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Universe, Volume 5, Issue 5 (May 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Given the a priori absence of coordinates, it is standard, in quantum cosmology, to use dynamical [...] Read more.
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Open AccessCommunication
Jet Structure Studies in Small Systems
Universe 2019, 5(5), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe5050132
Received: 16 April 2019 / Revised: 22 May 2019 / Accepted: 22 May 2019 / Published: 27 May 2019
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Abstract
A study investigating a possible jet shape dependence on the charged event multiplicity was performed on collision samples generated by Monte–Carlo (MC) event generators Pythia and Hijing++. We calculated the integral jet shape and found a significant modification caused by multiple-parton interactions. [...] Read more.
A study investigating a possible jet shape dependence on the charged event multiplicity was performed on collision samples generated by Monte–Carlo (MC) event generators Pythia and Hijing++. We calculated the integral jet shape and found a significant modification caused by multiple-parton interactions. By interchanging and enabling different model ingredients in the simulations and analyzing the results in several p T bins and event multiplicity classes, we found a characteristic jet size measure that was independent of the chosen tunes, settings, and jet reconstruction algorithms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Zimányi School and Analytic Hydrodynamics in High Energy Physics)
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Open AccessReview
Slim Accretion Disks: Theory and Observational Consequences
Universe 2019, 5(5), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe5050131
Received: 15 April 2019 / Revised: 20 May 2019 / Accepted: 21 May 2019 / Published: 26 May 2019
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Abstract
The concept of slim accretion disks emerged over 30 years ago as an answer to several unsolved problems. Since that time there has been a tremendous increase in the amount of observational data where this model applies. However, many critical issues on the [...] Read more.
The concept of slim accretion disks emerged over 30 years ago as an answer to several unsolved problems. Since that time there has been a tremendous increase in the amount of observational data where this model applies. However, many critical issues on the theoretical side remain unsolved, as they are inherently difficult. This is the issue of the disk stability under radiation pressure, the role of the magnetic field in the energy transfer inside the disk, the formation (or not) of a warm corona, and outflows. Thus the progress has to be done both through further developments of the model and through careful comparison with the observational data. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Heavy-Flavor Measurements with the ALICE Experiment at the LHC
Universe 2019, 5(5), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe5050130
Received: 19 April 2019 / Revised: 21 May 2019 / Accepted: 22 May 2019 / Published: 25 May 2019
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Abstract
Heavy quarks (charm and beauty) are produced early in the nucleus–nucleus collisions, and heavy flavor survives throughout the later stages. Measurements of heavy-flavor quarks thus provide us with means to understand the properties of the Quark–Gluon Plasma, a hot and dense state of [...] Read more.
Heavy quarks (charm and beauty) are produced early in the nucleus–nucleus collisions, and heavy flavor survives throughout the later stages. Measurements of heavy-flavor quarks thus provide us with means to understand the properties of the Quark–Gluon Plasma, a hot and dense state of matter created in heavy-ion collisions. Production of heavy-flavor in small collision systems, on the other hand, can be used to test Quantum-chromodynamics models. After a successful completion of the Run-I data taking period, the increased luminosity from the LHC and an upgraded ALICE detector system in the Run-II data taking period allows for unprecedented precision in the study of heavy quarks. In this article we give an overview of selected recent results on heavy-flavor measurements with ALICE experiments at the LHC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Zimányi School and Analytic Hydrodynamics in High Energy Physics)
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Open AccessArticle
Neutron-Star-Merger Equation of State
Universe 2019, 5(5), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe5050129
Received: 31 March 2019 / Revised: 17 May 2019 / Accepted: 22 May 2019 / Published: 25 May 2019
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Abstract
In this work, we discuss the dense matter equation of state (EOS) for the extreme range of conditions encountered in neutron stars and their mergers. The calculation of the properties of such an EOS involves modeling different degrees of freedom (such as nuclei, [...] Read more.
In this work, we discuss the dense matter equation of state (EOS) for the extreme range of conditions encountered in neutron stars and their mergers. The calculation of the properties of such an EOS involves modeling different degrees of freedom (such as nuclei, nucleons, hyperons, and quarks), taking into account different symmetries, and including finite density and temperature effects in a thermodynamically consistent manner. We begin by addressing subnuclear matter consisting of nucleons and a small admixture of light nuclei in the context of the excluded volume approach. We then turn our attention to supranuclear homogeneous matter as described by the Chiral Mean Field (CMF) formalism. Finally, we present results from realistic neutron-star-merger simulations performed using the CMF model that predict signatures for deconfinement to quark matter in gravitational wave signals. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Medical Applications of the ALPIDE Detector
Universe 2019, 5(5), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe5050128
Received: 18 March 2019 / Revised: 20 May 2019 / Accepted: 21 May 2019 / Published: 24 May 2019
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Abstract
The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) ALICE detector is undergoing a major upgrade in the Second Long Shutdown of the LHC in 2019–2020. During this upgrade, the innermost detector, the Inner Tracking System, will be completely replaced by a new detector which is [...] Read more.
