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ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf., Volume 5, Issue 11 (November 2016)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Four actors are involved in the use and creation of this protocol for the collection of VGI vector [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Assessing Essential Qualities of Urban Space with Emotional and Visual Data Based on GIS Technique
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(11), 218; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5110218 - 22 Nov 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2559
Abstract
Finding a method to evaluate people’s emotional responses to urban spaces in a valid and objective way is fundamentally important for urban design practices and related policy making. Analysis of the essential qualities of urban space could be made both more effective and [...] Read more.
Finding a method to evaluate people’s emotional responses to urban spaces in a valid and objective way is fundamentally important for urban design practices and related policy making. Analysis of the essential qualities of urban space could be made both more effective and more accurate using innovative information techniques that have become available in the era of big data. This study introduces an integrated method based on geographical information systems (GIS) and an emotion-tracking technique to quantify the relationship between people’s emotional responses and urban space. This method can evaluate the degree to which people’s emotional responses are influenced by multiple urban characteristics such as building shapes and textures, isovist parameters, visual entropy, and visual fractals. The results indicate that urban spaces may influence people’s emotional responses through both spatial sequence arrangements and shifting scenario sequences. Emotional data were collected with body sensors and GPS devices. Spatial clustering was detected to target effective sampling locations; then, isovists were generated to extract building textures. Logistic regression and a receiver operating characteristic analysis were used to determine the key isovist parameters and the probabilities that they influenced people’s emotion. Finally, based on the results, we make some suggestions for design professionals in the field of urban space optimization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geospatial Big Data and Transport)
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Open AccessArticle
Towards a Protocol for the Collection of VGI Vector Data
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(11), 217; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5110217 - 17 Nov 2016
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2864
Abstract
A protocol for the collection of vector data in Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) projects is proposed. VGI is a source of crowdsourced geographic data and information which is comparable, and in some cases better, than equivalent data from National Mapping Agencies (NMAs) and [...] Read more.
A protocol for the collection of vector data in Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) projects is proposed. VGI is a source of crowdsourced geographic data and information which is comparable, and in some cases better, than equivalent data from National Mapping Agencies (NMAs) and Commercial Surveying Companies (CSC). However, there are many differences in how NMAs and CSC collect, analyse, manage and distribute geographic information to that of VGI projects. NMAs and CSC make use of robust and standardised data collection protocols whilst VGI projects often provide guidelines rather than rigorous data collection specifications. The proposed protocol addresses formalising the collection and creation of vector data in VGI projects in three principal ways: by manual vectorisation; field survey; and reuse of existing data sources. This protocol is intended to be generic rather than being linked to any specific VGI project. We believe that this is the first protocol for VGI vector data collection that has been formally described in the literature. Consequently, this paper shall serve as a starting point for on-going development and refinement of the protocol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Volunteered Geographic Information)
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Open AccessArticle
Belgium through the Lens of Rail Travel Requests: Does Geography Still Matter?
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(11), 216; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5110216 - 15 Nov 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1502
Abstract
This paper uses on-line railway travel requests from the iRail schedule-finder application for assessing the suitability of that kind of big data for transportation planning and to examine the temporal and regional variations of the travel demand by train in Belgium. Travel requests [...] Read more.
This paper uses on-line railway travel requests from the iRail schedule-finder application for assessing the suitability of that kind of big data for transportation planning and to examine the temporal and regional variations of the travel demand by train in Belgium. Travel requests are collected over a two-month period and consist of origin-destination flows between stations operated by the Belgian national railway company in 2016. The Louvain method is applied to detect communities of tightly-connected stations. Results show the influence of both the urban and network structures on the spatial organization of the clusters. We also further discuss the implications of the observed temporal and regional variations of these clusters for transportation travel demand and planning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geospatial Big Data and Transport)
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Open AccessArticle
An Effective NoSQL-Based Vector Map Tile Management Approach
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(11), 215; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5110215 - 12 Nov 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2262
Abstract
Within a digital map service environment, the rapid growth of Spatial Big-Data is driving new requirements for effective mechanisms for massive online vector map tile processing. The emergence of Not Only SQL (NoSQL) databases has resulted in a new data storage and management [...] Read more.
