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Atoms, Volume 6, Issue 4 (December 2018)

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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Measurements of the Neutron Lifetime
Received: 7 November 2018 / Revised: 1 December 2018 / Accepted: 4 December 2018 / Published: 10 December 2018
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Abstract
Free neutron decay is a fundamental process in particle and nuclear physics. It is the prototype for nuclear beta decay and other semileptonic weak particle decays. Neutron decay played a key role in the formation of light elements in the early universe. The
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Free neutron decay is a fundamental process in particle and nuclear physics. It is the prototype for nuclear beta decay and other semileptonic weak particle decays. Neutron decay played a key role in the formation of light elements in the early universe. The precise value of the neutron mean lifetime, about 15 min, has been the subject of many experiments over the past 70 years. The two main experimental methods, the beam method and the ultracold neutron storage method, give average values of the neutron lifetime that currently differ by 8.7 s (4 standard deviations), a serious discrepancy. The physics of neutron decay, implications of the neutron lifetime, previous and recent experimental measurements, and prospects for the future are reviewed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Precision Measurements of Fundamental Constants)
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Open AccessReview Advanced Helical Plasma Research towards a Steady-State Fusion Reactor by Deuterium Experiments in Large Helical Device
Received: 3 October 2018 / Revised: 3 December 2018 / Accepted: 4 December 2018 / Published: 8 December 2018
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Abstract
The Large Helical Device (LHD) is one of the world’s largest superconducting helical system fusion-experiment devices. Since the start of experiments in 1998, it has expanded its parameter regime. It has also demonstrated world-leading steady-state operation. Based on this progress, the LHD has
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The Large Helical Device (LHD) is one of the world’s largest superconducting helical system fusion-experiment devices. Since the start of experiments in 1998, it has expanded its parameter regime. It has also demonstrated world-leading steady-state operation. Based on this progress, the LHD has moved on to the advanced research phase, that is, deuterium experiment, which started in March 2017. During the first deuterium experiment campaign, an ion temperature of 10 keV was achieved. This was a milestone in helical systems research: demonstrating one of the conditions for fusion. All of this progress and increased understanding have provided the basis for designing an LHD-type steady-state helical fusion reactor. Moreover, LHD plasmas have been utilized not only for fusion research, but also for diagnostics development and applications in wide-ranging plasma research. A few examples of such contributions of LHD plasmas (spectroscopic study and the development of a new type of interferometer) are introduced in this paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SPIG2018)
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Open AccessArticle Transverse Momentum Transfer Distributions Following Single Ionization in 3.6 MeV/amu Au53+ + He Collisions: A 4-Body Classical Treatment
Received: 4 October 2018 / Revised: 27 November 2018 / Accepted: 29 November 2018 / Published: 3 December 2018
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Abstract
A four-body classical model based on the resolution of Hamilton equations of motion was used here to determine and analyze ionization doubly-differential cross sections following 3.6 MeV/amu Au53+ + He collisions. Our calculation was not able to reproduce the binary peaks experimentally
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A four-body classical model based on the resolution of Hamilton equations of motion was used here to determine and analyze ionization doubly-differential cross sections following 3.6 MeV/amu Au53+ + He collisions. Our calculation was not able to reproduce the binary peaks experimentally observed in the transverse momentum distributions for electron emission energies larger than 10 eV. Surprisingly, by introducing a large number of free or quasi-free electrons that followed the projectile at the same velocity, the agreement between the experiment and our calculation was improved, since our model reproduced, at least qualitatively, the experimental binary peaks. The origin of the presence of such electrons is discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle High Temperature Optical Spectra of Diatomic Molecules at Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium
Received: 31 October 2018 / Revised: 23 November 2018 / Accepted: 27 November 2018 / Published: 30 November 2018
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Abstract
In the paper, several theoretical approaches to the determination of the reduced absorption and emission coefficients under local thermodynamic equilibrium conditions were exposed and discussed. The full quantum-mechanical procedure based on the Fourier grid Hamiltonian method was numerically robust but time consuming. In