The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) ALICE detector is undergoing a major upgrade in the Second Long Shutdown of the LHC in 2019–2020. During this upgrade, the innermost detector, the Inner Tracking System, will be completely replaced by a new detector which is built from the ALPIDE sensor. In the Bergen proton computer tomography (pCT) collaboration, we decided to apply these sensors for medical applications. They can be used for positioning in hadron therapies due to their good position resolution and radiation tolerance. Dose planning of hadron therapy is calculated currently from photon CT measurements, which results in large uncertainties in the planning and therefore in a necessary enlargement of the treatment area. This uncertainty can be reduced by performing the CT scan using protons. The current contribution shows the development of a sampling calorimeter built from the ALPIDE detector for proton CT measurements and describes the state of the project. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Zimányi School and Analytic Hydrodynamics in High Energy Physics)
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Open AccessArticle
Exact Solutions in Poincaré Gauge Gravity Theory
Universe 2019, 5(5), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe5050127
Received: 21 April 2019 / Revised: 15 May 2019 / Accepted: 16 May 2019 / Published: 24 May 2019
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Abstract
In the framework of the gauge theory based on the Poincaré symmetry group, the gravitational field is described in terms of the coframe and the local Lorentz connection. Considered as gauge field potentials, they give rise to the corresponding field strength which are [...] Read more.
In the framework of the gauge theory based on the Poincaré symmetry group, the gravitational field is described in terms of the coframe and the local Lorentz connection. Considered as gauge field potentials, they give rise to the corresponding field strength which are naturally identified with the torsion and the curvature on the Riemann–Cartan spacetime. We study the class of quadratic Poincaré gauge gravity models with the most general Yang–Mills type Lagrangian which contains all possible parity-even and parity-odd invariants built from the torsion and the curvature. Exact vacuum solutions of the gravitational field equations are constructed as a certain deformation of de Sitter geometry. They are black holes with nontrivial torsion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from Teleparallel Universes in Salamanca)
Open AccessArticle
Influence of Backside Energy Leakages from Hadronic Calorimeters on Fluctuation Measures in Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions
Universe 2019, 5(5), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe5050126
Received: 19 April 2019 / Revised: 16 May 2019 / Accepted: 17 May 2019 / Published: 23 May 2019
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Abstract
The phase diagram of the strongly interacting matter is the main research subject for different current and future experiments in high-energy physics. System size and energy scan programs aim to find a possible critical point. One of such programs was accomplished by the [...] Read more.
The phase diagram of the strongly interacting matter is the main research subject for different current and future experiments in high-energy physics. System size and energy scan programs aim to find a possible critical point. One of such programs was accomplished by the fixed-target NA61/SHINE experiment in 2018. It includes six beam energies and six colliding systems: p + p, Be + Be, Ar + Sc, Xe + La, Pb + Pb and p + Pb. In this study, we discuss how the efficiency of centrality selection by forward spectators influences multiplicity and fluctuation measures and how this influence depends on the size of colliding systems. We use SHIELD and EPOS Monte-Carlo (MC) generators along with the wounded nucleon model, introduce a probability to lose a forward spectator and spectator energy loss. We show that for light colliding systems such as Be or Li even a small inefficiency in centrality selection has a dramatic impact on multiplicity scaled variance. Conversely, heavy systems such as Ar + Sc are much less prone to the effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Zimányi School and Analytic Hydrodynamics in High Energy Physics)
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Open AccessArticle
Fifty Years of Energy Extraction from Rotating Black Hole: Revisiting Magnetic Penrose Process
Universe 2019, 5(5), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe5050125
Received: 21 March 2019 / Revised: 7 May 2019 / Accepted: 10 May 2019 / Published: 22 May 2019
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Abstract
Magnetic Penrose process (MPP) is not only the most exciting and fascinating process mining the rotational energy of black hole but it is also the favored astrophysically viable mechanism for high energy sources and phenomena. It operates in three regimes of efficiency, namely [...] Read more.
Magnetic Penrose process (MPP) is not only the most exciting and fascinating process mining the rotational energy of black hole but it is also the favored astrophysically viable mechanism for high energy sources and phenomena. It operates in three regimes of efficiency, namely low, moderate and ultra, depending on the magnetization and charging of spinning black holes in astrophysical setting. In this paper, we revisit MPP with a comprehensive discussion of its physics in different regimes, and compare its operation with other competing mechanisms. We show that MPP could in principle foot the bill for powering engine of such phenomena as ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, relativistic jets, fast radio bursts, quasars, AGNs, etc. Further, it also leads to a number of important observable predictions. All this beautifully bears out the promise of a new vista of energy powerhouse heralded by Roger Penrose half a century ago through this process, and it has today risen in its magnetically empowered version of mid 1980s from a purely thought experiment of academic interest to a realistic powering mechanism for various high-energy astrophysical phenomena. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Correlations of High-pT Hadrons and Jets in ALICE
Universe 2019, 5(5), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe5050124
Received: 21 March 2019 / Revised: 17 May 2019 / Accepted: 20 May 2019 / Published: 22 May 2019
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Abstract
There are two prominent experimental signatures of quark–gluon plasma creation in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions: the jet quenching phenomenon and the azimuthal-momentum space-anisotropy of final-state particle emission. Recently, the latter signature was also observed in lighter collision systems such as p–Pb or pp. This [...] Read more.