Within a digital map service environment, the rapid growth of Spatial Big-Data is driving new requirements for effective mechanisms for massive online vector map tile processing. The emergence of Not Only SQL (NoSQL) databases has resulted in a new data storage and management model for scalable spatial data deployments and fast tracking. They better suit the scenario of high-volume, low-latency network map services than traditional standalone high-performance computer (HPC) or relational databases. In this paper, we propose a flexible storage framework that provides feasible methods for tiled map data parallel clipping and retrieval operations within a distributed NoSQL database environment. We illustrate the parallel vector tile generation and querying algorithms with the MapReduce programming model. Three different processing approaches, including local caching, distributed file storage, and the NoSQL-based method, are compared by analyzing the concurrent load and calculation time. An online geological vector tile map service prototype was developed to embed our processing framework in the China Geological Survey Information Grid. Experimental results show that our NoSQL-based parallel tile management framework can support applications that process huge volumes of vector tile data and improve performance of the tiled map service. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Web/Cloud Based Mapping and Geoinformation)
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Open AccessArticle
Efficient Geo-Computational Algorithms for Constructing Space-Time Prisms in Road Networks
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(11), 214; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5110214 - 12 Nov 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1751
Abstract
The Space-time prism (STP) is a key concept in time geography for analyzing human activity-travel behavior under various Space-time constraints. Most existing time-geographic studies use a straightforward algorithm to construct STPs in road networks by using two one-to-all shortest path searches. However, this [...] Read more.
The Space-time prism (STP) is a key concept in time geography for analyzing human activity-travel behavior under various Space-time constraints. Most existing time-geographic studies use a straightforward algorithm to construct STPs in road networks by using two one-to-all shortest path searches. However, this straightforward algorithm can introduce considerable computational overhead, given the fact that accessible links in a STP are generally a small portion of the whole network. To address this issue, an efficient geo-computational algorithm, called NTP-A*, is proposed. The proposed NTP-A* algorithm employs the A* and branch-and-bound techniques to discard inaccessible links during two shortest path searches, and thereby improves the STP construction performance. Comprehensive computational experiments are carried out to demonstrate the computational advantage of the proposed algorithm. Several implementation techniques, including the label-correcting technique and the hybrid link-node labeling technique, are discussed and analyzed. Experimental results show that the proposed NTP-A* algorithm can significantly improve STP construction performance in large-scale road networks by a factor of 100, compared with existing algorithms. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Morphological PDEs on Graphs for Image Processing on Surfaces and Point Clouds
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(11), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5110213 - 12 Nov 2016
Viewed by 1339
Abstract
Partial Differential Equations (PDEs)-based morphology offers a wide range of continuous operators to address various image processing problems. Most of these operators are formulated as Hamilton–Jacobi equations or curve evolution level set and morphological flows. In our previous works, we have proposed a [...] Read more.
Partial Differential Equations (PDEs)-based morphology offers a wide range of continuous operators to address various image processing problems. Most of these operators are formulated as Hamilton–Jacobi equations or curve evolution level set and morphological flows. In our previous works, we have proposed a simple method to solve PDEs on point clouds using the framework of PdEs (Partial difference Equations) on graphs. In this paper, we propose to apply a large class of morphological-based operators on graphs for processing raw 3D point clouds and extend their applications for the processing of colored point clouds of geo-informatics 3D data. Through illustrations, we show that this simple framework can be used in the resolution of many applications for geo-informatics purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mathematical Morphology in Geoinformatics)
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Open AccessArticle
Generating Orthorectified Multi-Perspective 2.5D Maps to Facilitate Web GIS-Based Visualization and Exploitation of Massive 3D City Models
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(11), 212; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5110212 - 11 Nov 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2318
Abstract
2.5D map is a convenient and efficient approach to exploiting a massive three-dimensional (3D) city model in web GIS. With the rapid development of oblique airborne photogrammetry and photo-based 3D reconstruction, 3D city models are becoming more and more accessible. 3D Geographic Information [...] Read more.
2.5D map is a convenient and efficient approach to exploiting a massive three-dimensional (3D) city model in web GIS. With the rapid development of oblique airborne photogrammetry and photo-based 3D reconstruction, 3D city models are becoming more and more accessible. 3D Geographic Information System (GIS) can support the interactive visualization of massive 3D city models on various platforms and devices. However, the value and accessibility of existing 3D city models can be augmented by integrating them into web-based two-dimensional (2D) GIS applications. In this paper, we present a step-by-step workflow for generating orthorectified oblique images (2.5D maps) from massive 3D city models. The proposed framework can produce 2.5D maps from an arbitrary perspective, defined by the elevation angle and azimuth angle of a virtual orthographic camera. We demonstrate how 2.5D maps can benefit web-based visualization and exploitation of massive 3D city models. We conclude that a 2.5D map is a compact data representation optimized for web data streaming of 3D city models and that geometric analysis of buildings can be effectively conducted on 2.5D maps. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Web/Cloud Based Mapping and Geoinformation)
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Open AccessArticle
Spatial Air Index Based on Largest Empty Rectangles for Non-Flat Wireless Broadcast in Pervasive Computing
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(11), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5110211 - 11 Nov 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1278
Abstract
In pervasive computing, location-based services (LBSs) are valuable for mobile clients based on their current locations. LBSs use spatial window queries to enable useful applications for mobile clients. Based on skewed access patterns of mobile clients, non-flat wireless broadcast has been shown to [...] Read more.
