibiotic therapy beyond having a normal WBC count for 24 h and being afebrile for 48 h until discharge or death. (3) Results: Sixty-nine percent of patients had PEIV. Patients who received PEIV were more likely to receive intravenous therapy until discharge (46 vs. 16%, p < 0.001). Receipt of PEIV was associated with a longer mean time to receiving oral antimicrobials (8.7 vs. 3 days, p < 0.001). The only factors that impacted EIV days in the multivariable linear regression model were the source of infection (urinary tract) (coefficient −1.54, 95%CI −2.82 to −0.26) and Pitt bacteremia score (coefficient 0.51, 95%CI 0.10 to 0.92). (4) Conclusions: PEIV is common in inpatients with Gram-negative bacteremia. Clinicians should look to avoid PEIV in the inpatient setting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Antimicrobial Use in Hospitalized Patients)
Communication
Future Pharmacists’ Opinions on the Facilitation of Self-Care with Over-the-Counter Products and Whether This Should Remain a Core Role
Pharmacy 2021, 9(3), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy9030132 - 31 Jul 2021
Viewed by 886
Abstract
Background: The aim was to investigate pharmacy students’ views on the role of the pharmacist in facilitating self-care with over-the-counter (OTC) medicines, particularly in light of new roles, and establish personal practice. Methods: Final year pharmacy students at Queen’s University Belfast were invited [...] Read more.
Background: The aim was to investigate pharmacy students’ views on the role of the pharmacist in facilitating self-care with over-the-counter (OTC) medicines, particularly in light of new roles, and establish personal practice. Methods: Final year pharmacy students at Queen’s University Belfast were invited to participate. Data were collected via a pre-piloted questionnaire, distributed at a compulsory class (only non-identifiable data were requested). Descriptive statistics were performed, and non-parametric tests were employed for inferential statistical analysis (responses by gender). Results: The response rate was 87.6% (78/89); 34.6% (27/78) males and 65.4% (51/78) females. Over a third [34.6% (27/78)] reported using OTC medicines about once a month. All appreciated the importance of an evidence-based approach to optimize patient care. Most [(96.2% (75/78)] deemed OTC consultations should remain a fundamental responsibility of pharmacists and 69.2% (54/78) thought OTC consultations have the potential to be as complex as independent pharmacist prescribing. Females felt more confident recommending OTC emergency contraception than males (p = 0.002 for levonorgestrel and p = 0.011 for ulipristal acetate). Many [61.5% (48/78)] considered more medicines should not be deregulated from prescription-only status. Conclusions: Data from this single institution suggests that enabling self-medication is an important part of practice but there were confidence issues around deregulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pharmacy Education and Student/Practitioner Training)
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Article
Pharmacists’ Perceptions and Drivers of Immunization Practices for COVID-19 Vaccines: Results of a Nationwide Survey Prior to COVID-19 Vaccine Emergency Use Authorization
Pharmacy 2021, 9(3), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy9030131 - 26 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1162
Abstract
Background: Pharmacists play a vital role in recommending and providing vaccines to improve public health and are on the front line of mass immunization efforts. Aim: The objective of this study is to evaluate pharmacists’ perceptions on COVID-19 vaccines prior to emergency use [...] Read more.
Background: Pharmacists play a vital role in recommending and providing vaccines to improve public health and are on the front line of mass immunization efforts. Aim: The objective of this study is to evaluate pharmacists’ perceptions on COVID-19 vaccines prior to emergency use authorization (EUA) amid a global pandemic. Methods: A voluntary, anonymous, cross-sectional survey was conducted between September and November 2020. Survey respondents included a convenience sample of licensed pharmacists in the United States. The primary outcomes were pharmacists’ willingness to receive and recommend hypothetical COVID-19 vaccines. Covariates assessed in the survey included COVID-19 exposure or personal experience, primary pharmacy practice setting, background in training, geographic region, and prioritization of clinical data. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: This study surveyed 763 pharmacists and results from 632 participants were included in final analysis. Overall, 67.1% of the pharmacists were willing to receive a COVID-19 vaccine and 63.4% of the pharmacists were willing to recommend a COVID-19 vaccine at ≤1 year from the time of vaccine approval. At >1 year after vaccine approval, 78% of the pharmacists were willing to receive a COVID-19 vaccine and 81.2% of the pharmacists were willing to recommend a COVID-19 vaccine. Conclusions: Survey findings suggest that, while a majority of pharmacists surveyed indicate acceptance of hypothetical COVID-19 vaccines, there remains to be hesitancy among pharmacists to receive or recommend vaccination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pharmacy Practice and Practice-Based Research)
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Review
Impact of Oncology Pharmacists on the Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices of Clinicians to Enhance Patient Engagement of Self-Administered Oral Oncolytics
Pharmacy 2021, 9(3), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy9030130 - 23 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1131
Abstract
Oncology clinical pharmacists are uniquely positioned to make interventions to impact the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of clinicians as well as patient activation and engagement. To accomplish this goal, pharmacists can target health system-related, provider-related, and patient-related factors to enhance patient-centered care and [...] Read more.
