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ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf., Volume 11, Issue 6 (June 2022) – 33 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Geospatial data analysis often requires computing a distance transform (DT) for a given vector feature. Computing a DT on traditional geographic information systems (GIS) is usually based on image processing methods, which are prone to distortion resulting from flat maps. Discrete global grid systems (DGGS) are relatively new low-distortion globe-based GIS that discretize the Earth into highly regular cells. In this paper, we introduce an efficient DT algorithm for DGGS that exploits the hierarchy of a DGGS and its mathematical properties. We demonstrate that our method is efficient and has minimal distortion by comparing its speed and distortion with the DT methods used in traditional GIS and general 3D meshes. View this paper
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19 pages, 6543 KiB  
Article
Integration of Geostatistical and Sentinal-2AMultispectral Satellite Image Analysis for Predicting Soil Fertility Condition in Drylands
by Mohamed S. Shokr, Yasser S. A. Mazrou, Mostafa A. Abdellatif, Ahmed A. El Baroudy, Esawy K. Mahmoud, Ahmed M. Saleh, Abdelaziz A. Belal and Zheli Ding
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2022, 11(6), 353; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi11060353 - 17 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2354
Abstract
For modelling and predicting soil indicators to be fully operational and facilitate decision-making at any spatial level, there is a requirement for precise spatially referenced soil information to be available as input data. This paper focuses on showing the capacity of Sentinal-2A(S2A) multispectral [...] Read more.
For modelling and predicting soil indicators to be fully operational and facilitate decision-making at any spatial level, there is a requirement for precise spatially referenced soil information to be available as input data. This paper focuses on showing the capacity of Sentinal-2A(S2A) multispectral imaging to predict soil properties and provide geostatistical analysis (ordinary kriging) for mapping dry land soil fertility conditions (SOCs). Conditioned Latin hypercube sampling was used to select the representative sampling sites within the study area. To achieve the objectives of this work, 48 surface soil samples were collected from the western part of Matrouh Governorate, Egypt, and pH, soil organic matter (SOM), available nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) levels were analyzed. Multilinear regression (MLR) was used to model the relationship between image reflectance and laboratory analysis (of pH, SOM, N, P, and K in the soil), followed by mapping the predicted outputs using ordinary kriging. Model fitting was achieved by removing variables according to the confidence level (95%).Around 30% of the samples were randomly selected to verify the validity of the results. The randomly selected samples helped express the variety of the soil characteristics from the investigated area. The predicted values of pH, SOM, N, P, and K performed well, with R2 values of 0.6, 0.7, 0.55, 0.6, and 0.92 achieved for pH, SOM, N, P, and K, respectively. The results from the ArcGIS model builder indicated a descending fertility order within the study area of: 70% low fertility, 22% moderate fertility, 3% very low fertility, and 5% reference terms. This work evidence that which can be predicted from S2A images and provides a reference for soil fertility monitoring in drylands. Additionally, this model can be easily applied to environmental conditions similar to those of the studied area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrating GIS and Remote Sensing in Soil Mapping and Modeling)
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15 pages, 22652 KiB  
Article
Applying Decision Trees to Examine the Nonlinear Effects of Multiscale Transport Accessibility on Rural Poverty in China
by Leibo Cui, Tao Li, Menglong Qiu and Xiaoshu Cao
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2022, 11(6), 352; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi11060352 - 16 Jun 2022
Viewed by 1634
Abstract
Accessibility plays an important role in alleviating rural poverty. Previous studies have explored the relationship between accessibility and rural poverty, but they offer limited evidence of the collective influence of multiscale transport accessibility (town-level, county-level, and prefecture-level accessibility) and its nonlinear effects on [...] Read more.
Accessibility plays an important role in alleviating rural poverty. Previous studies have explored the relationship between accessibility and rural poverty, but they offer limited evidence of the collective influence of multiscale transport accessibility (town-level, county-level, and prefecture-level accessibility) and its nonlinear effects on rural poverty. This study adopted the gradient-boosting decision tree model to explore the nonlinear association and threshold effects of multiscale transport accessibility on the rural poverty incidence (RPI). We selected Huining, a poverty-stricken county in China, as a case study. The results show that multiscale transport accessibility collectively has larger predictive power than other variables. Specifically, town-level accessibility (12.97%) plays a dominant role in predicting the RPI, followed by county-level accessibility (9.50%) and prefecture-level accessibility (7.38%). We further identified the nonlinear association and effective ranges of multiscale transport accessibility to guide poverty-alleviation policy. Our results help inform policy and planning on sustainable poverty reduction and rural vitalization. Full article
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21 pages, 23338 KiB  
Article
Context-Aware Matrix Factorization for the Identification of Urban Functional Regions with POI and Taxi OD Data
by Changfeng Jing, Yanru Hu, Hongyang Zhang, Mingyi Du, Shishuo Xu, Xian Guo and Jie Jiang
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2022, 11(6), 351; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi11060351 - 16 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2057
Abstract
The identification of urban functional regions (UFRs) is important for urban planning and sustainable development. Because this involves a set of interrelated processes, it is difficult to identify UFRs using only single data sources. Data fusion methods have the potential to improve the [...] Read more.
The identification of urban functional regions (UFRs) is important for urban planning and sustainable development. Because this involves a set of interrelated processes, it is difficult to identify UFRs using only single data sources. Data fusion methods have the potential to improve the identification accuracy. However, the use of existing fusion methods remains challenging when mining shared semantic information among multiple data sources. In order to address this issue, we propose a context-coupling matrix factorization (CCMF) method which considers contextual relationships. This method was designed based on the fact that the contextual relationships embedded in all of the data are shared and complementary to one another. An empirical study was carried out by fusing point-of-interest (POI) data and taxi origin–destination (OD) data in Beijing, China. There are three steps in CCMF. First, contextual information is extracted from POI and taxi OD trajectory data. Second, fusion is performed using contextual information. Finally, spectral clustering is used to identify the functional regions. The results show that the proposed method achieved an overall accuracy (OA) of 90% and a kappa of 0.88 in the study area. The results were compared with the results obtained using single sources of non-fused data and other fusion methods in order to validate the effectiveness of our method. The results demonstrate that an improvement in the OA of about 5% in comparison to a similar method in the literature could be achieved using this method. Full article
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22 pages, 5217 KiB  
Article
Combining Temporal and Multi-Modal Approaches to Better Measure Accessibility to Banking Services
by Mitchel Langford, Andrew Price and Gary Higgs
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2022, 11(6), 350; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi11060350 - 16 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1944
Abstract
The UK, as elsewhere, has seen an accelerating trend of bank branch closures and reduced opening hours since the early 2000s. The reasons given by the banks are well rehearsed, but the impact assessments they provide to justify such programs and signpost alternatives [...] Read more.