In pervasive computing, location-based services (LBSs) are valuable for mobile clients based on their current locations. LBSs use spatial window queries to enable useful applications for mobile clients. Based on skewed access patterns of mobile clients, non-flat wireless broadcast has been shown to efficiently disseminate spatial objects to mobile clients. In this paper, we consider a scenario in which spatial objects are broadcast to mobile clients over a wireless channel in a non-flat broadcast manner to process window queries. For such a scenario, we propose an efficient spatial air index method to handle window query access in non-flat wireless broadcast environments. The concept of largest empty rectangles is used to avoid unnecessary examination of the broadcast content, thus reducing the processing time for window queries. Simulation results show that the proposed spatial air index method outperforms the existing methods under various settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Geo-Information Technologies for Anticipatory Computing)
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Attraction Features of Tourism Destinations in a Mega-City Based on Check-in Data Mining—A Case Study of Shenzhen, China
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(11), 210; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5110210 - 10 Nov 2016
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2075
Abstract
Location-based service information, provided by social networks, provides new data sources and perspectives to research tourism activities, especially in highly populated mega-cities. Based on three years (2012–2014) of approximately 340,000 check-in records collected from Sina micro-blog at 86 tourist attractions in Shenzhen, a [...] Read more.
Location-based service information, provided by social networks, provides new data sources and perspectives to research tourism activities, especially in highly populated mega-cities. Based on three years (2012–2014) of approximately 340,000 check-in records collected from Sina micro-blog at 86 tourist attractions in Shenzhen, a first-tier city in southern China, we conducted a comprehensive study of the attraction features involving different aspects, such as tourist source, duration of stay, check-in activity index, and attraction correlation degree. The results showed that (1) theme parks established in the early 1990s were the most popular tourist attractions in Shenzhen, but a negative trend was detected in the check-in population; (2) compared with check-in times from surrounding activities and the kernel density of tourists, most destinations in Shenzhen showed a lack of attraction, failing to make the most of their geographic accessibility; and (3) the homogeneity and inconvenient traffic conditions of major tourist destinations leading to the construction of a tourism tour chain has become a challenge. The results of this study demonstrate the potential of big-data mining and provide valuable insights into tourism market design and management in mega-cities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spatiotemporal Computing for Sustainable Ecosystem)
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Open AccessArticle
Radio Astronomy Demonstrator: Assessment of the Appropriate Sites through a GIS Open Source Application
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(11), 209; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5110209 - 10 Nov 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1532
Abstract
In the framework of Portuguese radio astronomical capacitation towards participation in the Square Kilometer Array (SKA) project, a site was selected for radio astronomical testing purposes and the development of a radio astronomical infrastructure. The site is within Herdade da Contenda (HC), a [...] Read more.
In the framework of Portuguese radio astronomical capacitation towards participation in the Square Kilometer Array (SKA) project, a site was selected for radio astronomical testing purposes and the development of a radio astronomical infrastructure. The site is within Herdade da Contenda (HC), a large national forest perimeter, located in Alentejo (Portugal). In order to minimize the impacts in the ecosystem and landscape, an application based on the Geographic Information System (GIS) open source environment was created, the HC Environmental Integrated Management System. This application combines several functionalities and menus with different characterization methods allowing the creation of multiple maps regarding the HC characteristics, such as Digital Elevation Model (DEM), Land Use Land Cover (LULC), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), groundwater vulnerability, erosion risk, flood risk and forest fire risk. Other geographical information can be added if necessary (human heritage visualization and fauna and flora). A decision making support tool was also developed. It incorporates an algorithm running through a series of assigned weights and eliminatory factors to find the locations best suited for the infrastructure with minimal impact to the local ecosystem. In order to test the application and the decision making tool, several maps were used as input in order to decide which sites are more adequate. The application developed can be adopted for other protected or natural areas. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Adaptive Density-Based Time Series Clustering Algorithm: A Case Study on Rainfall Patterns
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(11), 205; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5110205 - 10 Nov 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2160
Abstract
Current time series clustering algorithms fail to effectively mine clustering distribution characteristics of time series data without sufficient prior knowledge. Furthermore, these algorithms fail to simultaneously consider the spatial attributes, non-spatial time series attribute values, and non-spatial time series attribute trends. This paper [...] Read more.