There are two prominent experimental signatures of quark–gluon plasma creation in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions: the jet quenching phenomenon and the azimuthal-momentum space-anisotropy of final-state particle emission. Recently, the latter signature was also observed in lighter collision systems such as p–Pb or pp. This raises a natural question of whether in these systems, the observed collectivity is also accompanied by jet quenching. In this paper, we overview ALICE measurements of the jet quenching phenomenon studied using semi-inclusive distributions of track-based jets recoiling from a high-transverse momentum ( p T ) hadron trigger in Pb–Pb and p–Pb collisions at LHC energies. The constructed coincidence observable, the per trigger normalized yield of associated recoil jets, is corrected for the complex uncorrelated jet background, including multi-partonic interactions, using a data-driven statistical subtraction method. In the p–Pb data, the observable was measured in events with different underlying event activity and was utilized to set an upper limit on the average medium-induced out-of-cone energy transport for jets with resolution parameter R = 0.4 . The associated jet momentum shift was found to be less than 0.4 GeV/c at 90% confidence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Zimányi School and Analytic Hydrodynamics in High Energy Physics)
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Open AccessArticle
Gravitational Qubits
Universe 2019, 5(5), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe5050123
Received: 14 March 2019 / Revised: 15 May 2019 / Accepted: 16 May 2019 / Published: 21 May 2019
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Abstract
We report on the behavior of two-level quantum systems, or qubits, in the background of rotating and non-rotating metrics and provide a method to derive the related spin currents and motions. The calculations are performed in the external field approximation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rotation Effects in Relativity)
Open AccessCommunication
Hadron Spectra Parameters within the Non-Extensive Approach
Universe 2019, 5(5), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe5050122
Received: 8 April 2019 / Revised: 18 May 2019 / Accepted: 20 May 2019 / Published: 21 May 2019
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Abstract
We investigate how the non-extensive approach works in high-energy physics. Transverse momentum (pT) spectra of several hadrons are fitted by various non-extensive momentum distributions and by the Boltzmann–Gibbs statistics. It is shown that some non-extensive distributions can be transferred one [...] Read more.
We investigate how the non-extensive approach works in high-energy physics. Transverse momentum ( p T ) spectra of several hadrons are fitted by various non-extensive momentum distributions and by the Boltzmann–Gibbs statistics. It is shown that some non-extensive distributions can be transferred one into another. We find explicit hadron mass and center-of-mass energy scaling both in the temperature and in the non-extensive parameter, q, in proton–proton and heavy-ion collisions. We find that the temperature depends linearly, but the Tsallis q follows a logarithmic dependence on the collision energy in proton–proton collisions. In the nucleus–nucleus collisions, on the other hand, T and q correlate linearly, as was predicted in our previous work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Zimányi School and Analytic Hydrodynamics in High Energy Physics)
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Open AccessCorrection
Correction: Calcagni, G. Taming the Beast: Diffusion Method in Nonlocal Gravity. Universe 2018, 4, 95
Universe 2019, 5(5), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe5050121
Received: 14 May 2019 / Accepted: 17 May 2019 / Published: 21 May 2019
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Abstract
The author did not realize that some of the initial conditions in [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gravity, Black Holes and Cosmology XXI)
Open AccessArticle
Production and Detection of Light Dark Matter at Jefferson Lab: The BDX Experiment
Universe 2019, 5(5), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe5050120
Received: 6 April 2019 / Revised: 15 May 2019 / Accepted: 16 May 2019 / Published: 20 May 2019
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Abstract
The Beam Dump eXperiment (BDX) is a an electron-beam thick-target experiment aimed to investigate the existence of light Dark Matter particles in the MeV-GeV mass region at Jefferson Lab. The experiment will make use of a 10.6 GeV high-intensity electron-beam impinging on the [...] Read more.
