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Universe, Volume 5, Issue 8 (August 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) recently presented, for the first time, an impressive direct [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
The Inflationary Mechanism in Asymptotically Safe Gravity
Universe 2019, 5(8), 189; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe5080189 - 20 Aug 2019
Viewed by 296
Abstract
According to the asymptotic safety conjecture, gravity is a renormalizable quantum field theory whose continuum limit is defined by an interacting fixed point of the renormalization group flow. In these proceedings, we review some implications of the existence of this nontrivial fixed point [...] Read more.
According to the asymptotic safety conjecture, gravity is a renormalizable quantum field theory whose continuum limit is defined by an interacting fixed point of the renormalization group flow. In these proceedings, we review some implications of the existence of this nontrivial fixed point in cosmological contexts. Specifically, we discuss a toy model exemplifying how the departure from the fixed-point regime can explain the approximate scale-invariance of the power spectrum of temperature fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Theory of Inertia Based on Mach’s Principle
Universe 2019, 5(8), 188; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe5080188 - 16 Aug 2019
Viewed by 299
Abstract
A non-relativistic theory of inertia based on Mach’s principle is presented as has been envisaged, but not achieved, by Ernst Mach in 1872. The central feature is a space-dependent, anisotropic, symmetric inert mass tensor. The contribution of a mass element dm to [...] Read more.
A non-relativistic theory of inertia based on Mach’s principle is presented as has been envisaged, but not achieved, by Ernst Mach in 1872. The central feature is a space-dependent, anisotropic, symmetric inert mass tensor. The contribution of a mass element d m to the inertia of a particle m 0 experiencing an acceleration from rest is proportional to cos 2 α , where α is the angle between the line connecting m 0 and d m and the direction of the acceleration. Apsidal precession for planets circling around a central star is not a consequence of this theory, thereby avoiding the prediction of an apsidal precession with the wrong sign as is done by Mach-like theories with isotropic inert mass. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rotation Effects in Relativity)
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Open AccessArticle
Thermal Quantum Spacetime
Universe 2019, 5(8), 187; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe5080187 - 12 Aug 2019
Viewed by 411
Abstract
The intersection of thermodynamics, quantum theory and gravity has revealed many profound insights, all the while posing new puzzles. In this article, we discuss an extension of equilibrium statistical mechanics and thermodynamics potentially compatible with a key feature of general relativity, background independence; [...] Read more.
The intersection of thermodynamics, quantum theory and gravity has revealed many profound insights, all the while posing new puzzles. In this article, we discuss an extension of equilibrium statistical mechanics and thermodynamics potentially compatible with a key feature of general relativity, background independence; and we subsequently use it in a candidate quantum gravity system, thus providing a preliminary formulation of a thermal quantum spacetime. Specifically, we emphasise an information-theoretic characterisation of generalised Gibbs equilibrium that is shown to be particularly suited to background independent settings, and in which the status of entropy is elevated to being more fundamental than energy. We also shed light on its intimate connections with the thermal time hypothesis. Based on this, we outline a framework for statistical mechanics of quantum gravity degrees of freedom of combinatorial and algebraic type, and apply it in several examples. In particular, we provide a quantum statistical basis for the origin of covariant group field theories, shown to arise as effective statistical field theories of the underlying quanta of space in a certain class of generalised Gibbs states. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Group Field Theory and Related Quantum Gravity Formalisms)
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of the Nuclear Equation of State on the Stability of Hybrid Neutron Stars
Universe 2019, 5(8), 186; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe5080186 - 12 Aug 2019
Viewed by 408
Abstract
We construct a set of equations of state (EoS) of dense and hot matter with a 1st order phase transition from a hadronic system to a deconfined quark matter state. In this two-phase approach, hadrons are described using the relativistic mean field theory [...] Read more.
We construct a set of equations of state (EoS) of dense and hot matter with a 1st order phase transition from a hadronic system to a deconfined quark matter state. In this two-phase approach, hadrons are described using the relativistic mean field theory with different parametrisations and the deconfined quark phase is modeled using vBag, a bag–type model extended to include vector interactions as well as a simultaneous onset of chiral symmetry restoration and deconfinement. This feature results in a non–trivial connection between the hadron and quark EoS, modifying the quark phase beyond its onset density. We find that this unique property has an impact on the predicted hybrid (quark core) neutron star mass–radius relations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Dynamical Stability of Bulk Viscous Isotropic and Homogeneous Universe
Universe 2019, 5(8), 185; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe5080185 - 09 Aug 2019
Viewed by 345
Abstract
In this paper, we study the phase space portrait of homogeneous and isotropic universe by taking different coupling functions between dark energy models and bulk viscous dark matter. The dimensionless quantities are introduced to establish an autonomous set of equations. To analyze the [...] Read more.