The UK, as elsewhere, has seen an accelerating trend of bank branch closures and reduced opening hours since the early 2000s. The reasons given by the banks are well rehearsed, but the impact assessments they provide to justify such programs and signpost alternatives have been widely criticized as being inadequate. This is particularly so for vulnerable customers dependent on financial services who may face difficulties in accessing remaining branches. There is a need whilst analyzing spatial patterns of access to also include temporal availability in relation to transport opportunities. Drawing on a case study of potential multi-modal accessibility to banks in Wales, we demonstrate how open-source tools can be used to examine patterns of access whilst considering the business operating hours of branches in relation to public transport schedules. The inclusion of public and private travel modes provides insights into access that are often overlooked by a consideration of service-side measures alone. Furthermore, findings from the types of tools developed in this study are illustrative of the additional information that could be included in holistic impact assessments, allowing the consequences of decisions being taken to close or reduce the operating hours of bank branches to be more clearly communicated to customers. Full article
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21 pages, 4001 KiB  
Article
Estimation of Urban Housing Vacancy Based on Daytime Housing Exterior Images—A Case Study of Guangzhou in China
by Xiaoli Yue, Yang Wang, Yabo Zhao and Hongou Zhang
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2022, 11(6), 349; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi11060349 - 14 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2335
Abstract
The traditional methods of estimating housing vacancies rarely use daytime housing exterior images to estimate housing vacancy rates (HVR). In view of this, this study proposed the idea and method of estimating urban housing vacancies based on daytime housing exterior images, taking Guangzhou, [...] Read more.
The traditional methods of estimating housing vacancies rarely use daytime housing exterior images to estimate housing vacancy rates (HVR). In view of this, this study proposed the idea and method of estimating urban housing vacancies based on daytime housing exterior images, taking Guangzhou, China as a case study. Considering residential quarters as the basic evaluation unit, the spatial pattern and its influencing factors were studied by using average nearest neighbor analysis, kernel density estimation, spatial autocorrelation analysis, and geodetector. The results show that: (1) The urban housing vacancy rate can be estimated by the method of daytime housing exterior images, which has the advantage of smaller research scale, simple and easy operation, short time consumption, and less difficulty in data acquisition. (2) Overall, the housing vacancy rate in Guangzhou is low in the core area and urban district, followed by suburban and higher in the outer suburb, showing a spatial pattern of increasing core area–urban district–suburban–outer suburb. Additionally, it has obvious spatial agglomeration characteristics, with low–low value clustered in the inner circle and high–high value clustered in the outer suburb. (3) The residential quarters with low vacancy rates (<5%) are distributed in the core area, showing a “dual-core” pattern, while residential quarters with high vacancy rates (>50%) are distributed in the outer suburb in a multi-core point pattern, both of which have clustering characteristics. (4) The results of the factor detector show that all seven influencing factors have an impact on the housing vacancy rate, but the degree of impact is different; the distance from CBD (Central Business District) has the strongest influence, while subway accessibility has the weakest influence. This study provides new ideas and methods for current research on urban housing vacancies, which can not only provide a reference for residents to purchase houses rationally, but also provide a decision-making basis for housing planning and policy formulation in megacities. Full article
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26 pages, 39980 KiB  
Article
An Integrated Environment for Monitoring and Documenting Quality in Map Composition Utilizing Cadastral Data
by Ioannis Kavadas and Lysandros Tsoulos
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2022, 11(6), 348; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi11060348 - 14 Jun 2022
Viewed by 1523
Abstract
Topographic maps show both physical and artificial entities of the surface of the Earth which represent distinct features forming the building blocks in map composition. Their portrayal on the map is subject to constraints dependent on the method of data collection, the map [...] Read more.
Topographic maps show both physical and artificial entities of the surface of the Earth which represent distinct features forming the building blocks in map composition. Their portrayal on the map is subject to constraints dependent on the method of data collection, the map scale, the data processing procedures and the requirements of map users. In addition to constraints, geospatial data contain uncertainties and errors that are either inherent in the data or a result of the map composition process. The type and significance of these errors determine the quality of maps. This paper elaborates on the development of an integrated environment for monitoring and documenting quality in the map composition process. In this environment, quality plays a vital role in all phases of map production whereby it is continuously assessed and documented. The methodology described involves the design and implementation of a “quality model” based on international Standards. An integrated software application for the utilization of cadastral information to produce and update topographic maps at a scale of 1:25,000 was also developed. The aim is to implement the proposed methodology in a real production environment and to use it as a proof of concept. Full article
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5 pages, 200 KiB  
Editorial
Editorial on Special Issue “Geo-Information Technology and Its Applications”
by Weicheng Wu, Yalan Liu and Mingxing Hu
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2022, 11(6), 347; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi11060347 - 13 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4413
Abstract
Geo-information technology plays a critical role in urban planning and management, land resource quantification, natural disaster risk and damage assessment, smart city development, land cover change modeling and touristic flow management. In particular, the development of big data mining and machine learning techniques [...] Read more.
Geo-information technology plays a critical role in urban planning and management, land resource quantification, natural disaster risk and damage assessment, smart city development, land cover change modeling and touristic flow management. In particular, the development of big data mining and machine learning techniques (including deep learning) in recent years has expanded the potential applications of geo-information technology and promoted innovation in approaches to mining in different fields. In this context, the International Conference on Geo-Information Technology and its Applications (ICGITA 2019) was held in Nanchang, Jiangxi, China, 11–13 October 2019, co-organized by the Key Laboratory of Digital Land and Resources, East China University of Technology, the Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth (RADI) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), which was renamed in 2017 the Aerospace Information Research Institute (AIR), CAS, and the Institute of Space and Earth Information Science of the Chinese University of Hong Kong. The outstanding papers presented at this event and some other original articles were collected and published in this Special Issue “Geo-Information Technology and Its Applications” in the International Journal of Geo-Information. This Special Issue consists of 14 high-quality and innovative articles that explore and discuss the typical applications of geo-information technology in the above-mentioned domains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geo-Information Technology and Its Applications)
18 pages, 15747 KiB  
Article
Investigating Factors Related to Criminal Trips of Residential Burglars Using Spatial Interaction Modeling
by Kazuki Hirama, Kaeko Yokota, Yusuke Otsuka, Kazumi Watanabe, Naoto Yabe and Yoshinori Hawai
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2022, 11(6), 346; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi11060346 - 10 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2177
Abstract
This study used spatial interaction modeling to examine whether origin-specific and destination-specific factors, distance decay effects, and spatial structures explain the criminal trips of residential burglars. In total, 4041 criminal trips committed by 892 individual offenders who lived and committed residential burglary in [...] Read more.