Oncology clinical pharmacists are uniquely positioned to make interventions to impact the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of clinicians as well as patient activation and engagement. To accomplish this goal, pharmacists can target health system-related, provider-related, and patient-related factors to enhance patient-centered care and drive behavioral health changes. Interventions that pharmacists must tackle include educating team members and patients on the medication acquisition process, communicating urgency of treatment, optimizing workflows, facilitating guideline recommendations, preventing, and managing treatment toxicities, and promoting patient self-advocacy through education and shared decision-making. As crucial members of the healthcare team, oncology pharmacists can simplify highly complex treatment regimens to facilitate and optimize patients’ ownership of their care. This narrative review will focus on the example of venetoclax treatment in acute myeloid leukemia to demonstrate the impact that pharmacists provide that leads to behavioral change of patients and clinicians. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacist-Based Interventions for Health Behavior Change)
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Article
Investigating Community Pharmacy Take Home Naloxone Dispensing during COVID-19: The Impact of One Public Health Crisis on Another
Pharmacy 2021, 9(3), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy9030129 - 23 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1286
Abstract
A recent report found that the number of opioid-related deaths in Ontario in the first 15 weeks of the COVID-19 pandemic was 38.2% higher than in the 15 weeks before the pandemic. Our study sought to determine if pharmacy professionals self-reported an increase [...] Read more.
A recent report found that the number of opioid-related deaths in Ontario in the first 15 weeks of the COVID-19 pandemic was 38.2% higher than in the 15 weeks before the pandemic. Our study sought to determine if pharmacy professionals self-reported an increase or decrease in naloxone provision due to the pandemic and to identify adjustments made by pharmacy professionals to dispense naloxone during the pandemic. A total of 231 Ontario community pharmacy professionals completed an online survey. Pharmacy professionals’ barriers, facilitators, and comfort level with dispensing naloxone before and during the pandemic were identified. The sample consisted of mostly pharmacists (99.1%). Over half (51.1%) reported no change in naloxone dispensing, while 22.9% of respondents reported an increase and 24.7% a decrease. The most common adjustments made during the pandemic were training patients how to administer naloxone over video or phone, delivering naloxone kits, and pharmacy technicians offering naloxone at prescription intake. Over half (55%) of participants said the top barrier for dispensing was that patients did not request naloxone. Naloxone distribution through pharmacies could be further optimized to address the increased incidence of overdose deaths during the pandemic. Future research should investigate the reasons for changes in naloxone dispensing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacist Services Ⅱ)
Article
The Effect of Quality Indicators on Beliefs about Medicines Reuse: An Experimental Study
Pharmacy 2021, 9(3), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy9030128 - 21 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1001
Abstract
Background: A number of studies have examined beliefs about medicines reuse. Although the practice is prohibited in UK community pharmacy, it does take place elsewhere in the world where it relies on visual checks of returned medicines as an indicator of their quality. [...] Read more.