The Beam Dump eXperiment (BDX) is a an electron-beam thick-target experiment aimed to investigate the existence of light Dark Matter particles in the MeV-GeV mass region at Jefferson Lab. The experiment will make use of a 10.6 GeV high-intensity electron-beam impinging on the Hall-A beam-dump to produce the Dark Matter particles ( χ ) through the Dark Photon portal. The BDX detector located at ∼20 m from the dump consists of two main components: an electromagnetic calorimeter to detect the signals produced by the χ -electron scattering and a veto system to reject background. The expected signature of the DM (Dark Matter) interaction in the Ecal (Electromagnetic calorimeter) is a ∼GeV electromagnetic shower paired with a null activity in the surrounding active veto counters. Collecting 10 22 electrons on target in 285 days of parasitic run at 65 μ A of beam current, and with an expected background of O(5) counts, in the case of a null discovery, BDX will be able to lower the exclusion limits by one to two orders of magnitude in the parameter space of dark-matter coupling versus mass. This paper describes the experiment and presents a summary of the most significant results achieved thus far, which led to the recent approval of the experiment by JLab-PAC46. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Zimányi School and Analytic Hydrodynamics in High Energy Physics)
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Open AccessArticle
Quarkonium Phenomenology from a Generalised Gauss Law
Universe 2019, 5(5), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe5050119
Received: 17 April 2019 / Revised: 11 May 2019 / Accepted: 13 May 2019 / Published: 20 May 2019
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Abstract
We present an improved analytic parametrisation of the complex in-medium heavy quark potential derived rigorously from the generalised Gauss law. To this end we combine in a self-consistent manner a non-perturbative vacuum potential with a weak-coupling description of the QCD medium. The resulting [...] Read more.
We present an improved analytic parametrisation of the complex in-medium heavy quark potential derived rigorously from the generalised Gauss law. To this end we combine in a self-consistent manner a non-perturbative vacuum potential with a weak-coupling description of the QCD medium. The resulting Gauss-law parametrisation is able to reproduce full lattice QCD data by using only a single temperature dependent parameter, the Debye mass m D . Using this parametrisation we model the in-medium potential at finite baryo-chemical potential, which allows us to estimate the Ψ / J / Ψ ratio in heavy-ion collisions at different beam energies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Zimányi School and Analytic Hydrodynamics in High Energy Physics)
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Open AccessCommunication
Correlation of Heavy and Light Flavors in Simulations
Universe 2019, 5(5), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe5050118
Received: 25 March 2019 / Revised: 15 May 2019 / Accepted: 16 May 2019 / Published: 20 May 2019
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Abstract
The ALICE experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) ring is designed to study the strongly interacting matter at extreme energy densities created in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. In this paper we investigate correlations of heavy and light flavors in simulations at LHC energies [...] Read more.
The ALICE experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) ring is designed to study the strongly interacting matter at extreme energy densities created in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. In this paper we investigate correlations of heavy and light flavors in simulations at LHC energies at mid-rapidity, with the primary purpose of proposing experimental applications of these methods. Our studies have shown that investigating the correlation images can aid the experimental separation of heavy quarks and help understanding the physics that create them. The shape of the correlation peaks can be used to separate the electrons stemming from b quarks. This could be a method of identification that, combined with identification in silicon vertex detectors, may provide much better sample purity for examining the secondary vertex shift. Based on a correlation picture it is also possible to distinguish between prompt and late contributions to D meson yields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Zimányi School and Analytic Hydrodynamics in High Energy Physics)
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Open AccessCommunication
Quarkonium Production in the QGP
Universe 2019, 5(5), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe5050117
Received: 17 April 2019 / Revised: 13 May 2019 / Accepted: 14 May 2019 / Published: 16 May 2019
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Abstract
We report on recent theory progress in understanding the production of heavy quarkonium in heavy-ion collisions based on the in-medium heavy-quark potential extracted from lattice QCD simulations. On the one hand, the proper in-medium potential allows us to study the spectral properties of [...] Read more.
We report on recent theory progress in understanding the production of heavy quarkonium in heavy-ion collisions based on the in-medium heavy-quark potential extracted from lattice QCD simulations. On the one hand, the proper in-medium potential allows us to study the spectral properties of heavy quarkonium in thermal equilibrium, from which we estimate the ψ to J / ψ ratio in heavy-ion collisions. On the other hand, the potential provides a central ingredient in the description of the real-time evolution of heavy-quarkonium formulated in the open-quantum-systems framework. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Zimányi School and Analytic Hydrodynamics in High Energy Physics)
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Open AccessArticle
Switching Internal Times and a New Perspective on the ‘Wave Function of the Universe’
Universe 2019, 5(5), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe5050116
Received: 7 March 2019 / Revised: 5 May 2019 / Accepted: 7 May 2019 / Published: 14 May 2019
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Abstract
Despite its importance in general relativity, a quantum notion of general covariance has not yet been established in quantum gravity and cosmology, where, given the a priori absence of coordinates, it is necessary to replace classical frames with dynamical quantum reference systems. As [...] Read more.