This study used spatial interaction modeling to examine whether origin-specific and destination-specific factors, distance decay effects, and spatial structures explain the criminal trips of residential burglars. In total, 4041 criminal trips committed by 892 individual offenders who lived and committed residential burglary in Tokyo were analyzed. Each criminal trip was allocated to an origin–destination pair created from the combination of potential departure and arrival zones. The following explanatory variables were created from an external dataset and used: residential population, density of residential burglaries, and mobility patterns of the general population. The origin-specific factors served as indices of not only the production of criminal trips, but also the opportunity to commit crimes in the origin zones. Moreover, the criminal trips were related to the mobility patterns of the general population representing daily leisure (noncriminal) trips, and relatively large origin- and destination-based spatial spillover effects were estimated. It was shown that considering not only destination-specific but also origin-specific factors, spatial structures are important for investigating the criminal trips of residential burglars. The current findings could be applicable to future research on geographical profiling by incorporating neighborhood-level factors into existing models. Full article
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17 pages, 3894 KiB  
Article
EmergEventMine: End-to-End Chinese Emergency Event Extraction Using a Deep Adversarial Network
by Jianzhuo Yan, Lihong Chen, Yongchuan Yu, Hongxia Xu, Qingcai Gao, Kunpeng Cao and Jianhui Chen
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2022, 11(6), 345; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi11060345 - 10 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2005
Abstract
With the rapid development of the internet and social media, extracting emergency events from online news reports has become an urgent need for public safety. However, current studies on the text mining of emergency information mainly focus on text classification and event recognition, [...] Read more.
With the rapid development of the internet and social media, extracting emergency events from online news reports has become an urgent need for public safety. However, current studies on the text mining of emergency information mainly focus on text classification and event recognition, only obtaining a general and conceptual cognition about an emergency event, which cannot effectively support emergency risk warning, etc. Existing event extraction methods of other professional fields often depend on a domain-specific, well-designed syntactic dependency or external knowledge base, which can offer high accuracy in their professional fields, but their generalization ability is not good, and they are difficult to directly apply to the field of emergency. To address these problems, an end-to-end Chinese emergency event extraction model, called EmergEventMine, is proposed using a deep adversarial network. Considering the characteristics of Chinese emergency texts, including small-scale labelled corpora, relatively clearer syntactic structures, and concentrated argument distribution, this paper simplifies the event extraction with four subtasks as a two-stage task based on the goals of subtasks, and then develops a lightweight heterogeneous joint model based on deep neural networks for realizing end-to-end and few-shot Chinese emergency event extraction. Moreover, adversarial training is introduced into the joint model to alleviate the overfitting of the model on the small-scale labelled corpora. Experiments on the Chinese emergency corpus fully prove the effectiveness of the proposed model. Moreover, this model significantly outperforms other existing state-of-the-art event extraction models. Full article
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22 pages, 6958 KiB  
Article
Susceptibility Mapping of Typical Geological Hazards in Helong City Affected by Volcanic Activity of Changbai Mountain, Northeastern China
by Xiaohui Sun, Chenglong Yu, Yanrong Li and Ngambua N. Rene
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2022, 11(6), 344; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi11060344 - 10 Jun 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1965
Abstract
The purpose of this paper was to produce the geological hazard-susceptibility map for the Changbai Mountain area affected by volcanic activity. First, 159 landslides and 72 debris flows were mapped in the Helong city are based on the geological disaster investigation and regionalization [...] Read more.
The purpose of this paper was to produce the geological hazard-susceptibility map for the Changbai Mountain area affected by volcanic activity. First, 159 landslides and 72 debris flows were mapped in the Helong city are based on the geological disaster investigation and regionalization (1:50,000) project of Helong City. Then, twelve landslide conditioning factors and eleven debris flow conditioning factors were selected as the modeling variables. Among them, the transcendental probability of Changbai Mountain volcanic earthquake greater than VI degrees was used to indicate the relationship between the geological hazard-susceptibility and Changbai Mountain volcanic earthquake occurrence. Furthermore, two machine learning models (SVM and ANN) were introduced to geological hazard-susceptibility modeling. Receiver operating characteristic curve, statistical analysis method, and five-fold cross-validation were used to compare the two models. Based on the modeling results, the SVM model is the better model for both the landslide and debris flow susceptibility mapping. The results show that the areas with low, moderate, high, and very high landslide susceptibility are 31.58%, 33.15%, 17.07%, and 18.19%, respectively; and the areas with low, moderate, high, and very high debris flow susceptibility are 25.63%, 38.19%, 23.47%, and 12.71%, respectively. The high and very high landslide and debris flow susceptibility classes make up 85.54% and 80.55% of the known landslides and debris flow, respectively. Moreover, the very high and high landslide and debris flow susceptibility are mainly distributed in the lower elevation area, and mainly distributed around the cities and towns in Helong City. Consequently, this paper will be a useful guide for the deployment of disaster prevention and mitigation in Helong city, and can also provide some reference for evaluation of landslide susceptibility in other volcanically active areas. Full article
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14 pages, 7520 KiB  
Article
Potential of the Geometric Layer in Urban Digital Twins
by Andreas Scalas, Daniela Cabiddu, Michela Mortara and Michela Spagnuolo
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2022, 11(6), 343; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi11060343 - 10 Jun 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2331
Abstract
A urban digital twin is the virtual representation of real assets, processes, systems and subsystems of a city. It uses and integrates heterogeneous data to learn and evolve with the physical city, providing support to monitor the current status and predict/anticipate possible future [...] Read more.
A urban digital twin is the virtual representation of real assets, processes, systems and subsystems of a city. It uses and integrates heterogeneous data to learn and evolve with the physical city, providing support to monitor the current status and predict/anticipate possible future scenarios. In this paper, we focus on the issues and potential related to the geometric layer of the city digital twin. On the one hand, detailed 3D data to reconstruct the urban morphology very accurately might not be available, and planning a new survey is costly in terms of money and time. On the other hand, the more the geometry adheres to the real counterpart, the more accurate measures and simulations related to the urban space will be. We describe our approach to develop the geometric layer of the digital twin of the city of Matera, in Italy, using only pre-existing public data. Specifically, our method exploits available digital elevation models from a previous regional aerial survey and integrates them with data coming from OpenStreetMap to generate an as-precise-as-possible 3D model, annotated with heterogeneous semantic information. We demonstrate the potential of the geometric layer by developing two geometric characterisation services, namely route slope extraction and light/shadow maps according to a specific date and time. In the next steps, the computed attributes will help to answer specific objectives which could be of interest for the Municipality, such as personalised optimal routes taking into account user preferences including slope and perceived environmental comfort. Full article
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22 pages, 10848 KiB  
Article
Vulnerability Analysis of Geographical Railway Network under Geological Hazard in China
by Lingzhi Yin, Jun Zhu, Wenshu Li and Jinhong Wang
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2022, 11(6), 342; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi11060342 - 10 Jun 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2284
Abstract
As the passenger railway network is expanding and improving, the internal connections and interdependence in the network are rising. Once a sudden geological hazard occurs and damages the network structure, the train service is prone to large-scale halt or delay. A geographical railway [...] Read more.