Background: A number of studies have examined beliefs about medicines reuse. Although the practice is prohibited in UK community pharmacy, it does take place elsewhere in the world where it relies on visual checks of returned medicines as an indicator of their quality. One proposal is to integrate sensor technology onto medication packaging as a marker of their quality instead. Our aim was to gauge people’s beliefs about medicines reuse, in an experiment, with or without sensor technology and with or without the promise of visual checks completed by a pharmacist, as experimental conditions, should the practice be sanctioned in the UK in the future. Methods: A between participant study was designed with two independent factors testing the hypothesis that sensors and visual checks would increase pro-medicines-reuse beliefs. A questionnaire was used to measure medicines reuse beliefs and collect qualitative comments. Results: Eighty-one participants took part. Attitudes toward medication offered for reuse, participants’ perceived social pressure to accept the medication, and their intention to take part in medicines reuse all increased with the presence of sensors on packaging and with the promise of pharmacist visual checking, with the former causing a greater increase than the latter, and the combination of both making the greatest increase. People’s qualitative comments explained their concerns about medicines reuse, validating the findings. The use of sensors on medication packaging warrants further investigation if regulators are to consider approving medicines reuse in the UK. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicines Reuse)
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Article
Effectiveness and Feasibility of Pharmacist-Driven Penicillin Allergy De-Labeling Pilot Program without Skin Testing or Oral Challenges
Pharmacy 2021, 9(3), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy9030127 - 20 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1203
Abstract
Documented penicillin allergies have been associated with an increased risk of adverse outcomes. The goal of this project was to assess the effectiveness and feasibility of a pharmacist-led penicillin allergy “de-labeling” process that does not involve labor-intensive skin testing or direct oral challenges. [...] Read more.
Documented penicillin allergies have been associated with an increased risk of adverse outcomes. The goal of this project was to assess the effectiveness and feasibility of a pharmacist-led penicillin allergy “de-labeling” process that does not involve labor-intensive skin testing or direct oral challenges. Adult patients with penicillin allergies were identified and interviewed by an infectious diseases pharmacy resident during a 3-month pilot period. Using an evidence-based standardized checklist, the pharmacist determined if an allergy qualified for de-labeling. In total, 66 patients were interviewed during the pilot period. The average time spent was 5.2 min per patient interviewed. Twelve patients (18%) met the criteria for de-labeling and consented to the removal of the allergy. Four patients (6%) met the criteria but declined removal of the allergy. In brief, 58.3% of patients (7/12) who were de-labeled and 50% of patients (2/4) who declined de-labeling but had their allergy updated to reflect intolerance were subsequently prescribed beta-lactam antibiotics and all (9/9, 100%) were able to tolerate these agents. A pharmacist-led penicillin allergy de-labeling process utilizing a standardized checklist is an effective and feasible method for removing penicillin allergies in patients without a true allergy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Antimicrobial Use in Hospitalized Patients)
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Article
Using the Multi-Theory Model (MTM) of Health Behavior Change to Explain the Correlates of Mammography Screening among Asian American Women
Pharmacy 2021, 9(3), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy9030126 - 15 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1295
Abstract
Globally, breast cancer is the most common malignancy affecting women. The incidence of breast cancer has been growing among Asian American women. Mammography is a screening procedure that provides early diagnosis for the timely treatment to reduce premature mortality due to breast cancer. [...] Read more.
Globally, breast cancer is the most common malignancy affecting women. The incidence of breast cancer has been growing among Asian American women. Mammography is a screening procedure that provides early diagnosis for the timely treatment to reduce premature mortality due to breast cancer. However, there are no national data available that summarize the rates of mammography screening among Asian American women. Some small-scale studies have reported low rates of mammography uptake among Asian American women. This cross-sectional study utilized the fourth-generation, multi-theory model (MTM) of health behavior change to explain the correlates of mammography screening among Asian American women between the ages of 45–54 years. A 44-item instrument was evaluated for face, content, and construct validity (using structural equation modeling) and reliability (Cronbach’s alpha) and administered electronically to a nationally representative sample of Asian American women (n = 374). The study found that Asian American women who have had received mammograms in the past 12 months as per recommendations, all three constructs of MTM, namely, participatory dialogue (β = 0.156, p < 0.05), behavioral confidence (β = 0.236, p < 0.001), and changes in the physical environment (β = 0.426, p < 0.001) were statistically significant and crucial in their decision to initiate getting a mammogram, accounting for a substantial 49.9% of the variance in the decision to seek mammography. The study also found that the MTM constructs of emotional transformation (β = 0.437, p < 0.001) and practice for change (β = 0.303, p < 0.001) were significant for maintaining the repeated behavior of getting annual mammograms and were responsible for 53.9% of the variance. This evidence-based study validates the use of MTM in designing and evaluating mammography screening promotion programs among Asian American women aged 45–54 years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancing the Knowledge and Application of Health Behavior Theories)
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