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In the paper, several theoretical approaches to the determination of the reduced absorption and emission coefficients under local thermodynamic equilibrium conditions were exposed and discussed. The full quantum-mechanical procedure based on the Fourier grid Hamiltonian method was numerically robust but time consuming. In that method, all transitions between the bound, free, and quasi-bound states were treated as bound–bound transitions. The semi-classical method assumed continuous energies of ro-vibrational states, so it did not give the ro-vibrational structure of the molecular bands. That approach neglected the effects of turning points but agreed with the averaged-out quantum-mechanical spectra and it was computer time efficient. In the semi-quantum approximation, summing over the rotational quantum number J was done analytically using the classical Franck–Condon principle and the stationary–phase approximation and its consumption of computer time was lower by a few orders of magnitude than the case of the full quantum-mechanical approach. The approximation described well the vibrational but not the rotational structure of the molecular bands. All the above methods were compared and discussed in the case of a visible and near infrared spectrum of LiHe, Li2, and Cs2 molecules in the high temperature range. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Mixed-State Ionic Beams: An Effective Tool for Collision Dynamics Investigations
Received: 29 October 2018 / Revised: 22 November 2018 / Accepted: 26 November 2018 / Published: 29 November 2018
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Abstract
The use of mixed-state ionic beams in collision dynamics investigations is examined. Using high resolution Auger projectile spectroscopy involving He-like (1s21S,1s2s3,1S) mixed-state beams, the spectrum contributions of the
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The use of mixed-state ionic beams in collision dynamics investigations is examined. Using high resolution Auger projectile spectroscopy involving He-like ( 1 s 2 1 S , 1 s 2 s 3 , 1 S ) mixed-state beams, the spectrum contributions of the 1 s 2 s 3 S metastable beam component is effectively separated and clearly identified. This is performed with a technique that exploits two independent spectrum measurements under the same collision conditions, but with ions having quite different metastable fractions, judiciously selected by varying the ion beam charge-stripping conditions. Details of the technique are presented together with characteristic examples. In collisions of 4 MeV B 3 + with H 2 targets, the Auger electron spectrum of the separated 1 s 2 s 3 S boron beam component allows for a detailed analysis of the formation of the 1 s 2 s ( 3 S ) n l 2 L states by direct n l transfer. In addition, the production of hollow 2 s 2 p 1 , 3 P doubly- and 2 s 2 p 2 2 D triply-excited states, by direct excitation and transfer-excitation processes, respectively, can also be independently studied. In similar mixed-state beam collisions of 15 MeV C 4 + with H 2 , He, Ne and Ar targets, the contributions of the 1 s 2 , 1 s 2 s 3 , 1 S beam components to the formation of the 2 s 2 p 3 , 1 P states by double-excitation, 1 s 2 p excitation and transfer-loss processes can be clearly identified, facilitating comparisons with theoretical calculations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Influence of Secondary Electron Emission and Electron Reflection on a Capacitively Coupled Oxygen Discharge
Received: 22 September 2018 / Revised: 21 November 2018 / Accepted: 23 November 2018 / Published: 28 November 2018
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Abstract
The one-dimensional object-oriented particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collision code oopd1 is applied to explore the role of secondary electron emission and electron reflection on the properties of the capacitively-coupled oxygen discharge. At low pressure (10 mTorr), drift-ambipolar heating of the electrons dominates within the
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The one-dimensional object-oriented particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collision code oopd1 is applied to explore the role of secondary electron emission and electron reflection on the properties of the capacitively-coupled oxygen discharge. At low pressure (10 mTorr), drift-ambipolar heating of the electrons dominates within the plasma bulk, while at higher pressure (50 mTorr), stochastic electron heating in the sheath region dominates. Electron reflection has negligible influence on the electron energy probability function and only a slight influence on the electron heating profile and electron density. Including ion-induced secondary electron emission in the discharge model introduces a high energy tail to the electron energy probability function, enhances the electron density, lowers the electronegativity, and increases the effective electron temperature in the plasma bulk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SPIG2018)
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Open AccessArticle Coherence-Length Effects in Fast Atom Diffraction at Grazing Incidence
Received: 24 October 2018 / Revised: 16 November 2018 / Accepted: 20 November 2018 / Published: 27 November 2018
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Abstract
Coherence properties of projectiles, found relevant in ion-atom collisions, are investigated by analyzing the influence of the degree of coherence of the atomic beam on interference patterns produced by grazing-incidence fast-atom diffraction (GIFAD or FAD). The transverse coherence length of the projectiles, which