As the passenger railway network is expanding and improving, the internal connections and interdependence in the network are rising. Once a sudden geological hazard occurs and damages the network structure, the train service is prone to large-scale halt or delay. A geographical railway network is modeled to analyze the spatial distribution characteristics of the railway network as well as its vulnerability under typical geological hazards, such as earthquakes, collapses, landslides and debris flows. First, this paper modeled the geographical railway network in China based on the complex network method and analyzed the spatial distribution characteristics of the railway network. Then, the data of geological hazards along the railway that occurred over the years were crawled through the Internet to construct the hazard database to analyze the time–space distribution characteristics. Finally, based on the data of geological hazards along the railway and results of the susceptibility to geological hazards, the vulnerability of the geographical railway network was evaluated. Among these geological hazards, the greatest impact on railway safety operation came from earthquakes (48%), followed by landslides (28%), debris flows (17%) and collapses (7%). About 30% of the lines of the geographical railway network were exposed in the susceptibility areas. The most vulnerable railway lines included Sichuan–Guizhou Railway, Chengdu–Kunming Railway and Chengdu–Guiyang high-speed Railway in Southwest China, Lanzhou–Urumqi Railway and Southern Xinjiang Railway in Northwest China, and Beijing–Harbin Railway and Harbin–Manzhouli Railway in Northeast China. Therefore, professional railway rescue materials should be arranged at key stations in the above sections, with a view to improving the capability to respond to sudden geological hazards. Full article
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24 pages, 7247 KiB  
Article
A Comprehensive Spatio-Temporal Model for Subway Passenger Flow Prediction
by Zhihao Zhang, Yong Han, Tongxin Peng, Zhenxin Li and Ge Chen
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2022, 11(6), 341; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi11060341 - 9 Jun 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2838
Abstract
Accurate subway passenger flow prediction is crucial to operation management and line scheduling. It can also promote the construction of intelligent transportation systems (ITS). Due to the complex spatial features and time-varying traffic patterns of subway networks, the prediction task is still challenging. [...] Read more.
Accurate subway passenger flow prediction is crucial to operation management and line scheduling. It can also promote the construction of intelligent transportation systems (ITS). Due to the complex spatial features and time-varying traffic patterns of subway networks, the prediction task is still challenging. Thus, a hybrid neural network model, GCTN (graph convolutional and comprehensive temporal neural network), is proposed. The model combines the Transformer network and long short-term memory (LSTM) network to capture the global and local temporal dependency. Besides, it uses a graph convolutional network (GCN) to capture the spatial features of the subway network. For the sake of the stability and accuracy for long-term passenger flow prediction, we enhance the influence of the station itself and the global station and combine the convolutional neural networks (CNN) and Transformer. The model is verified by the passenger flow data of the Shanghai Subway. Compared with some typical data-driven methods, the results show that the proposed model improves the prediction accuracy in different time intervals and exhibits superiority in prediction stability and robustness. Besides, the model has a better performance in the peak value and the period when passenger flow changes quickly. Full article
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13 pages, 11868 KiB  
Article
A Three-Dimensional Visualization and Optimization Method of Landslide Disaster Scenes Guided by Knowledge
by Lin Fu, Jun Zhu, Jianbo Lai, Weilian Li, Pei Dang, Lingzhi Yin, Jialuo Li, Yukun Guo and Jigang You
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2022, 11(6), 340; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi11060340 - 9 Jun 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1982
Abstract
The rapid acquisition of deposit volume information and dynamic modeling, as well as the visualization of disaster scenes, have great significance for the sharing of landslide information and the management of emergency rescue. However, existing methods have shortcomings, such as a long and [...] Read more.
The rapid acquisition of deposit volume information and dynamic modeling, as well as the visualization of disaster scenes, have great significance for the sharing of landslide information and the management of emergency rescue. However, existing methods have shortcomings, such as a long and costly deposit volume acquisition cycle, lack of knowledge and guidance, complex operations for scene modeling expression, and low scene rendering efficiency. Therefore, this paper focuses on the study of a three-dimensional visualization and optimization method for landslide disaster scenes guided by knowledge, and discusses key technologies such as the rapid acquisition of landslide deposit volume information based on three-dimensional reconstruction, the knowledge-guided dynamic modeling visualization of disaster scenes, and scene optimization considering visual significance. The prototype systems are developed and used in a case experiment and analysis. The experimental results show that the proposed method can quickly obtain the deposit volume, and the results are equivalent to ContextCapture, Metashape, and Pix4Dmapper software. The method realizes the dynamic visualization of the whole disaster process, provides rich information, achieves high readability, and improves the efficiency of scene rendering, with a stable average rendering frame rate of more than 80 frames/second. Full article
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26 pages, 31249 KiB  
Article
3D Modeling Method for Dome Structure Using Digital Geological Map and DEM
by Xian-Yu Liu, An-Bo Li, Hao Chen, Yan-Qing Men and Yong-Liang Huang
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2022, 11(6), 339; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi11060339 - 7 Jun 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3133
Abstract
Geological maps have wide coverage with low acquisition difficulty. When other geological survey data are scarce, they are a valuable source of geological structure information for geological modeling. However, for structures with large deformation, geological map information has difficulty meeting the requirement of [...] Read more.
Geological maps have wide coverage with low acquisition difficulty. When other geological survey data are scarce, they are a valuable source of geological structure information for geological modeling. However, for structures with large deformation, geological map information has difficulty meeting the requirement of its 3D geological modeling. Therefore, this paper takes the dome structure as an example to explore a 3D modeling method based on geological maps, DEM and related geological knowledge. The method includes: (1) adaptively calculating the attitude of points on the stratigraphic boundaries; (2) inferring and generating the bottom boundary of the model from the attitude data of the boundary points; (3) generating the model interface constrained by Bézier curves based on the bottom boundary; (4) generating the top and bottom surfaces of the stratum; and (5) stitching each surface of the geological body to generate the final dome model. Case studies of the dome in Wulongshan in China and the Richat structure in Mauritania show that this method can build a solid model of the dome based only on geological maps and DEM data, whose morphological features are basically consistent with those embodied in the section view or the model generated by traditional methods. Full article
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15 pages, 18469 KiB  
Article
Evaluating Impacts of Bus Route Map Design and Dynamic Real-Time Information Presentation on Bus Route Map Search Efficiency and Cognitive Load
by Chih-Fu Wu, Chenhui Gao, Kai-Chieh Lin and Yi-Hsin Chang
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2022, 11(6), 338; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi11060338 - 7 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3244
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of different design methods of bus route maps and dynamic real-time information on the bus route map search efficiency and cognitive load. A total of 32 participants were tested through an experiment of [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of different design methods of bus route maps and dynamic real-time information on the bus route map search efficiency and cognitive load. A total of 32 participants were tested through an experiment of destination bus route searching, and the NASA-TLX scale was used to measure their cognitive load. Two route map schemes were designed according to the research purposes and application status. One was a collinear bus route map with geographic location information based on a realistic map, the other was a highly symmetric straight-line collinear bus route map without map information, and two different types of dynamic real-time information reminder methods were designed (the dynamic flashing of the number of the bus entering the stop, and the dynamic animated flash of the route of the bus entering the stop). Then, four different combinations of the bus route maps were used for testing through the search task of bus routes available for bus destinations. The results indicated no significant difference in the search efficiency between the map-based bus route map and the linear bus route map, but the cognitive load of the map-based bus route map was higher than that of the linear route map. In the presentation of dynamic real-time information, neither the search performance nor the cognitive load of the dynamic flashing of the route of the bus entering the stop was as good as those of the flashing of the number only of the bus entering the stop. In addition, it was found that, compared with men, the cognitive load for women was more affected by geographic information. The optimization strategies of the bus route map information design were proposed by the comprehensive consideration of the feedback of route maps and real-time information. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geovisualization and Map Design)
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16 pages, 2911 KiB  
Article
Quantitative Analysis of the Factors Influencing the Spatial Distribution of Benggang Landforms Based on a Geographical Detector
by Kaitao Liao, Yuejun Song, Songhua Xie, Yichen Luo, Quan Liu and Hui Lin
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2022, 11(6), 337; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi11060337 - 7 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1826
Abstract
As a unique phenomenon of soil erosion in the granite-red-soil hilly area of southern China, Benggang has seriously affected agricultural development and regional sustainable development. However, few studies have focused on the driving factors and their interactions with Benggang erosion at the regional [...] Read more.