Despite its importance in general relativity, a quantum notion of general covariance has not yet been established in quantum gravity and cosmology, where, given the a priori absence of coordinates, it is necessary to replace classical frames with dynamical quantum reference systems. As such, quantum general covariance bears on the ability to consistently switch between the descriptions of the same physics relative to arbitrary choices of quantum reference system. Recently, a systematic approach for such switches has been developed. It links the descriptions relative to different choices of quantum reference system, identified as the correspondingly reduced quantum theories, via the reference-system-neutral Dirac quantization, in analogy to coordinate changes on a manifold. In this work, we apply this method to a simple cosmological model to demonstrate how to consistently switch between different internal time choices in quantum cosmology. We substantiate the argument that the conjunction of Dirac and reduced quantized versions of the theory defines a complete relational quantum theory that not only admits a quantum general covariance, but, we argue, also suggests a new perspective on the ‘wave function of the universe’. It assumes the role of a perspective-neutral global state, without immediate physical interpretation that, however, encodes all the descriptions of the universe relative to all possible choices of reference system at once and constitutes the crucial link between these internal perspectives. While, for simplicity, we use the Wheeler-DeWitt formulation, the method and arguments might be also adaptable to loop quantum cosmology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Group Field Theory and Related Quantum Gravity Formalisms)
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Open AccessArticle
Deflection Angle of Photons through Dark Matter by Black Holes and Wormholes Using Gauss–Bonnet Theorem
Universe 2019, 5(5), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe5050115
Received: 17 March 2019 / Revised: 9 May 2019 / Accepted: 9 May 2019 / Published: 14 May 2019
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Abstract
In this research, we used the Gibbons–Werner method (Gauss–Bonnet theorem) on the optical geometry of a black hole and wormhole, extending the calculation of weak gravitational lensing within the Maxwell’s fish eye-like profile and dark-matter medium. The angle is seen as a partially [...] Read more.
In this research, we used the Gibbons–Werner method (Gauss–Bonnet theorem) on the optical geometry of a black hole and wormhole, extending the calculation of weak gravitational lensing within the Maxwell’s fish eye-like profile and dark-matter medium. The angle is seen as a partially topological effect, and the Gibbons–Werner method can be used on any asymptotically flat Riemannian optical geometry of compact objects in a dark-matter medium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gravitational Lensing and Optical Geometry: A Centennial Perspective)
Open AccessCommunication
Study of Jet Shape Observables in Au+Au Collisions at s N N = 200 GeV with JEWEL
Universe 2019, 5(5), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe5050114
Received: 31 March 2019 / Revised: 7 May 2019 / Accepted: 8 May 2019 / Published: 11 May 2019
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Abstract
Nuclear–nuclear collisions at energies attainable at the large accelerators RHIC and the LHC are an ideal environment to study nuclear matter under extreme conditions of high temperature and energy density. One of the most important probes of such nuclear matter is the study [...] Read more.
Nuclear–nuclear collisions at energies attainable at the large accelerators RHIC and the LHC are an ideal environment to study nuclear matter under extreme conditions of high temperature and energy density. One of the most important probes of such nuclear matter is the study of production of jets. In this article, several jet shape observables in Au+Au collisions at the center of mass energy per nucleon–nucleon pair of s N N = 200 GeV simulated in the Monte Carlo generator JEWEL are presented. Jets were reconstructed using the anti- k T algorithm and their shapes were studied as a function of the jet-resolution parameter R, transverse momentum p T and collision centrality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Zimányi School and Analytic Hydrodynamics in High Energy Physics)
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Open AccessArticle
Multiverse—Too Much or Not Enough?
Universe 2019, 5(5), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe5050113
Received: 15 April 2019 / Revised: 8 May 2019 / Accepted: 9 May 2019 / Published: 11 May 2019
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Abstract
The aim of this essay is to look at the idea of the multiverse—not so much from the standpoint of physics or cosmology, but rather from a philosophical perspective. The modern story of the multiverse began with Leibniz. Although he treated “other worlds” [...] Read more.
The aim of this essay is to look at the idea of the multiverse—not so much from the standpoint of physics or cosmology, but rather from a philosophical perspective. The modern story of the multiverse began with Leibniz. Although he treated “other worlds” as mere possibilities, they played an important role in his logic. In a somewhat similar manner, the practice of cosmology presupposes a consideration of an infinite number of universes, each being represented by a solution to Einstein’s equations. This approach prepared the way to the consideration of “other universes” which actually exist, first as an auxiliary concept in discussing the so-called anthropic principle, and then as real universes, the existence of which were supposed to solve some cosmological conundrums. From the point of view of the philosophy of science, the question is: Could the explanatory power of a multiverse ideology compensate for the relaxation of empirical control over so many directly unobservable entities? It is no surprise that appealing to a possibly infinite number of “other universes” in order to explain some regularities in our world would seem “too much” for a self-disciplined philosopher. With no strict empirical control at our disposal, it is logic that must be our guide. Also, what if logic changes from one world to another in the multiverse? Such a possibility is suggested by the category theory. From this point of view, our present concepts of the multiverse are certainly “not enough”. Should this be read as a warning that the learned imagination can lead us too far into the realms of mere possibilities? Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Multiverse)
Open AccessArticle
Viscous Hydrodynamic Description of the Pseudorapidity Density and Energy Density Estimation for Pb+Pb and Xe+Xe Collisions at the LHC
Universe 2019, 5(5), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe5050112
Received: 23 March 2019 / Revised: 9 May 2019 / Accepted: 9 May 2019 / Published: 10 May 2019
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Abstract
Based on the analytical solution of accelerating relativistic viscous fluid hydrodynamics and Buda–Lund model, the pseudorapidity distributions of the most central Pb+Pb and Xe+Xe collisions are presented. Inspired by the CNC model, a modified energy density estimation formula is presented to investigate the [...] Read more.
