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Open AccessArticle

A Long Baseline Three Carrier Ambiguity Resolution with a New Ionospheric Constraint

State Key Laboratory of Geodesy and Earth’s Dynamics, Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430077, China
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 19A Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049, China
Shandong Women’s University, Jinan 250300, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Zhao-Liang Li, Jose A. Sobrino, Chao Ren and Wolfgang Kainz
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(11), 198;
Received: 23 August 2016 / Revised: 25 October 2016 / Accepted: 27 October 2016 / Published: 1 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Geodesy & Its Applications)
Global navigation satellite sensors can transmit three frequency signals. When the classical three-carrier ambiguity resolution (TCAR) is applied to long baselines of hundreds of kilometres, the narrow-lane integer ambiguity resolution (IAR) is affected by the remaining double-differenced (DD) ionospheric delays. As such, large amounts of observational data are typically needed for successful recovery. To strengthen ionospheric delays, we analysed the combination of three frequency signals and a new ambiguity-free ionospheric combination where the least amount of noise is defined, which is enhanced with epoch-differenced ionospheric delays to provide better absolute ionospheric delay and temporal change. To optimize ionosphere estimations, we propose defining the optimal smoothing length, and also propose a strategy to diagnose wrongly determined ionospheric estimations. With such ionospheric information, we can obtain the ionosphere-weighted model by incorporating the ionospheric information to the geometry-based model and use the real triple-frequency observations to evaluate our method. Our results show that the precision of ionospheric estimations from our new ionospheric model is 25% higher than that from the current combination method and that it can provide real-time smoothed ionospheric delay with magnitudes defined to the nearest centimetre. Additionally, using ionospheric estimation as a constraint, the ionosphere-weighted model requires 20% less time to generate the first-fixed solution (TFFS) than the geometry-based model. View Full-Text
Keywords: triple-frequency signals; new ionospheric model; ionosphere-weighted model; TFFS1 triple-frequency signals; new ionospheric model; ionosphere-weighted model; TFFS1
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Ning, Y.; Yuan, Y.; Huang, Z.; Chai, Y.; Tan, B. A Long Baseline Three Carrier Ambiguity Resolution with a New Ionospheric Constraint. ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5, 198.

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