As a unique phenomenon of soil erosion in the granite-red-soil hilly area of southern China, Benggang has seriously affected agricultural development and regional sustainable development. However, few studies have focused on the driving factors and their interactions with Benggang erosion at the regional scale. The primary driving forces of Benggang erosion were identified by the factor detector of the geographical detector, and the interaction between factors was determined by the interaction detector of the geographical detector. The 10 conditioning driving factors included terrain, hydrology, vegetation, soil, geomorphology, and land use. Benggang erosion in Ganzhou City principally occurred in the granite-red-soil forest hill, characterized by an elevation below 400 m above sea level, slope below 25° of concavity, a distance to the gully less than 500 m, a vegetation coverage of 40–60%, and an average rainfall erosivity of 6400–7000 MJ·mm/(hm2·h·a). The key driving factors for Benggang erosion were rainfall erosivity, elevation, and land use. Moreover, the interaction of any two factors was stronger than that of a single factor, and the nonlinear enhancement factors had a stronger synergistic effect on erosion. Therefore, the comprehensive influence of many factors must be considered when predicting and preventing Benggang erosion. Full article
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26 pages, 5576 KiB  
Article
GIS and Machine Learning for Analysing Influencing Factors of Bushfires Using 40-Year Spatio-Temporal Bushfire Data
by Wanqin He, Sara Shirowzhan and Christopher James Pettit
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2022, 11(6), 336; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi11060336 - 6 Jun 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3753
Abstract
The causes of bushfires are extremely complex, and their scale of burning and probability of occurrence are influenced by the interaction of a variety of factors such as meteorological factors, topography, human activity and vegetation type. An in-depth understanding of the combined mechanisms [...] Read more.
The causes of bushfires are extremely complex, and their scale of burning and probability of occurrence are influenced by the interaction of a variety of factors such as meteorological factors, topography, human activity and vegetation type. An in-depth understanding of the combined mechanisms of factors affecting the occurrence and spread of bushfires is needed to support the development of effective fire prevention plans and fire suppression measures and aid planning for geographic, ecological maintenance and urban emergency management. This study aimed to explore how bushfires, meteorological variability and other natural factors have interacted over the past 40 years in NSW Australia and how these influencing factors synergistically drive bushfires. The CSIRO’s Spark toolkit has been used to simulate bushfire burning spread over 24 h. The study uses NSW wildfire data from 1981–2020, combined with meteorological factors (temperature, precipitation, wind speed), vegetation data (NDVI data, vegetation type) and topography (slope, soil moisture) data to analyse the relationship between bushfires and influencing factors quantitatively. Machine learning-random forest regression was then used to determine the differences in the influence of bushfire factors on the incidence and burn scale of bushfires. Finally, the data on each influence factor was imported into Spark, and the results of the random forest model were used to set different influence weights in Spark to visualise the spread of bushfires burning over 24 h in four hotspot regions of bushfire in NSW. Wind speed, air temperature and soil moisture were found to have the most significant influence on the spread of bushfires, with the combined contribution of these three factors exceeding 60%, determining the spread of bushfires and the scale of burning. Precipitation and vegetation showed a greater influence on the annual frequency of bushfires. In addition, burn simulations show that wind direction influences the main direction of fire spread, whereas the shape of the flame front is mainly due to the influence of land classification. Besides, the simulation results from Spark could predict the temporal and spatial spread of fire, which is a potential decision aid for fireproofing agencies. The results of this study can inform how fire agencies can better understand fire occurrence mechanisms and use bushfire prediction and simulation techniques to support both their operational (short-term) and strategic (long-term) fire management responses and policies. Full article
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21 pages, 3203 KiB  
Article
Exploring Spatial Nonstationarity in Determinants of Intercity Commuting Flows: A Case Study of Suzhou–Shanghai, China
by Zhipeng Li and Xinyi Niu
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2022, 11(6), 335; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi11060335 - 4 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2429
Abstract
The increasing popularity of intercity commuting is affecting regional development and people’s lifestyles. A key approach to addressing the challenges brought about by intercity commuting is analyzing its determinants. Although spatial nonstationarity seems inevitable, or at least worth examining in spatial analysis and [...] Read more.
The increasing popularity of intercity commuting is affecting regional development and people’s lifestyles. A key approach to addressing the challenges brought about by intercity commuting is analyzing its determinants. Although spatial nonstationarity seems inevitable, or at least worth examining in spatial analysis and modeling, the global perspective was commonly employed to explore the determinants of intercity commuting flows in previous studies, which might result in inaccurate estimation. This paper aims to interpret intercity commuting flows from Suzhou to Shanghai in the Yangtze River Delta region. For this purpose, mobile signaling data was used to capture human movement trajectories, and multi-source big data was used to evaluate social-economic determinants. Negative binomial (NB) regression and spatially weighted interaction models (SWIM) were applied to select significant determinants and identify their spatial nonstationarity. The results show that the following determinants are significant: (1) commuting time, (2) scale of producer services in workplace, (3) scale of non-producer services in residence, (4) housing supply in residence, (5) year of construction in residence, and (6) housing price in residence. In addition, all six significant determinants exhibit evident spatial nonstationarity in terms of significance scope and coefficient level. Compared with the geographically weighted regression (GWR), SWIM reveals that the determinants of intercity commuting flows may manifest spatial nonstationarity in both residence and workplace areas, which might deepen our understanding of the spatial nonstationarity of OD flows. Full article
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26 pages, 3165 KiB  
Article
Quality Assurance for Spatial Research Data
by Michael Wagner and Christin Henzen
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2022, 11(6), 334; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi11060334 - 3 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2557
Abstract
In Earth System Sciences (ESS), spatial data are increasingly used for impact research and decision-making. To support the stakeholders’ decision, the quality of the spatial data and its assurance play a major role. We present concepts and a workflow to assure the quality [...] Read more.