Based on the analytical solution of accelerating relativistic viscous fluid hydrodynamics and Buda–Lund model, the pseudorapidity distributions of the most central Pb+Pb and Xe+Xe collisions are presented. Inspired by the CNC model, a modified energy density estimation formula is presented to investigate the dependence of the initial energy density estimation on the viscous effect. This new energy density estimation formula shows that the bulk energy is deposited to the neighboring fluid cells in the presence of the shear viscosity and bulk viscosity. In contrast to the well-known CNC energy density estimation formula, a 4.9% enhancement of the estimated energy density at the LHC kinematics is shown. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Zimányi School and Analytic Hydrodynamics in High Energy Physics)
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Open AccessArticle
Universes Inside a Black Hole with the de Sitter Interior
Universe 2019, 5(5), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe5050111
Received: 23 March 2019 / Revised: 29 April 2019 / Accepted: 7 May 2019 / Published: 10 May 2019
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Abstract
We outline the basic ideas and analyze the possibilities of the quantum birth of universes inside regular black holes with the de Sitter interior replacing a singularity. We compare different cases and show that the most plausible case is the birth of a [...] Read more.
We outline the basic ideas and analyze the possibilities of the quantum birth of universes inside regular black holes with the de Sitter interior replacing a singularity. We compare different cases and show that the most plausible case is the birth of a flat universe from an initial quantum fluctuation with a small admixture of radiation and strings with the negative deficit angle, which provides the existence of a potential barrier needed for quantum tunneling. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Induced Gravitational Collapse, Binary-Driven Hypernovae, Long Gramma-ray Bursts and Their Connection with Short Gamma-ray Bursts
Universe 2019, 5(5), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe5050110
Received: 25 February 2019 / Revised: 2 May 2019 / Accepted: 5 May 2019 / Published: 9 May 2019
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Abstract
There is increasing observational evidence that short and long Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) originate in different subclasses, each one with specific energy release, spectra, duration, etc, and all of them with binary progenitors. The binary components involve carbon-oxygen cores (COcore), neutron stars [...] Read more.
There is increasing observational evidence that short and long Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) originate in different subclasses, each one with specific energy release, spectra, duration, etc, and all of them with binary progenitors. The binary components involve carbon-oxygen cores (CO core ), neutron stars (NSs), black holes (BHs), and white dwarfs (WDs). We review here the salient features of the specific class of binary-driven hypernovae (BdHNe) within the induced gravitational collapse (IGC) scenario for the explanation of the long GRBs. The progenitor is a CO core -NS binary. The supernova (SN) explosion of the CO core , producing at its center a new NS ( ν NS), triggers onto the NS companion a hypercritical, i.e., highly super-Eddington accretion process, accompanied by a copious emission of neutrinos. By accretion the NS can become either a more massive NS or reach the critical mass for gravitational collapse with consequent formation of a BH. We summarize the results on this topic from the first analytic estimates in 2012 all the way up to the most recent three-dimensional (3D) smoothed-particle-hydrodynamics (SPH) numerical simulations in 2018. Thanks to these results it is by now clear that long GRBs are richer and more complex systems than thought before. The SN explosion and its hypercritical accretion onto the NS explain the X-ray precursor. The feedback of the NS accretion, the NS collapse and the BH formation produce asymmetries in the SN ejecta, implying the necessity of a 3D analysis for GRBs. The newborn BH, the surrounding matter and the magnetic field inherited from the NS, comprises the inner engine from which the GRB electron-positron ( e + e ) plasma and the high-energy emission are initiated. The impact of the e + e on the asymmetric ejecta transforms the SN into a hypernova (HN). The dynamics of the plasma in the asymmetric ejecta leads to signatures depending on the viewing angle. This explains the ultrarelativistic prompt emission in the MeV domain and the mildly-relativistic flares in the early afterglow in the X-ray domain. The feedback of the ν NS pulsar-like emission on the HN explains the X-ray late afterglow and its power-law regime. All of the above is in contrast with a simple GRB model attempting to explain the entire GRB with the kinetic energy of an ultrarelativistic jet extending through all of the above GRB phases, as traditionally proposed in the “collapsar-fireball” model. In addition, BdHNe in their different flavors lead to ν NS-NS or ν NS-BH binaries. The gravitational wave emission drives these binaries to merge producing short GRBs. It is thus established a previously unthought interconnection between long and short GRBs and their occurrence rates. This needs to be accounted for in the cosmological evolution of binaries within population synthesis models for the formation of compact-object binaries. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Quantum Optimal Control of Rovibrational Excitations of a Diatomic Alkali Halide: One-Photon vs. Two-Photon Processes
Universe 2019, 5(5), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe5050109
Received: 29 March 2019 / Revised: 3 May 2019 / Accepted: 3 May 2019 / Published: 8 May 2019
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Abstract
We investigated the roles of one-photon and two-photon processes in the laser-controlled rovibrational transitions of the diatomic alkali halide, 7Li37Cl. Optimal control theory calculations were carried out using the Hamiltonian, including both the one-photon and two-photon field-molecule interaction terms. Time-dependent [...] Read more.