Current time series clustering algorithms fail to effectively mine clustering distribution characteristics of time series data without sufficient prior knowledge. Furthermore, these algorithms fail to simultaneously consider the spatial attributes, non-spatial time series attribute values, and non-spatial time series attribute trends. This paper proposes an adaptive density-based time series clustering (DTSC) algorithm that simultaneously considers the three above-mentioned attributes to relieve these limitations. In this algorithm, the Delaunay triangulation is first utilized in combination with particle swarm optimization (PSO) to adaptively obtain objects with similar spatial attributes. An improved density-based clustering strategy is then adopted to detect clusters with similar non-spatial time series attribute values and time series attribute trends. The effectiveness and efficiency of the DTSC algorithm are validated by experiments on simulated datasets and real applications. The results indicate that the proposed DTSC algorithm effectively detects time series clusters with arbitrary shapes and similar attributes and densities while considering noises. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Uncertainty-Based Map Matching: The Space-Time Prism and k-Shortest Path Algorithm
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(11), 204; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5110204 - 10 Nov 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1867
Abstract
Location-aware devices can be used to record the positions of moving objects for further spatio-temporal data analysis. For instance, we can analyze the routes followed by a person or a group of people, to discover hidden patterns in trajectory data. Typically, the positions [...] Read more.
Location-aware devices can be used to record the positions of moving objects for further spatio-temporal data analysis. For instance, we can analyze the routes followed by a person or a group of people, to discover hidden patterns in trajectory data. Typically, the positions of moving objects are registered by GPS devices, and most of the time, the recorded positions do not match the road actually followed by the object carrying the device, due to different sources of errors. Thus, matching the moving object’s actual position to a location on a digital map is required. The problem of matching GPS-recorded positions to a road network is called map matching (MM). Although many algorithms have been proposed to solve this problem, few of them consider the uncertainty caused by the absence of information about the moving object’s position in-between consecutive recorded locations. In this paper, we study the relationship between map matching and uncertainty, and we propose a novel MM algorithm that uses space-time prisms in combination with weighted k-shortest path algorithms. We applied our algorithm to real-world cases and to computer-generated trajectory samples with a variety of properties. We compare our results against a number of well-known algorithms that we have also implemented and show that it outperforms existing algorithms, allowing us to obtain better matches, with a negligible loss in performance. In addition, we propose a novel accuracy measure that allows a better comparison between different MM algorithms. We applied this novel measure to compare our algorithm against existing algorithms. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Recognition of Repetitive Movement Patterns—The Case of Football Analysis
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(11), 208; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5110208 - 09 Nov 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2005
Abstract
Analyzing sports like football is interesting not only for the sports team itself, but also for the public and the media. Both have recognized that using more detailed analyses of the teams’ behavior increases their attractiveness and also their performance. For this reason, [...] Read more.
Analyzing sports like football is interesting not only for the sports team itself, but also for the public and the media. Both have recognized that using more detailed analyses of the teams’ behavior increases their attractiveness and also their performance. For this reason, the games and the individual players are recorded using specially developed tracking systems. The tracking solution usually comes with elementary analysis software allowing for basic statistical information extraction. Going beyond these simple statistics is a challenging task. However, it is worthwhile when it provides a better view into the tactics of team or the typical movements of an individual player. In this paper an approach for the recognition of movement patterns as an advanced analysis method is presented, which uses the players’ trajectories as input data. Besides individual movement patterns it is also able to detect patterns in relation to group movements. A detailed description is followed by a discussion of the approach, where different experiments on real trajectory datasets, even from other contexts than football, show the method’s benefits and features. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Detecting Urban Transport Modes Using a Hybrid Knowledge Driven Framework from GPS Trajectory
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(11), 207; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5110207 - 09 Nov 2016
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2681
Abstract
Transport mode information is essential for understanding people’s movement behavior and travel demand estimation. Current approaches extract travel information once the travel is complete. Such approaches are limited in terms of generating just-in-time information for a number of mobility based applications, e.g., real [...] Read more.