In Earth System Sciences (ESS), spatial data are increasingly used for impact research and decision-making. To support the stakeholders’ decision, the quality of the spatial data and its assurance play a major role. We present concepts and a workflow to assure the quality of ESS data. Our concepts and workflow are designed along the research data life cycle and include criteria for openness, FAIRness of data (findable, accessible, interoperable, reusable), data maturity, and data quality. Existing data maturity concepts describe (community-specific) maturity matrices, e.g., for meteorological data. These concepts assign a variety of maturity metrics to discrete levels to facilitate evaluation of the data. Moreover, the use of easy-to-understand level numbers enables quick recognition of highly mature data, and hence fosters easier reusability. Here, we propose a revised maturity matrix for ESS data including a comprehensive list of FAIR criteria. To foster the compatibility with the developed maturity matrix approach, we developed a spatial data quality matrix that relates the data maturity levels to quality metrics. The maturity and quality levels are then assigned to the phases of the data life cycle. With implementing openness criteria and matrices for data maturity and quality, we build a quality assurance (QA) workflow that comprises various activities and roles. To support researchers in applying this workflow, we implement an interactive questionnaire in the tool RDMO (research data management organizer) to collaboratively manage and monitor all QA activities. This can serve as a blueprint for use-case-specific QA for other datasets. As a proof of concept, we successfully applied our criteria for openness, data maturity, and data quality to the publicly available SPAM2010 (crop distribution) dataset series. Full article
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16 pages, 3872 KiB  
Article
Limiting the Collection of Ground Truth Data for Land Use and Land Cover Maps with Machine Learning Algorithms
by Usman Ali, Travis J. Esau, Aitazaz A. Farooque, Qamar U. Zaman, Farhat Abbas and Mathieu F. Bilodeau
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2022, 11(6), 333; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi11060333 - 3 Jun 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3263
Abstract
Land use and land cover (LULC) classification maps help understand the state and trends of agricultural production and provide insights for applications in environmental monitoring. One of the major downfalls of the LULC technique is inherently linked to its need for ground truth [...] Read more.
Land use and land cover (LULC) classification maps help understand the state and trends of agricultural production and provide insights for applications in environmental monitoring. One of the major downfalls of the LULC technique is inherently linked to its need for ground truth data to cross-validate maps. This paper aimed at evaluating the efficiency of machine learning (ML) in limiting the use of ground truth data for LULC maps. This was accomplished by (1) extracting reliable LULC information from Sentinel-2 and Landsat-8 s images, (2) generating remote sensing indices used to train ML algorithms, and (3) comparing the results with ground truth data. The remote sensing indices that were tested include the difference vegetation index (DVI), the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), the normalized built-up index (NDBI), the urban index (UI), and the normalized bare land index (NBLI). Extracted vegetation indices were evaluated on three ML algorithms, namely, random forest (RF), k-nearest neighbour (K-NN), and k dimensional-tree (KD-Tree). The accuracy of these algorithms was assessed with standard statistical measures and ground truth data randomly collected in Prince Edward Island, Canada. Results showed that high kappa coefficient values were achieved by K-NN (82% and 74%), KD-Tree (80% and 78%), and RF (83% and 73%) for Sentinel-2A and Landsat-8 imagery, respectively. RF was a better classifier than K-NN and KD-Tree and had the highest overall accuracy with Sentinel-2A satellite images (92%). This approach provides the basis for limiting the collection of ground truth data and thus reduces the labour cost, time, and resources needed to collect ground truth data for LULC maps. Full article
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14 pages, 5346 KiB  
Article
Recognizing Building Group Patterns in Topographic Maps by Integrating Building Functional and Geometric Information
by Xianjin He, Min Deng and Guowei Luo
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2022, 11(6), 332; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi11060332 - 1 Jun 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2199
Abstract
Recognizing building group patterns is fundamental to numerous fields, such as urban landscape evaluation, social analysis, and map generalization. Despite the increasing number of algorithms available for building group pattern recognition, there is still a lack of satisfactory grouping results due to insufficient [...] Read more.
Recognizing building group patterns is fundamental to numerous fields, such as urban landscape evaluation, social analysis, and map generalization. Despite the increasing number of algorithms available for building group pattern recognition, there is still a lack of satisfactory grouping results due to insufficient information and only geometric features being provided to recognition methods. This study aims to provide a novel building grouping method that combines building function and geometric information. We specifically focus on the process of recognizing building groups in topographic maps as a prerequisite to subsequent map generalization. First, the building functions are inferred using the dynamic time warping (DTW) algorithm based on Tencent user density data and POIs (points of interest). Then, two types of constrained Delaunay triangulations (CDTs) are created for each building block, from which several spatial indices, such as the continuity index (SCI), direction, and distance of every two adjacent buildings, are derived. Finally, each building block is modeled as a graph on the grounds of derived matrices and building function information, and a graph segmentation approach is proposed to extract building groups. A case study is conducted to test the proposed approach. The experimental results indicate that the proposed approach can produce satisfactory results, given that the correctness value is above 81.63% for our study area. Comparative studies reveal that the method without building function information is an ineffective grouping method when buildings with different functions are close to each other. In addition, generalization results derived from the proposed method are more in line with those of maps for daily use, as they provide users with more accurate spatial divisions of urban buildings. Full article
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17 pages, 2701 KiB  
Article
A Multi-Scale Residential Areas Matching Method Considering Spatial Neighborhood Features
by Jingzhen Ma, Qun Sun, Zhao Zhou, Bowei Wen and Shaomei Li
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2022, 11(6), 331; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi11060331 - 31 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1608
Abstract
Residential areas is one of the basic geographical elements on the map and an important content of the map representation. Multi-scale residential areas matching refers to the process of identifying and associating entities with the same name in different data sources, which can [...] Read more.