We investigated the roles of one-photon and two-photon processes in the laser-controlled rovibrational transitions of the diatomic alkali halide, 7Li37Cl. Optimal control theory calculations were carried out using the Hamiltonian, including both the one-photon and two-photon field-molecule interaction terms. Time-dependent wave packet propagation was performed with both the radial and angular motions being treated quantum mechanically. The targeted processes were pure rotational and vibrational–rotational excitations: (v = 0, J = 0) → (v = 0, J = 2); (v = 0, J = 0) → (v = 1, J = 2). Total time of the control pulse was set to 2,000,000 atomic units (48.4 ps). In each control excitation process, weak and strong optimal fields were obtained by means of giving weak and strong field amplitudes, respectively, to the initial guess for the optimal field. It was found that when the field is weak, the control mechanism is dominated exclusively by a one-photon process, as expected, in both the targeted processes. When the field is strong, we obtained two kinds of optimal fields, one causing two-photon absorption and the other causing a Raman process. It was revealed, however, that the mechanisms for strong fields are not simply characterized by one process but rather by multiple one- and two-photon processes. It was also found that in the rotational excitation, (v = 0, J = 0) → (v = 0, J = 2), the roles of one- and two-photon processes are relatively distinct but in the vibrational–rotational excitation, (v = 0, J = 0) → (v = 1, J = 2), these roles are ambiguous and the cooperative effect associated with these two processes is quite large. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quantum Dynamics and Applications)
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Open AccessReview
The Unique Blazar OJ 287 and Its Massive Binary Black Hole Central Engine
Universe 2019, 5(5), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe5050108
Received: 26 March 2019 / Revised: 1 May 2019 / Accepted: 6 May 2019 / Published: 8 May 2019
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Abstract
The bright blazar OJ 287 is the best-known candidate for hosting a nanohertz gravitational wave (GW) emitting supermassive binary black hole (SMBBH) in the present observable universe. The binary black hole (BBH) central engine model, proposed by Lehto and Valtonen in 1996, was [...] Read more.
The bright blazar OJ 287 is the best-known candidate for hosting a nanohertz gravitational wave (GW) emitting supermassive binary black hole (SMBBH) in the present observable universe. The binary black hole (BBH) central engine model, proposed by Lehto and Valtonen in 1996, was influenced by the two distinct periodicities inferred from the optical light curve of OJ 287. The current improved model employs an accurate general relativistic description to track the trajectory of the secondary black hole (BH) which is crucial to predict the inherent impact flares of OJ 287. The successful observations of three predicted impact flares open up the possibility of using this BBH system to test general relativity in a hitherto unexplored strong field regime. Additionally, we briefly describe an ongoing effort to interpret observations of OJ 287 in a Bayesian framework. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Reconstruction of Mimetic Gravity in a Non-Singular Bouncing Universe from Quantum Gravity
Universe 2019, 5(5), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe5050107
Received: 1 April 2019 / Revised: 2 May 2019 / Accepted: 4 May 2019 / Published: 7 May 2019
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Abstract
We illustrate a general reconstruction procedure for mimetic gravity. Focusing on a bouncing cosmological background, we derive general properties that must be satisfied by the function f(□ϕ) implementing the limiting curvature hypothesis. We show how relevant physical information can be [...] Read more.
We illustrate a general reconstruction procedure for mimetic gravity. Focusing on a bouncing cosmological background, we derive general properties that must be satisfied by the function f(□ϕ) implementing the limiting curvature hypothesis. We show how relevant physical information can be extracted from power-law expansions of f in different regimes, corresponding e.g., to the very early universe or to late times. Our results are then applied to two specific models reproducing the cosmological background dynamics obtained in group field theory and in loop quantum cosmology, and we discuss the possibility of using this framework as providing an effective field theory description of quantum gravity. We study the evolution of anisotropies near the bounce, and discuss instabilities of scalar perturbations. Furthermore, we provide two equivalent formulations of mimetic gravity: one in terms of an effective fluid with exotic properties, the other featuring two distinct time-varying gravitational “constants” in the cosmological equations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Group Field Theory and Related Quantum Gravity Formalisms)
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Open AccessArticle
Taming the Energy Rise of the Total Proton-Proton Cross-Section
Universe 2019, 5(5), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe5050106
Received: 1 April 2019 / Revised: 1 May 2019 / Accepted: 4 May 2019 / Published: 7 May 2019
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Abstract
Steep rise of parton densities in the limit of small parton momentum fraction x poses a challenge for describing the observed energy-dependence of the total and inelastic proton-proton cross sections σpptot/inel: considering a realistic parton spatial distribution, [...] Read more.