In this paper, we study the phase space portrait of homogeneous and isotropic universe by taking different coupling functions between dark energy models and bulk viscous dark matter. The dimensionless quantities are introduced to establish an autonomous set of equations. To analyze the stability of the cosmos, we evaluate critical points and respective eigenvalues for different dynamical quantities. For bulk viscous matter and radiation in tachyon coupled field, these points show stable evolution when γ δ but accelerated expansion of the universe for δ > 1 9 . The stability of the universe increases for some stationary points which may correspond to the late-time expansion for the coupled phantom field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Relativistic Astrophysics)
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Open AccessArticle
Lorentz Group Projector Technique for Decomposing Reducible Representations and Applications to High Spins
Universe 2019, 5(8), 184; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe5080184 - 07 Aug 2019
Viewed by 368
Abstract
The momentum-independent Casimir operators of the homogeneous spin-Lorentz group are employed in the construction of covariant projector operators, which can decompose anyone of its reducible finite-dimensional representation spaces into irreducible components. One of the benefits from such operators is that any one of [...] Read more.
The momentum-independent Casimir operators of the homogeneous spin-Lorentz group are employed in the construction of covariant projector operators, which can decompose anyone of its reducible finite-dimensional representation spaces into irreducible components. One of the benefits from such operators is that any one of the finite-dimensional carrier spaces of the Lorentz group representations can be equipped with Lorentz vector indices because any such space can be embedded in a Lorentz tensor of a properly-designed rank and then be unambiguously found by a projector. In particular, all the carrier spaces of the single-spin-valued Lorentz group representations, which so far have been described as 2 ( 2 j + 1 ) column vectors, can now be described in terms of Lorentz tensors for bosons or Lorentz tensors with the Dirac spinor component, for fermions. This approach facilitates the construct of covariant interactions of high spins with external fields in so far as they can be obtained by simple contractions of the relevant S O ( 1 , 3 ) indices. Examples of Lorentz group projector operators for spins varying from 1 / 2 –2 and belonging to distinct product spaces are explicitly worked out. The decomposition of multiple-spin-valued product spaces into irreducible sectors suggests that not only the highest spin, but all the spins contained in an irreducible carrier space could correspond to physical degrees of freedom. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lorentz-Breaking Field Theory)
Open AccessArticle
The Brightest Point in Accretion Disk and Black Hole Spin: Implication to the Image of Black Hole M87*
Universe 2019, 5(8), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe5080183 - 05 Aug 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 472
Abstract
We propose the simple new method for extracting the value of the black hole spin from the direct high-resolution image of black hole by using a thin accretion disk model. In this model, the observed dark region on the first image of the [...] Read more.
We propose the simple new method for extracting the value of the black hole spin from the direct high-resolution image of black hole by using a thin accretion disk model. In this model, the observed dark region on the first image of the supermassive black hole in the galaxy M87, obtained by the Event Horizon Telescope, is a silhouette of the black hole event horizon. The outline of this silhouette is the equator of the event horizon sphere. The dark silhouette of the black hole event horizon is placed within the expected position of the black hole shadow, which is not revealed on the first image. We calculated numerically the relation between the observed position of the black hole silhouette and the brightest point in the thin accretion disk, depending on the black hole spin. From this relation, we derive the spin of the supermassive black hole M87*, a = 0.75 ± 0.15 . Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Black Hole Physics and Astrophysics)
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Open AccessArticle
On the Structure of the Vacuum in Quantum Gravity: A View from the Asymptotic Safety Scenario
Universe 2019, 5(8), 182; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe5080182 - 03 Aug 2019
Viewed by 382
Abstract
Although the Asymptotic Safety scenario is one of the most promising approaches to quantum gravity, little attention has been devoted to the issue of the vacuum state. Higher derivative operators often appear on the ultraviolet critical surface around the non-Gaussian fixed point generating [...] Read more.
Although the Asymptotic Safety scenario is one of the most promising approaches to quantum gravity, little attention has been devoted to the issue of the vacuum state. Higher derivative operators often appear on the ultraviolet critical surface around the non-Gaussian fixed point generating additional degrees of freedom which can render the standard vacuum unstable. When this happens, translation and rotational symmetries can be spontaneously broken and a new set of symmetries can show up at the level of the effective action. In this work, it will be argued that a “kinetic condensate” characterizes the vacuum state of asymptotically safe quadratic gravity theories. If this scenario is realized in the full theory, the vacuum state of gravity is the gravitational analogous to the Savvidy vacuum in Quantum Chromo-Dynamics (QCD). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Holographic Formulation of 3D Metric Gravity with Finite Boundaries
Universe 2019, 5(8), 181; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe5080181 - 31 Jul 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 380
Abstract
In this work we construct holographic boundary theories for linearized 3D gravity, for a general family of finite or quasi-local boundaries. These boundary theories are directly derived from the dynamics of 3D gravity by computing the effective action for a geometric boundary observable, [...] Read more.