Transport mode information is essential for understanding people’s movement behavior and travel demand estimation. Current approaches extract travel information once the travel is complete. Such approaches are limited in terms of generating just-in-time information for a number of mobility based applications, e.g., real time mode specific patronage estimation. In order to detect the transport modalities from GPS trajectories, various machine learning approaches have already been explored. However, the majority of them produce only a single conclusion from a given set of evidences, ignoring the uncertainty of any mode classification. Also, the existing machine learning approaches fall short in explaining their reasoning scheme. In contrast, a fuzzy expert system can explain its reasoning scheme in a human readable format along with a provision of inferring different outcome possibilities, but lacks the adaptivity and learning ability of machine learning. In this paper, a novel hybrid knowledge driven framework is developed by integrating a fuzzy logic and a neural network to complement each other’s limitations. Thus the aim of this paper is to automate the tuning process in order to generate an intelligent hybrid model that can perform effectively in near-real time mode detection using GPS trajectory. Tests demonstrate that a hybrid knowledge driven model works better than a purely knowledge driven model and at per the machine learning models in the context of transport mode detection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geospatial Big Data and Transport)
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Open AccessArticle
The Physical Density of the City—Deconstruction of the Delusive Density Measure with Evidence from Two European Megacities
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(11), 206; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5110206 - 09 Nov 2016
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2029
Abstract
Density is among the most important descriptive as well as normative measures in urban research. While its basic concept is generally understandable, approaches towards the density measure are manifold, diverse and of multidimensional complexity. This evolves from differing thematic, spatial and calculative specifications. [...] Read more.
Density is among the most important descriptive as well as normative measures in urban research. While its basic concept is generally understandable, approaches towards the density measure are manifold, diverse and of multidimensional complexity. This evolves from differing thematic, spatial and calculative specifications. Consequently, applied density measures are often used in a subjective, non-transparent, unspecific and thus non-comparable manner. In this paper, we aim at a systematic deconstruction of the measure density. Varying thematic, spatial and calculative dimensions show significant influence on the measure. With both quantitative and qualitative techniques of evaluation, we assess the particular influences on the measure density. To do so, we reduce our experiment setting to a mere physical perspective; that is, the quantitative measures building density, degree of soil sealing, floor space density and, more specifically, the density of generic structural classes such as open spaces and highest built-up density areas. Using up-to-date geodata derived from remote sensing and volunteered geographic information, we build upon high-quality spatial information products such as 3-D city models. Exemplified for the comparison of two European megacities, namely Paris and London, we reveal and systemize necessary variables to be clearly defined for meaningful conclusions using the density measure. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Spatio-Temporal Risk Assessment Process Modeling for Urban Hazard Events in Sensor Web Environment
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(11), 203; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5110203 - 09 Nov 2016
Viewed by 1779
Abstract
Immediate risk assessment and analysis are crucial in managing urban hazard events (UHEs). However, it is a challenge to develop an immediate risk assessment process (RAP) that can integrate distributed sensors and data to determine the uncertain model parameters of facilities, environments, and [...] Read more.
Immediate risk assessment and analysis are crucial in managing urban hazard events (UHEs). However, it is a challenge to develop an immediate risk assessment process (RAP) that can integrate distributed sensors and data to determine the uncertain model parameters of facilities, environments, and populations. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a RAP modeling method within a unified spatio-temporal framework and forms a 10-tuple process information description structure based on a Meta-Object Facility (MOF). A RAP is designed as an abstract RAP chain that collects urban information resources and performs immediate risk assessments. In addition, we propose a prototype system known as Risk Assessment Process Management (RAPM) to achieve the functions of RAP modeling, management, execution and visualization. An urban gas leakage event is simulated as an example in which individual risk and social risk are used to illustrate the applicability of the RAP modeling method based on the 10-tuple metadata framework. The experimental results show that the proposed RAP immediately assesses risk by the aggregation of urban sensors, data, and model resources. Moreover, an extension mechanism is introduced in the spatio-temporal RAP modeling method to assess risk and to provide decision-making support for different UHEs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Analysing the Effects of Flood-Resilience Technologies in Urban Areas Using a Synthetic Model Approach
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(11), 202; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5110202 - 07 Nov 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2043
Abstract
Flood protection systems with their spatial effects play an important role in managing and reducing flood risks. The planning and decision process as well as the technical implementation are well organized and often exercised. However, building-related flood-resilience technologies (FReT) are often neglected due [...] Read more.
Flood protection systems with their spatial effects play an important role in managing and reducing flood risks. The planning and decision process as well as the technical implementation are well organized and often exercised. However, building-related flood-resilience technologies (FReT) are often neglected due to the absence of suitable approaches to analyse and to integrate such measures in large-scale flood damage mitigation concepts. Against this backdrop, a synthetic model-approach was extended by few complementary methodical steps in order to calculate flood damage to buildings considering the effects of building-related FReT and to analyse the area-related reduction of flood risks by geo-information systems (GIS) with high spatial resolution. It includes a civil engineering based investigation of characteristic properties with its building construction including a selection and combination of appropriate FReT as a basis for derivation of synthetic depth-damage functions. Depending on the real exposition and the implementation level of FReT, the functions can be used and allocated in spatial damage and risk analyses. The application of the extended approach is shown at a case study in Valencia (Spain). In this way, the overall research findings improve the integration of FReT in flood risk management. They provide also some useful information for advising of individuals at risk supporting the selection and implementation of FReT. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Urban Link Travel Time Prediction Based on a Gradient Boosting Method Considering Spatiotemporal Correlations
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(11), 201; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5110201 - 04 Nov 2016
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2001
Abstract
The prediction of travel times is challenging because of the sparseness of real-time traffic data and the intrinsic uncertainty of travel on congested urban road networks. We propose a new gradient–boosted regression tree method to accurately predict travel times. This model accounts for [...] Read more.