Residential areas is one of the basic geographical elements on the map and an important content of the map representation. Multi-scale residential areas matching refers to the process of identifying and associating entities with the same name in different data sources, which can be widely used in map compilation, data fusion, change detection and update. A matching method considering spatial neighborhood features is proposed to solve the complex matching problem of multi-scale residential areas. The method uses Delaunay triangulation to divide complex matching entities in different scales into closed domains through spatial neighborhood clusters, which can obtain many-to-many matching candidate feature sets. At the same time, the geometric features and topological features of the residential areas are fully considered, and the Relief-F algorithm is used to determine the weight values of different similarity features. Then the similarity and spatial neighborhood similarity of the polygon residential areas are calculated, after which the final matching results are obtained. The experimental results show that the accuracy rate, recall rate and F value of the matching method are all above 90%, which has a high matching accuracy. It can identify a variety of matching relationships and overcome the influence of certain positional deviations on matching results. The proposed method can not only take account of the spatial neighborhood characteristics of residential areas, but also identify complex matching relationships in multi-scale residential areas accurately with a good matching effect. Full article
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18 pages, 6626 KiB  
Article
Urban Air Quality Assessment by Fusing Spatial and Temporal Data from Multiple Study Sources Using Refined Estimation Methods
by Lirong Chen, Junyi Wang, Hui Wang and Tiancheng Jin
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2022, 11(6), 330; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi11060330 - 31 May 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1907
Abstract
In urban environmental management and public health evaluation efforts, there is an urgent need for fine-grained urban air quality monitoring. However, the high price and sparse distribution of air quality monitoring equipment make it difficult to develop effective and comprehensive fine-scale monitoring at [...] Read more.
In urban environmental management and public health evaluation efforts, there is an urgent need for fine-grained urban air quality monitoring. However, the high price and sparse distribution of air quality monitoring equipment make it difficult to develop effective and comprehensive fine-scale monitoring at the city scale. This has also led to air quality estimation methods based on incomplete monitoring data, which lack the ability to detect urban air quality differences within a neighborhood. To address this problem, this study proposes a refined urban air quality estimation method that fuses multisource spatio-temporal data. Based on the fact that urban air quality is easily affected by social activities, this method integrates meteorological data with urban social activity data to form a comprehensive environmental data set. It uses the spatio-temporal feature extraction model to extract the multi-source spatio-temporal features of the comprehensive environmental data set. Finally, the improved cascade forest algorithm is used to fit the relationship between the multisource spatio-temporal features and the air quality index (AQI) to construct an air quality estimation model, and the model is used to estimate the hourly PM2.5 index in Beijing on a 1 km × 1 km grid. The results show that the estimation model has excellent performance, and its goodness-of-fit (R2) and root mean square error (RMSE) reach 0.961 and 17.47, respectively. This method effectively achieves the assessment of urban air quality differences within a neighborhood and provides a new strategy for preventing information fragmentation and improving the effectiveness of information representation in the data fusion process. Full article
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17 pages, 1086 KiB  
Article
Pathwalker: A New Individual-Based Movement Model for Conservation Science and Connectivity Modelling
by Siddharth Unnithan Kumar, Żaneta Kaszta and Samuel A. Cushman
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2022, 11(6), 329; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi11060329 - 30 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3289
Abstract
Understanding organism movement is at the heart of many ecological disciplines. The study of landscape connectivity—the extent to which a landscape facilitates organism movement—has grown to become a central focus of spatial ecology and conservation science. Several computational algorithms have been developed to [...] Read more.
Understanding organism movement is at the heart of many ecological disciplines. The study of landscape connectivity—the extent to which a landscape facilitates organism movement—has grown to become a central focus of spatial ecology and conservation science. Several computational algorithms have been developed to model connectivity; however, the major models in use today are limited by their lack of flexibility and simplistic assumptions of movement behaviour. In this paper, we introduce a new spatially-explicit, individual- and process-based model called Pathwalker, which simulates organism movement and connectivity through heterogeneous landscapes as a function of landscape resistance, the energetic cost of movement, mortality risk, autocorrelation, and directional bias towards a destination, all at multiple spatial scales. We describe the model’s structure and parameters and present statistical evaluations to demonstrate the influence of these parameters on the resulting movement patterns. Written in Python 3, Pathwalker works for any version of Python 3 and is freely available to download online. Pathwalker models movement and connectivity with greater flexibility compared with the dominant connectivity algorithms currently available in conservation science, thereby, enabling more detailed predictions for conservation practice and management. Moreover, Pathwalker provides a highly capable simulation framework for exploring theoretical and methodological questions that cannot be addressed with empirical data alone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geospatial Data and Services for Wildlife Management and Conservation)
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17 pages, 4268 KiB  
Article
Landscape Ecological Risk and Ecological Security Pattern Construction in World Natural Heritage Sites: A Case Study of Bayinbuluke, Xinjiang, China
by Xiaodong Chen, Zhaoping Yang, Tian Wang and Fang Han
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2022, 11(6), 328; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi11060328 - 30 May 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2483
Abstract
The evaluation of ecological risk and the construction of ecological security patterns are significant for the conservation of World Natural Heritage sites with high outstanding universal value. This paper constructed a landscape ecological risk evaluation framework for Bayinbuluke using the three aspects of [...] Read more.
The evaluation of ecological risk and the construction of ecological security patterns are significant for the conservation of World Natural Heritage sites with high outstanding universal value. This paper constructed a landscape ecological risk evaluation framework for Bayinbuluke using the three aspects of the “nature–society–landscape pattern” and a cumulative resistance surface from the risk evaluation results. The ecological sources were identified based on Morphological Spatial Pattern Analysis (MSPA) and the landscape index. Finally, the Minimum Cumulative Resistance model (MCR) and gravity model were used to obtain both key ecological corridors and general ecological corridors. The results showed that: (1) the influencing factors of landscape ecological risk were, in order of strongest to weakest, landscape pattern factors, natural factors, and social factors; (2) the spatial differences in terms of landscape ecological risk within the study area could be identified. Low-risk areas were mainly concentrated in the core area, high-risk areas were mainly in the outer buffer zone, and the overall ecological risk level at Bayinbuluke was high; and (3) a total of four key corridors and ten general corridors could be constructed. This study provides a reference for decision-making on the ecological security and protection of heritage sites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of GIS for Biodiversity Research)
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17 pages, 4812 KiB  
Article
Improving LST Downscaling Quality on Regional and Field-Scale by Parameterizing the DisTrad Method
by Taha I. M. Ibrahim, Sadiq Al-Maliki, Omar Salameh, István Waltner and Zoltán Vekerdy
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2022, 11(6), 327; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi11060327 - 30 May 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1881
Abstract
Many scientists have been investigating Land Surface Temperature (LST) because of its relevance in water management science due to its direct influence on the hydrological water cycle. This effect stems from being one of the most significant variables influencing evapotranspiration. One of the [...] Read more.