In this work we construct holographic boundary theories for linearized 3D gravity, for a general family of finite or quasi-local boundaries. These boundary theories are directly derived from the dynamics of 3D gravity by computing the effective action for a geometric boundary observable, which measures the geodesic length from a given boundary point to some center in the bulk manifold. We identify the general form for these boundary theories and find that these are Liouville-like with a coupling to the boundary Ricci scalar. This is illustrated with various examples, which each offer interesting insights into the structure of holographic boundary theories. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Parity Doubling and the Dense-Matter Phase Diagram under Constraints from Multi-Messenger Astronomy
Universe 2019, 5(8), 180; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe5080180 - 30 Jul 2019
Viewed by 415
Abstract
We extend the recently developed hybrid quark–meson–nucleon model by augmenting a six-point scalar interaction and investigate the consequences for neutron-star sequences in the mass–radius diagram. One of the characteristic features of the model is that the chiral symmetry is restored within the hadronic [...] Read more.
We extend the recently developed hybrid quark–meson–nucleon model by augmenting a six-point scalar interaction and investigate the consequences for neutron-star sequences in the mass–radius diagram. One of the characteristic features of the model is that the chiral symmetry is restored within the hadronic phase by lifting the mass splitting between chiral partner states, before quark deconfinement takes place. At low temperature and finite baryon density, the model predicts a first- or second-order chiral phase transition, or a crossover, depending on the expectation value of a scalar field, and a first-order deconfinement phase transition. We discuss two sets of free parameters, which result in compact-star mass–radius relations that are at tension with the combined constraints for maximum-mass ( 2 M ) and the compactness (GW170817). We find that the most preferable mass–radius relations result in isospin-symmetric phase diagram with rather low temperature for the critical point of the chiral phase transition. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Spin Foam Vertex Amplitudes on Quantum Computer—Preliminary Results
Universe 2019, 5(8), 179; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe5080179 - 26 Jul 2019
Viewed by 510
Abstract
Vertex amplitudes are elementary contributions to the transition amplitudes in the spin foam models of quantum gravity. The purpose of this article is to make the first step towards computing vertex amplitudes with the use of quantum algorithms. In our studies we are [...] Read more.
Vertex amplitudes are elementary contributions to the transition amplitudes in the spin foam models of quantum gravity. The purpose of this article is to make the first step towards computing vertex amplitudes with the use of quantum algorithms. In our studies we are focused on a vertex amplitude of 3+1 D gravity, associated with a pentagram spin network. Furthermore, all spin labels of the spin network are assumed to be equal j = 1 / 2 , which is crucial for the introduction of the intertwiner qubits. A procedure of determining modulus squares of vertex amplitudes on universal quantum computers is proposed. Utility of the approach is tested with the use of: IBM’s ibmqx4 5-qubit quantum computer, simulator of quantum computer provided by the same company and QX quantum computer simulator. Finally, values of the vertex probability are determined employing both the QX and the IBM simulators with 20-qubit quantum register and compared with analytical predictions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Group Field Theory and Related Quantum Gravity Formalisms)
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Open AccessArticle
Possible Origins and Properties of an Expanding, Dark Energy Providing Dark Multiverse
Universe 2019, 5(8), 178; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe5080178 - 24 Jul 2019
Viewed by 386
Abstract
The model of a multiverse is advanced, which endows subuniverses like ours with space and time and imparts to their matter all information about the physical laws. It expands driven by dark energy (DE), which is felt in our Universe (U) by mass [...] Read more.
The model of a multiverse is advanced, which endows subuniverses like ours with space and time and imparts to their matter all information about the physical laws. It expands driven by dark energy (DE), which is felt in our Universe (U) by mass input and expansion–acceleration. This dark multiverse (DM) owes its origin to a creatio ex nihilo, described in previous work by a tunneling process in quasi-classical approximation. Here, this origin is treated again in the context of quantum gravity (QG) by solving a Wheeler de Witt (WdW) equation. Different than usual, the minisuperspace employed is not spanned by the expansion parameter a but by the volume 2 π 2 a 3 . This not only modifies the WdW-equation, but also probabilities and solution properties. A “soft entry” can serve the same purpose as a tunneling process. Sections of solutions are identified, which show qualitative features of a volume-quantisation, albeit without a stringent quantitative definition. A timeless, spatially four-dimensional primordial state is also treated, modifying a state proposed by Hartle and Hawking (HH). For the later classical evolution, elaborated in earlier papers, a wave function is calculated and linked to the solutions for the quantum regime (QR). It is interpreted to mean that the expansion of the DM proceeds in submicroscopic leaps. Further results are also derived for the classical solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Multiverse)
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