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Universe, Volume 5, Issue 4 (April 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) The linear magnetoelectric effect, which is known to occur in certain multiferroic materials, [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Bose–Einstein Correlations in pp and pPb Collisions at LHCb
Received: 1 April 2019 / Revised: 20 April 2019 / Accepted: 22 April 2019 / Published: 25 April 2019
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Abstract
Bose–Einstein correlations for same-sign charged pions from proton–proton collisions at s=7TeV are studied by the Large Hadron Collider beauty (LHCb) experiment. Correlation radii and chaoticity parameters are determined for different regions of charged-particle multiplicity using a double-ratio technique and a [...] Read more.
Bose–Einstein correlations for same-sign charged pions from proton–proton collisions at s = 7 TeV are studied by the Large Hadron Collider beauty (LHCb) experiment. Correlation radii and chaoticity parameters are determined for different regions of charged-particle multiplicity using a double-ratio technique and a Levy parametrization of the correlation function. The correlation radius increases with the charged-particle multiplicity, while the chaoticity parameter decreases, which is consistent with observations from other experiments. A similar study for proton-lead collisions at s N N = 5.02 TeV is proposed. These results can give valuable input for the theoretical models that describe the evolution of the particle source, probing both its potential dependence on pseudorapidity region and differences between proton–proton and proton–lead systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Zimányi School and Analytic Hydrodynamics in High Energy Physics)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Finite Volume Effect on the Polyakov Quark–Meson Model
Received: 20 March 2019 / Revised: 15 April 2019 / Accepted: 22 April 2019 / Published: 24 April 2019
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Abstract
In the current work, we study the influence of a finite volume on 2+1SU(3) Polyakov Quark–Meson model (PQM) order parameters, (fluctuations) correlations of conserved charges and the quark–hadron phase boundary. Our study of the PQM model [...] Read more.
In the current work, we study the influence of a finite volume on 2 + 1 S U ( 3 ) Polyakov Quark–Meson model (PQM) order parameters, (fluctuations) correlations of conserved charges and the quark–hadron phase boundary. Our study of the PQM model order parameters and the (fluctuations) correlations of conserved charges indicates a sizable shift of the quark–hadron phase boundary to higher values of baryon chemical potential ( μ B ) and temperature (T) for decreasing the system volume. The detailed study of such effect could have important implications for the extraction of the (fluctuations) correlations of conserved charges of the QCD phase diagram from heavy ion data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heavy Ion Collisions)
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Open AccessArticle
Quantum Complexity and Chaos in Young Black Holes
Received: 16 March 2019 / Revised: 17 April 2019 / Accepted: 18 April 2019 / Published: 22 April 2019
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Abstract
We argue that the problem of calculating retention time scales in young black holes is a problem of relative state complexity. In particular, we suggest that Alice’s ability to estimate the time scale for a perturbed black hole to release the extra n [...] Read more.
We argue that the problem of calculating retention time scales in young black holes is a problem of relative state complexity. In particular, we suggest that Alice’s ability to estimate the time scale for a perturbed black hole to release the extra n qubits comes down to her decoding the Hilbert space of the Hawking radiation. We then demonstrate the decoding task Alice faces is very difficult, and in order to calculate the relative state complexity she would either need to act with an exponentially complex unitary operator or apply an extremely fine-tuned future precursor operator to the perturbed state in S U ( 2 K ) . Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Black Hole Physics and Astrophysics)
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Open AccessArticle
Cosmic Inflation, Quantum Information and the Pioneering Role of John S Bell in Cosmology
Received: 11 January 2019 / Revised: 29 March 2019 / Accepted: 29 March 2019 / Published: 15 April 2019
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Abstract
According to the theory of cosmic inflation, the large scale structures observed in our Universe (galaxies, clusters of galaxies, Cosmic Background Microwave—CMB—anisotropy…) are of quantum mechanical origin. They are nothing but vacuum fluctuations, stretched to cosmological scales by the cosmic expansion and amplified [...] Read more.