Many scientists have been investigating Land Surface Temperature (LST) because of its relevance in water management science due to its direct influence on the hydrological water cycle. This effect stems from being one of the most significant variables influencing evapotranspiration. One of the most important reasons for the evapotranspiration retrieved from MODIS data’s limited suitability for scheduling and planning irrigation schemes is the lack of spatial resolution. As a result, high-resolution LST is required for estimating evapotranspiration. The goal of this study is to improve the resolution of the available LST data, to improve evapotranspiration (ETa) estimation using statistical downscaling with Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) as a predictor. The DisTrad (Disaggregation of Radiometric Surface Temperature) method was used for the LST downscaling procedure, which is based on aggregating the NDVI map to the LST map resolution and then calculating the coefficient of variation of the native NDVI map within the aggregated pixel and classifying the aggregated map into three classes: NDVI < 0.2 for the bare soil, 0.2 ≤ NDVI ≤ 0.5 for the partial vegetation, and NDVI > 0.5 for the full vegetation. DisTrad uses 25% of the pixels with the lowest coefficient of variation from each class to calculate the regression coefficients. In this work, adjustments to the DisTrad method were implemented to enhance downscaling LST and to examine the impacts of that alteration on the evapotranspiration estimation. The linear regression model was tested as an alternative to the original second-order polynomial. In using 10% of the pixels instead of the originally proposed 25% with the lowest coefficient of variation values, it is assumed that a group of pixels with a lower coefficient of variation represents a more homogeneous area, thus it gives more accurate values. The downscaled LST map retrieval was validated using Landsat 8 thermal maps (100 m). Applying the modified DisTrad approach to disaggregate Landsat LST to 30 m (NDVI resolution) yielded an R2 of 0.72 for the 10%, 0.74 for the 25% and 0.61 for the second-order polynomial lowest coefficient of variation compared to native LST Landsat, which means that 10% can be used as an alternative. Applying the downscaled LST map to estimate ETa yielded R2 0.84 in both cases, compared to ETa yielded from the native Landsat LST. These results prove that using the robust linear regression provided better results than using polynomial regression. With the downscaled Land Surface Temperature data, it was possible to create detailed ETa maps of the small agricultural fields in the test area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrating GIS and Remote Sensing in Soil Mapping and Modeling)
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22 pages, 5595 KiB  
Article
Extracting the Urban Landscape Features of the Historic District from Street View Images Based on Deep Learning: A Case Study in the Beijing Core Area
by Siming Yin, Xian Guo and Jie Jiang
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2022, 11(6), 326; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi11060326 - 28 May 2022
Viewed by 2617
Abstract
Accurate extraction of urban landscape features in the historic district of China is an essential task for the protection of the cultural and historical heritage. In recent years, deep learning (DL)-based methods have made substantial progress in landscape feature extraction. However, the lack [...] Read more.
Accurate extraction of urban landscape features in the historic district of China is an essential task for the protection of the cultural and historical heritage. In recent years, deep learning (DL)-based methods have made substantial progress in landscape feature extraction. However, the lack of annotated data and the complex scenarios inside alleyways result in the limited performance of the available DL-based methods when extracting landscape features. To deal with this problem, we built a small yet comprehensive history-core street view (HCSV) dataset and propose a polarized attention-based landscape feature segmentation network (PALESNet) in this article. The polarized self-attention block is employed in PALESNet to discriminate each landscape feature in various situations, whereas the atrous spatial pyramid pooling (ASPP) block is utilized to capture the multi-scale features. As an auxiliary, a transfer learning module was introduced to supplement the knowledge of the network, to overcome the shortage of labeled data and improve its learning capability in the historic districts. Compared to other state-of-the-art methods, our network achieved the highest accuracy in the case study of Beijing Core Area, with an mIoU of 63.7% on the HCSV dataset; and thus could provide sufficient and accurate data for further protection and renewal in Chinese historic districts. Full article
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24 pages, 7479 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Impact of Built Environment Attributes on Social Followings Using Social Media Data and Deep Learning
by Yiwen Tang, Jiaxin Zhang, Runjiao Liu and Yunqin Li
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2022, 11(6), 325; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi11060325 - 27 May 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2735
Abstract
Streets are an important component of urban landscapes and reflect the image, quality of life, and vitality of public spaces. With the help of the Google Cityscapes urban dataset and the DeepLab-v3 deep learning model, we segmented panoramic images to obtain visual statistics, [...] Read more.
Streets are an important component of urban landscapes and reflect the image, quality of life, and vitality of public spaces. With the help of the Google Cityscapes urban dataset and the DeepLab-v3 deep learning model, we segmented panoramic images to obtain visual statistics, and analyzed the impact of built environment attributes on a restaurant’s popularity. The results show that restaurant reviews are affected by the density of traffic signs, flow of pedestrians, the bicycle slow-moving index, and variations in the terrain, among which the density of traffic signs has a significant negative correlation with the number of reviews. The most critical factor that affects ratings on restaurants’ food, indoor environment and service is pedestrian flow, followed by road walkability and bicycle slow-moving index, and then natural elements (sky openness, greening rate, and terrain), traffic-related factors (road network density and motor vehicle interference index), and artificial environment (such as the building rate), while people’s willingness to stay has a significant negative effect on ratings. The qualities of the built environment that affect per capita consumption include density of traffic signs, pedestrian flow, and degree of non-motorized design, where the density of traffic signs has the most significant effect. Full article
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23 pages, 50411 KiB  
Article
Landslide Susceptibility Mapping Using Machine Learning: A Danish Case Study
by Angelina Ageenko, Lærke Christina Hansen, Kevin Lundholm Lyng, Lars Bodum and Jamal Jokar Arsanjani
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2022, 11(6), 324; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi11060324 - 27 May 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4326
Abstract
Mapping of landslides, conducted in 2021 by the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), revealed 3202 landslides in Denmark, indicating that they might pose a bigger problem than previously acknowledged. Moreover, the changing climate is assumed to have an impact on landslide [...] Read more.
Mapping of landslides, conducted in 2021 by the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), revealed 3202 landslides in Denmark, indicating that they might pose a bigger problem than previously acknowledged. Moreover, the changing climate is assumed to have an impact on landslide occurrences in the future. The aim of this study is to conduct the first landslide susceptibility mapping (LSM) in Denmark, reducing the geographical bias existing in LSM studies, and to identify areas prone to landslides in the future following representative concentration pathway RCP8.5, based on a set of explanatory variables in an area of interest located around Vejle Fjord, Jutland, Denmark. A subset from the landslide inventory provided by GEUS is used as ground truth data. Three well-established machine learning (ML) algorithms—Random Forest, Support Vector Machine, and Logistic Regression—were trained to classify the data samples as landslide or non-landslide, treating the ML task as a binary classification and expressing the results in the form of a probability in order to produce susceptibility maps. The classification results were validated through the test data and through an external data set for an area located outside of the region of interest. While the high predictive performance varied slightly among the three models on the test data, the LR and SVM demonstrated inferior accuracy outside of the study area. The results show that the RF model has robustness and potential for applicability in landslide susceptibility mapping in low-lying landscapes of Denmark in the present. The conducted mapping can become a step forward towards planning for mitigative and protective measures in landslide-prone areas in Denmark, providing policy-makers with necessary decision support. However, the map of the future climate change scenario shows the reduction of the susceptible areas, raising the question of the choice of the climate models and variables in the analysis. Full article
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