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Coherence properties of projectiles, found relevant in ion-atom collisions, are investigated by analyzing the influence of the degree of coherence of the atomic beam on interference patterns produced by grazing-incidence fast-atom diffraction (GIFAD or FAD). The transverse coherence length of the projectiles, which depends on the incidence conditions and the collimating setup, determines the overall characteristics of GIFAD distributions. We show that for atoms scattered from a LiF(001) surface after a given collimation, we can modify the interference signatures of the angular spectra by varying the total impact energy, while keeping the normal energy as a constant. Also, the role played by the geometry of the collimating aperture is analyzed, comparing results for square and circular openings. Furthermore, we study the spot-beam effect, which is due to different focus points of the impinging particles. We show that when a region narrower than a single crystallographic channel is coherently illuminated by the atomic beam, the spot-beam contribution strongly affects the visibility of the interference structures, contributing to the gradual quantum-classical transition of the projectile distributions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Hyperfine Anomalies in Gd and Nd
Received: 25 October 2018 / Revised: 14 November 2018 / Accepted: 14 November 2018 / Published: 15 November 2018
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Abstract
The hyperfine anomalies in Gd and Nd have been extracted from experimental hyperfine structure constants. In addition to the values of the hyperfine anomaly, new improved values of the nuclear magnetic dipole moment ratios are derived. Full article
Open AccessArticle Degree-Distance Based Topological Indices of Crystal Cubic Carbon Structure
Received: 27 October 2018 / Revised: 11 November 2018 / Accepted: 13 November 2018 / Published: 15 November 2018
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Abstract
Chemical graph theory comprehends the basic properties of an atomic graph. The sub-atomic diagrams are the graphs that are comprised of particles called vertices and the covalent bond between them are called edges. The eccentricity ϵu of vertex u in an associated
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Chemical graph theory comprehends the basic properties of an atomic graph. The sub-atomic diagrams are the graphs that are comprised of particles called vertices and the covalent bond between them are called edges. The eccentricity ϵ u of vertex u in an associated graph G, is the separation among u and a vertex farthermost from u. In this article, we consider the precious stone structure of cubic carbon and registered Eccentric-connectivity index ξ ( G ) , Eccentric connectivity polynomial E C P ( G , x ) and Connective Eccentric index C ξ ( G ) of gem structure of cubic carbon for n-levels. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Atomic and Molecular Processes in a Strong Bicircular Laser Field
Received: 23 September 2018 / Revised: 21 October 2018 / Accepted: 5 November 2018 / Published: 8 November 2018
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Abstract
With the development of intense femtosecond laser sources it has become possible to study atomic and molecular processes on their own subfemtosecond time scale. Table-top setups are available that generate intense coherent radiation in the extreme ultraviolet and soft-X-ray regime which have various
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With the development of intense femtosecond laser sources it has become possible to study atomic and molecular processes on their own subfemtosecond time scale. Table-top setups are available that generate intense coherent radiation in the extreme ultraviolet and soft-X-ray regime which have various applications in strong-field physics and attoscience. More recently, the emphasis is moving from the generation of linearly polarized pulses using a linearly polarized driving field to the generation of more complicated elliptically polarized polychromatic ultrashort pulses. The transverse electromagnetic field oscillates in a plane perpendicular to its propagation direction. Therefore, the two dimensions of field polarization plane are available for manipulation and tailoring of these ultrashort pulses. We present a field that allows such a tailoring, the so-called bicircular field. This field is the superposition of two circularly polarized fields with different frequencies that rotate in the same plane in opposite directions. We present results for two processes in a bicircular field: High-order harmonic generation and above-threshold ionization. For a wide range of laser field intensities, we compare high-order harmonic spectra generated by bicircular fields with the spectra generated by a linearly polarized laser field. We also investigate a possibility of introducing spin into attoscience with spin-polarized electrons produced in high-order above-threshold ionization by a bicircular field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SPIG2018)
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Open AccessCommunication X-ray Spectroscopy Based Diagnostic of GigaGauss Magnetic Fields during Relativistic Laser-Plasma Interactions
Received: 20 September 2018 / Revised: 31 October 2018 / Accepted: 1 November 2018 / Published: 6 November 2018
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Abstract
GigaGauss (GG), and even multi-GG magnetic fields are expected to be developed during relativistic laser-plasma interactions. Sub-GG magnetic fields were previously measured by a method using the self-generated harmonics of the laser frequency, and the fact that the magnetized plasma is birefringent and/or