The prediction of travel times is challenging because of the sparseness of real-time traffic data and the intrinsic uncertainty of travel on congested urban road networks. We propose a new gradient–boosted regression tree method to accurately predict travel times. This model accounts for spatiotemporal correlations extracted from historical and real-time traffic data for adjacent and target links. This method can deliver high prediction accuracy by combining simple regression trees with poor performance. It corrects the error found in existing models for improved prediction accuracy. Our spatiotemporal gradient–boosted regression tree model was verified in experiments. The training data were obtained from big data reflecting historic traffic conditions collected by probe vehicles in Wuhan from January to May 2014. Real-time data were extracted from 11 weeks of GPS records collected in Wuhan from 5 May 2014 to 20 July 2014. Based on these data, we predicted link travel time for the period from 21 July 2014 to 25 July 2014. Experiments showed that our proposed spatiotemporal gradient–boosted regression tree model obtained better results than gradient boosting, random forest, or autoregressive integrated moving average approaches. Furthermore, these results indicate the advantages of our model for urban link travel time prediction. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Gully Erosion Mapping and Monitoring at Multiple Scales Based on Multi-Source Remote Sensing Data of the Sancha River Catchment, Northeast China
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(11), 200; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5110200 - 04 Nov 2016
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2417
Abstract
This research is focused on gully erosion mapping and monitoring at multiple spatial scales using multi-source remote sensing data of the Sancha River catchment in Northeast China, where gullies extend over a vast area. A high resolution satellite image (Pleiades 1A, 0.7 m) [...] Read more.
This research is focused on gully erosion mapping and monitoring at multiple spatial scales using multi-source remote sensing data of the Sancha River catchment in Northeast China, where gullies extend over a vast area. A high resolution satellite image (Pleiades 1A, 0.7 m) was used to obtain the spatial distribution of the gullies of the overall basin. Image visual interpretation with field verification was employed to map the geometric gully features and evaluate gully erosion as well as the topographic differentiation characteristics. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) remote sensing data and the 3D photo-reconstruction method were employed for detailed gully mapping at a site scale. The results showed that: (1) the sub-meter image showed a strong ability in the recognition of various gully types and obtained satisfactory results, and the topographic factors of elevation, slope and slope aspects exerted significant influence on the gully spatial distribution at the catchment scale; and (2) at a more detailed site scale, UAV imagery combined with 3D photo-reconstruction provided a Digital Surface Model (DSM) and ortho-image at the centimeter level as well as a detailed 3D model. The resulting products revealed the area of agricultural utilization and its shaping by human agricultural activities and water erosion in detail, and also provided the gully volume. The present study indicates that using multi-source remote sensing data, including satellite and UAV imagery simultaneously, results in an effective assessment of gully erosion over multiple spatial scales. The combined approach should be continued to regularly monitor gully erosion to understand the erosion process and its relationship with the environment from a comprehensive perspective. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
The Sensitivity of Mapping Methods to Reference Data Quality: Training Supervised Image Classifications with Imperfect Reference Data
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(11), 199; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5110199 - 01 Nov 2016
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 1634
Abstract
The accuracy of a map is dependent on the reference dataset used in its construction. Classification analyses used in thematic mapping can, for example, be sensitive to a range of sampling and data quality concerns. With particular focus on the latter, the effects [...] Read more.