Steep rise of parton densities in the limit of small parton momentum fraction x poses a challenge for describing the observed energy-dependence of the total and inelastic proton-proton cross sections σ p p tot / inel : considering a realistic parton spatial distribution, one obtains a too-strong increase of σ p p tot / inel in the limit of very high energies. We discuss various mechanisms which allow one to tame such a rise, paying special attention to the role of parton-parton correlations. In addition, we investigate a potential impact on model predictions for σ p p tot, related to dynamical higher twist corrections to parton-production processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interplay of QCD, Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics)
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Open AccessCommunication
Another Approach to Track Reconstruction: Cluster Analysis
Universe 2019, 5(5), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe5050105
Received: 19 March 2019 / Revised: 26 April 2019 / Accepted: 3 May 2019 / Published: 6 May 2019
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Abstract
A novel combination of data analysis techniques is introduced for the reconstruction of primary charged particles and of daughters of photon conversions, created in high energy collisions. Instead of performing a classical trajectory building or an image transformation, efficient use of both local [...] Read more.
A novel combination of data analysis techniques is introduced for the reconstruction of primary charged particles and of daughters of photon conversions, created in high energy collisions. Instead of performing a classical trajectory building or an image transformation, efficient use of both local and global information is undertaken while keeping competing choices open. The measured hits in silicon-based tracking detectors are clustered with the help of a k-medians clustering. It proceeds by alternating between the hit-to-track assignment and the track-fit update steps, until convergence. The clustering is complemented with the possibility of adding new track hypotheses or removing unnecessary ones. A simplified model of a silicon tracker is employed to test the performance of the proposed method, showing good efficiency and purity characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Zimányi School and Analytic Hydrodynamics in High Energy Physics)
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Open AccessArticle
Equation of State of a Magnetized Dense Neutron System
Universe 2019, 5(5), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe5050104
Received: 26 March 2019 / Revised: 29 April 2019 / Accepted: 30 April 2019 / Published: 6 May 2019
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Abstract
We discuss how a magnetic field can affect the equation of state of a many-particle neutron system. We show that, due to the anisotropy in the pressures, the pressure transverse to the magnetic field direction increases with the magnetic field, while the one [...] Read more.
We discuss how a magnetic field can affect the equation of state of a many-particle neutron system. We show that, due to the anisotropy in the pressures, the pressure transverse to the magnetic field direction increases with the magnetic field, while the one along the field direction decreases. We also show that in this medium there exists a significant negative field-dependent contribution associated with the vacuum pressure. This negative pressure demands a neutron density sufficiently high (corresponding to a baryonic chemical potential of μ = 2.25 GeV) to produce the necessary positive matter pressure that can compensate for the gravitational pull. The decrease of the parallel pressure with the field limits the maximum magnetic field to a value of the order of 10 18 G, where the pressure decays to zero. We show that the combination of all these effects produces an insignificant variation of the system equation of state. We also found that this neutron system exhibits paramagnetic behavior expressed by the Curie’s law in the high-temperature regime. The reported results may be of interest for the astrophysics of compact objects such as magnetars, which are endowed with substantial magnetic fields. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Highlights from NA61/SHINE: Proton Intermittency Analysis
Universe 2019, 5(5), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe5050103
Received: 14 April 2019 / Revised: 27 April 2019 / Accepted: 29 April 2019 / Published: 3 May 2019
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Abstract
The NA61/SHINE experiment at CERN SPS searches for the critical point of strongly interacting matter via scanning the phase diagram by changing beam momenta (13A–150A GeV/c) and system size (p + p, p + Pb, Be + Be, [...] Read more.
The NA61/SHINE experiment at CERN SPS searches for the critical point of strongly interacting matter via scanning the phase diagram by changing beam momenta (13A–150A GeV/c) and system size (p + p, p + Pb, Be + Be, Ar + Sc, Xe + La). An observation of local proton-density fluctuations that scale as a power law of the appropriate universality class as a function of phase space bin size would signal the approach of the system to the vicinity of the possible critical point. An investigation of this phenomenon was performed in terms of the second-scaled factorial moments (SSFMs) of proton density in transverse momentum space with subtraction of a noncritical background. New NA61/SHINE preliminary analysis of Ar + Sc data at 150A GeV/c revealed a nontrivial intermittent behavior of proton moments. A similar effect was observed by NA49 in “Si” + Si data at 158A GeV/c. At the same time, no intermittency signal was detected in “C” + C and Pb + Pb events by NA49, as well as in Be + Be collisions by NA61/SHINE. EPOS1.99 also fails to describe the power-law scaling of SSFMs in Ar + Sc. Qualitatively, the effect is more pronounced with the increase of collision-peripherality and proton-purity thresholds, but a quantitative estimate is to be properly done via power-law exponent fit using the bootstrap method and compared to intermittency critical index ϕ 2 , derived from 3D-Ising effective action. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Zimányi School and Analytic Hydrodynamics in High Energy Physics)
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