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GigaGauss (GG), and even multi-GG magnetic fields are expected to be developed during relativistic laser-plasma interactions. Sub-GG magnetic fields were previously measured by a method using the self-generated harmonics of the laser frequency, and the fact that the magnetized plasma is birefringent and/or optically active depending on the propagation direction of the electromagnetic wave. In the present short communication, we outline an idea for a method of measuring GG magnetic fields based on the phenomenon of Langmuir-wave-caused dips (L-dips) in X-ray line profiles. The L-dips were observed in several experimental spectroscopic studies of relativistic laser-plasma interactions. Ultrastrong magnetic fields affect the separation of the L-dips from one another, so that this relative shift can be used to measure such fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stark Broadening of Spectral Lines in Plasmas) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview Microcalorimeters for X-Ray Spectroscopy of Highly Charged Ions at Storage Rings
Received: 25 January 2018 / Revised: 11 October 2018 / Accepted: 26 October 2018 / Published: 2 November 2018
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Abstract
X-ray spectroscopy of highly charged heavy ions is an important tool for the investigation of many topics in atomic physics. Such highly charged ions, in particular hydrogen-like uranium, are investigated at heavy ion storage rings, where high charge states can be produced in
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X-ray spectroscopy of highly charged heavy ions is an important tool for the investigation of many topics in atomic physics. Such highly charged ions, in particular hydrogen-like uranium, are investigated at heavy ion storage rings, where high charge states can be produced in large quantities, stored for long times and cooled to low momentum spread of the ion beam. One prominent example is the determination of the 1s Lamb Shift in hydrogen-like heavy ions, which has been investigated at the Experimental Storage Ring (ESR) at the GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research. Due to the large electron binding energies, the energies of the corresponding photon transitions are located in the X-ray regime. To determine the transition energies with high accuracy, highly resolving X-ray spectrometers are needed. One concept of such spectrometers is the concept of microcalorimeters, which, in contrast to semiconductor detectors, uses the detection of heat rather than charge to detect energy. Such detectors have been developed and successfully applied in experiments at the ESR. For experiments at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR), the Stored Particles and Atoms Collaboration (SPARC) pursues the development of new microcalorimeter concepts and larger detector arrays. Next to fundamental investigations on quantum electrodynamics such as the 1s Lamb Shift or electron–electron interactions in two- and three-electron systems, X-ray spectroscopy may be extended towards nuclear physics investigations like the determination of nuclear charge radii. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Perspectives of Atomic Physics with Trapped Highly Charged Ions)
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Open AccessErratum Erratum: Raineri 1,*, M.; Mejia Castellanos 2, R. E.; Gallardo 1, M.; Reyna Almandos 1, J. Extended Analysis of Ar III and Ar IV. Atoms 2018, 6, 47
Received: 15 October 2018 / Accepted: 18 October 2018 / Published: 26 October 2018
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Abstract
The authors wish to make the following corrections about the abstract of the article: In the first sentence of the abstract, “(Ar II, Ar III)” must be replaced by “(Ar III, Ar IV)”. [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle Iron X-ray Transmission at Temperature Near 150 eV Using the National Ignition Facility: First Measurements and Paths to Uncertainty Reduction
Received: 29 August 2018 / Revised: 11 October 2018 / Accepted: 13 October 2018 / Published: 26 October 2018
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Abstract
Discrepancies exist between theoretical and experimental opacity data for iron, at temperatures 180–195 eV and electron densities near 3 × 1022/cm3, relevant to the solar radiative-convective boundary. Another discrepancy, between theory and helioseismic measurements of the boundary’s location, would
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Discrepancies exist between theoretical and experimental opacity data for iron, at temperatures 180–195 eV and electron densities near 3 × 1022/cm3, relevant to the solar radiative-convective boundary. Another discrepancy, between theory and helioseismic measurements of the boundary’s location, would be ameliorated if the experimental opacity is correct. To address these issues, this paper details the first results from new experiments under development at the National Ignition Facility (NIF), using a different method to replicate the prior experimental conditions. In the NIF experiments, 64 laser beams indirectly heat a plastic-tamped rectangular iron-magnesium sample inside a gold cavity. Another 64 beams implode a spherical plastic shell to produce a continuum X-ray flash which backlights the hot sample. An X-ray spectrometer records the transmitted X-rays, the unattenuated X-rays passing around the sample, and the sample’s self-emission. From these data, X-ray transmission spectra are inferred, showing Mg K-shell and Fe L-shell X-ray transitions from plasma at a temperature of ~150 eV and electron density of ~8 × 1021/cm3. These conditions are similar to prior Z measurements which agree better with theory. The NIF transmission data show statistical uncertainties of 2–10%, but various systematic uncertainties must be addressed before pursuing quantitative comparisons. The paths to reduction of the largest uncertainties are discussed. Once the uncertainty is reduced, future NIF experiments will probe higher temperatures (170–200 eV) to address the ongoing disagreement between theory and Z data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atomic and Molecular Opacity Data for Astrophysics)