The accuracy of a map is dependent on the reference dataset used in its construction. Classification analyses used in thematic mapping can, for example, be sensitive to a range of sampling and data quality concerns. With particular focus on the latter, the effects of reference data quality on land cover classifications from airborne thematic mapper data are explored. Variations in sampling intensity and effort are highlighted in a dataset that is widely used in mapping and modelling studies; these may need accounting for in analyses. The quality of the labelling in the reference dataset was also a key variable influencing mapping accuracy. Accuracy varied with the amount and nature of mislabelled training cases with the nature of the effects varying between classifiers. The largest impacts on accuracy occurred when mislabelling involved confusion between similar classes. Accuracy was also typically negatively related to the magnitude of mislabelled cases and the support vector machine (SVM), which has been claimed to be relatively insensitive to training data error, was the most sensitive of the set of classifiers investigated, with overall classification accuracy declining by 8% (significant at 95% level of confidence) with the use of a training set containing 20% mislabelled cases. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Long Baseline Three Carrier Ambiguity Resolution with a New Ionospheric Constraint
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(11), 198; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5110198 - 01 Nov 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1238
Abstract
Global navigation satellite sensors can transmit three frequency signals. When the classical three-carrier ambiguity resolution (TCAR) is applied to long baselines of hundreds of kilometres, the narrow-lane integer ambiguity resolution (IAR) is affected by the remaining double-differenced (DD) ionospheric delays. As such, large [...] Read more.
Global navigation satellite sensors can transmit three frequency signals. When the classical three-carrier ambiguity resolution (TCAR) is applied to long baselines of hundreds of kilometres, the narrow-lane integer ambiguity resolution (IAR) is affected by the remaining double-differenced (DD) ionospheric delays. As such, large amounts of observational data are typically needed for successful recovery. To strengthen ionospheric delays, we analysed the combination of three frequency signals and a new ambiguity-free ionospheric combination where the least amount of noise is defined, which is enhanced with epoch-differenced ionospheric delays to provide better absolute ionospheric delay and temporal change. To optimize ionosphere estimations, we propose defining the optimal smoothing length, and also propose a strategy to diagnose wrongly determined ionospheric estimations. With such ionospheric information, we can obtain the ionosphere-weighted model by incorporating the ionospheric information to the geometry-based model and use the real triple-frequency observations to evaluate our method. Our results show that the precision of ionospheric estimations from our new ionospheric model is 25% higher than that from the current combination method and that it can provide real-time smoothed ionospheric delay with magnitudes defined to the nearest centimetre. Additionally, using ionospheric estimation as a constraint, the ionosphere-weighted model requires 20% less time to generate the first-fixed solution (TFFS) than the geometry-based model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Geodesy & Its Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Spatiotemporal Analysis of Urban Growth Using GIS and Remote Sensing: A Case Study of the Colombo Metropolitan Area, Sri Lanka
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(11), 197; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5110197 - 29 Oct 2016
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2324
Abstract
Understanding urban growth spatiotemporally is important for landscape and urban development planning. In this study, we examined the spatiotemporal pattern of urban growth of the Colombo Metropolitan Area (CMA)—Sri Lanka’s only metropolitan area—from 1992 to 2014 using remote sensing data and GIS techniques. [...] Read more.
Understanding urban growth spatiotemporally is important for landscape and urban development planning. In this study, we examined the spatiotemporal pattern of urban growth of the Colombo Metropolitan Area (CMA)—Sri Lanka’s only metropolitan area—from 1992 to 2014 using remote sensing data and GIS techniques. First, we classified three land-use/cover maps of the CMA (i.e., for 1992, 2001, and 2014) using Landsat data. Second, we examined the temporal pattern of urban land changes (ULCs; i.e., land changes from non-built-up to built-up) across two time intervals (1992–2001 and 2001–2014). Third, we examined the spatial pattern of ULCs along the gradients of various driver variables (e.g., distance to roads) and by using spatial metrics. Finally, we predicted the future urban growth of the CMA (2014–2050). Our results revealed that the CMA’s built-up land has increased by 24,711 ha (221%) over the past 22 years (11,165 ha in 1992 to 35,876 ha in 2014), at a rate of 1123 ha per year. The analysis revealed that ULC was more intense or faster during the 2000s (1268 ha per year) than in the 1990s (914 ha per year), coinciding with the trends of population and economic growth. The results also revealed that most of the ULCs in both time intervals occurred in close proximity to roads and schools, while also showing some indications of landscape fragmentation and infill urban development patterns. The ULC modeling revealed that by 2030 and 2050, the CMA’s built-up land will increase to 42,500 ha and 56,000 ha, respectively. Most of these projected gains of built-up land will be along the transport corridors and in proximity to the growth nodes. These findings are important in the context of landscape and urban development planning for the CMA. Overall, this study provides valuable information on the landscape transformation of the CMA, also highlighting some important challenges facing its future sustainable urban development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances and Innovations in Land Use/Cover Mapping)
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Open AccessArticle
Context-Aware Location Recommendation Using Geotagged Photos in Social Media
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(11), 195; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5110195 - 28 Oct 2016
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1633
Abstract
Recently, the increasing availability of digital cameras and the rapid advances in social media have led to the accumulation of a large number of geotagged photos, which may reflect people’s travel experiences in different cities and can be used to generate location recommendations [...] Read more.