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Open AccessReview The Unified Theory of Resonance Energy Transfer According to Molecular Quantum Electrodynamics
Received: 10 September 2018 / Revised: 1 October 2018 / Accepted: 8 October 2018 / Published: 11 October 2018
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Abstract
An overview is given of the molecular quantum electrodynamical (QED) theory of resonance energy transfer (RET). In this quantized radiation field description, RET arises from the exchange of a single virtual photon between excited donor and unexcited acceptor species. Diagrammatic time-dependent perturbation theory
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An overview is given of the molecular quantum electrodynamical (QED) theory of resonance energy transfer (RET). In this quantized radiation field description, RET arises from the exchange of a single virtual photon between excited donor and unexcited acceptor species. Diagrammatic time-dependent perturbation theory is employed to calculate the transfer matrix element, from which the migration rate is obtained via the Fermi golden rule. Rate formulae for oriented and isotropic systems hold for all pair separation distances, R, beyond wave function overlap. The two well-known mechanisms associated with migration of energy, namely the R−6 radiationless transfer rate due to Förster and the R−2 radiative exchange, correspond to near- and far-zone asymptotes of the general result. Discriminatory pair transfer rates are also presented. The influence of an environment is accounted for by invoking the polariton, which mediates exchange and by introducing a complex refractive index to describe local field and screening effects. This macroscopic treatment is compared and contrasted with a microscopic analysis in which the role of a neutral, polarizable and passive third-particle in mediating transfer of energy is considered. Three possible coupling mechanisms arise, each requiring summation over 24 time-ordered diagrams at fourth-order of perturbation theory with the total rate being a sum of two- and various three-body terms. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle A New Procedure to Determine the Plasma Parameters from a Genetic Algorithm Coupled with the Spectral Line-Shape Code PPP
Received: 3 July 2018 / Revised: 3 September 2018 / Accepted: 20 September 2018 / Published: 26 September 2018
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Abstract
A method of analysis of experimental spectra for obtaining the plasma parameters is presented and discussed. Based on the coupling of the spectral line-shape code PPP with the genetic algorithm PIKAIA, the proposed method is inspired by natural selection mechanisms resulting in the
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A method of analysis of experimental spectra for obtaining the plasma parameters is presented and discussed. Based on the coupling of the spectral line-shape code PPP with the genetic algorithm PIKAIA, the proposed method is inspired by natural selection mechanisms resulting in the development of basic genetic operators. The spectra analysis is performed by fitting experimental spectra with synthetic spectral line profiles obtained by using theoretical models and a set of plasma parameters, such as its temperature and electron density. In the present paper, the diagnostic procedure based on a genetic algorithm coupled with the PPP code has been used for the analysis of both hydrogen Balmer-β and He I 492.2 nm lines in the helium plasma created by corona discharge. The broadening of these spectral lines due to the Stark effect has been considered, together with the van der Waals and instrumental broadening. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spectral Line Shapes in Plasmas II)
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Open AccessArticle Progress in Finding New Energy Levels Using Laser Spectroscopy
Received: 23 July 2018 / Revised: 12 September 2018 / Accepted: 20 September 2018 / Published: 25 September 2018
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Abstract
The necessary tools for determining a fast and, during an experimental run, possible location of a new energy level are presented, using the findings and characterization of a new level of the La atom as an example. Due to the corresponding computer programs,
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The necessary tools for determining a fast and, during an experimental run, possible location of a new energy level are presented, using the findings and characterization of a new level of the La atom as an example. Due to the corresponding computer programs, the observations gained during the experiment can be immediately used. Full article
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