Recently, the increasing availability of digital cameras and the rapid advances in social media have led to the accumulation of a large number of geotagged photos, which may reflect people’s travel experiences in different cities and can be used to generate location recommendations for tourists. Research on this aspect mainly focused on providing personalized recommendations matching a tourist’s travel preferences, while ignoring the context of the visit (e.g., weather, season and time of the day) that potentially influences his/her travel behavior. This article explores context-aware methods to provide location recommendations matching a tourist’s travel preferences and visiting context. Specifically, we apply clustering methods to detect touristic locations and extract travel histories from geotagged photos on Flickr. We then propose a novel context similarity measure to quantify the similarity between any two contexts and develop three context-aware collaborative filtering methods, i.e., contextual pre-filtering, post-filtering and modeling. With these methods, location recommendations like “in similar contexts, other tourists similar to you often visited …” can be provided to the current user. Results of the evaluation with a publicly-available Flickr photo collection show that these methods are able to provide a tourist with location recommendations matching his/her travel preferences and visiting context. More importantly, compared to other state-of-the-art methods, the proposed methods, which employ the introduced context similarity measure, can provide tourists with significantly better recommendations. While Flickr data have been used in this study, these context-aware collaborative filtering (CaCF) methods can also be extended for other kinds of travel histories, such as GPS trajectories and Foursquare check-ins, to provide context-aware recommendations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Initial Results of the Precise Orbit Determination for the New-Generation BeiDou Satellites (BeiDou-3) Based on the iGMAS Network
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(11), 196; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5110196 - 27 Oct 2016
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 1936
Abstract
By August 2016, 5 new-generation BeiDou satellites (BeiDou-3) have successfully been launched. The observations of a very limited number of 9 International GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) Monitoring and Assessment Service (iGMAS) stations and 52 Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) stations from 16 July to [...] Read more.
By August 2016, 5 new-generation BeiDou satellites (BeiDou-3) have successfully been launched. The observations of a very limited number of 9 International GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) Monitoring and Assessment Service (iGMAS) stations and 52 Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) stations from 16 July to 14 August 2016 are processed to determine the orbits of BeiDou-3 and BeiDou-2 satellites, respectively. The internal consistency and satellite laser ranging (SLR) validations are conducted for the orbit validation. BeiDou-3 MEO (Medium Earth Orbit) (C33 and C34) have larger root mean square (RMS) values than those BeiDou-3 IGSO (C31 and C32), whereas BeiDou-2 MEO satellites have smaller RMS values than the BeiDou-2 IGSO satellites. Furthermore, BeiDou-3 IGSO and BeiDou-2 satellites have RMS values at identical levels, whereas BeiDou-3 MEO satellites have larger RMS values than the BeiDou-2 MEO satellites. The RMS residuals are approximately 10 cm in the radial component and approximately 25 cm in the along component for BeiDou-3 IGSO satellites. For BeiDou-3 MEO satellites, the RMS residuals are approximately 40 cm in the radial component and approximately 60 cm in the along component. The SLR validation reports that the orbit radial component can reach an accuracy on the level of 1 decimeter and 4 decimeters for BeiDou-3 IGSO and MEO, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Geodesy & Its Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Spatiotemporal Variation of Precipitation Regime in China from 1961 to 2014 from the Standardized Precipitation Index
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(11), 194; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi5110194 - 27 Oct 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1034
Abstract
Prediction of drought and flood events can be difficult, but the standardized precipitation index (SPI) calculated from monthly data may be a useful tool for predicting future dryness/wetness events in China. The rainy season SPI was calculated from monthly precipitation data from 3804 [...] Read more.
Prediction of drought and flood events can be difficult, but the standardized precipitation index (SPI) calculated from monthly data may be a useful tool for predicting future dryness/wetness events in China. The rainy season SPI was calculated from monthly precipitation data from 3804 meteorological stations in China. The spatiotemporal variation, periodic change, and trend in rainy season SPI from 1961 to 2014 in eight regions were investigated. The results indicate that the rainy season SPI is valuable for assessing dryness/wetness spatial and temporal variations. The SPI time series in the northwest and southwest show increasing trends, while northeast China, south China, and Taiwan show more than one upward/downward trend during the study period, and the SPI time series in central, east, and north China show no change in trend. South China has an approximately 10-year periodic oscillation, while the other regions show an approximately 16-year periodic oscillation. The results of this study imply that the SPI can be used to explore historical drought/flood spatiotemporal variations, as well as to predict future wetness/dryness variations. Full article
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