According to the theory of cosmic inflation, the large scale structures observed in our Universe (galaxies, clusters of galaxies, Cosmic Background Microwave—CMB—anisotropy…) are of quantum mechanical origin. They are nothing but vacuum fluctuations, stretched to cosmological scales by the cosmic expansion and amplified by gravitational instability. At the end of inflation, these perturbations are placed in a two-mode squeezed state with the strongest squeezing ever produced in Nature (much larger than anything that can be made in the laboratory on Earth). This article studies whether astrophysical observations could unambiguously reveal this quantum origin by borrowing ideas from quantum information theory. It is argued that some of the tools needed to carry out this task have been discussed long ago by J. Bell in a, so far, largely unrecognized contribution. A detailled study of his paper and of the criticisms that have been put forward against his work is presented. Although J. Bell could not have realized it when he wrote his letter since the quantum state of cosmological perturbations was not yet fully characterized at that time, it is also shown that Cosmology and cosmic inflation represent the most interesting frameworks to apply the concepts he investigated. This confirms that cosmic inflation is not only a successful paradigm to understand the early Universe. It is also the only situation in Physics where one crucially needs General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics to derive the predictions of a theory and, where, at the same time, we have high-accuracy data to test these predictions, making inflation a playground of utmost importance to discuss foundational issues in Quantum Mechanics. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Characterization of Highly Irradiated ALPIDE Silicon Sensors
Received: 20 March 2019 / Revised: 10 April 2019 / Accepted: 10 April 2019 / Published: 14 April 2019
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Abstract
The ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) experiment at CERN will upgrade its Inner Tracking System (ITS) detector. The new ITS will consist of seven coaxial cylindrical layers of ALPIDE silicon sensors which are based on Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (MAPS) technology. We [...] Read more.
The ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) experiment at CERN will upgrade its Inner Tracking System (ITS) detector. The new ITS will consist of seven coaxial cylindrical layers of ALPIDE silicon sensors which are based on Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (MAPS) technology. We have studied the radiation hardness of ALPIDE sensors using a 30 MeV proton beam provided by the cyclotron U-120M of the Nuclear Physics Institute of the Czech Academy of Sciences in Řež. In this paper, these long-term measurements will be described. After being irradiated up to the total ionization dose 2.7 Mrad and non-ionizing energy loss 2.7 × 10 13 1 MeV n eq · cm 2 , ALPIDE sensors fulfill ITS upgrade project technical design requirements in terms of detection efficiency and fake-hit rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Zimányi School and Analytic Hydrodynamics in High Energy Physics)
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Open AccessArticle
Thermodynamic Geometry of Yang–Mills Vacua
Received: 14 December 2018 / Revised: 1 April 2019 / Accepted: 2 April 2019 / Published: 10 April 2019
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Abstract
We study vacuum fluctuation properties of an ensemble of SU(N) gauge theory configurations, in the limit of many colors, viz. Nc, and explore the statistical nature of the topological susceptibility by analyzing its critical behavior [...] Read more.
We study vacuum fluctuation properties of an ensemble of S U ( N ) gauge theory configurations, in the limit of many colors, viz. N c , and explore the statistical nature of the topological susceptibility by analyzing its critical behavior at a non-zero-vacuum parameter θ and temperature T. We find that the system undergoes a vacuum phase transition at the chiral symmetry restoration temperature as well as at an absolute value of θ . On the other hand, the long-range correlation length solely depends on θ for the theories with critical exponent e = 2 or T = T d + 1 , where T d is the decoherence temperature. Furthermore, it is worth noticing that the unit-critical exponent vacuum configuration corresponds to a non-interacting statistical basis pertaining to a constant mass of η . Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Self-Similar Solution of Hot Accretion Flow with Anisotropic Pressure
Received: 13 March 2019 / Revised: 3 April 2019 / Accepted: 4 April 2019 / Published: 8 April 2019
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Abstract
For the accretion flow in extremely low-luminosity active galactic nuclei, such as our Galactic center (Sgr A*) and M 87, the collisional mean-free path of ions may be much larger than its gyroradius. In this case, the pressure parallel to the magnetic field [...] Read more.
For the accretion flow in extremely low-luminosity active galactic nuclei, such as our Galactic center (Sgr A*) and M 87, the collisional mean-free path of ions may be much larger than its gyroradius. In this case, the pressure parallel to the magnetic field is different from that perpendicular to the field; therefore, the pressure is anisotropic. We study the effects of anisotropic pressure on the dynamics of accretion flow by assuming the flow is radially self-similar. We find that in the case where the outflow is present, the radial and rotational velocities, the sound speed, and the Bernoulli parameter of the accretion flow are all increased when the anisotropic pressure is taken into account. This result suggests that it becomes easier for the accretion flow to generate outflow in the presence of anisotropic pressure. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
The Gravitational Magnetoelectric Effect
Received: 6 March 2019 / Revised: 27 March 2019 / Accepted: 27 March 2019 / Published: 1 April 2019
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Abstract
Electromagnetism in spacetime can be treated in terms of an analogue linear dielectric medium. In this paper, we discuss the gravitational analogue of the linear magnetoelectric effect, which can be found in multiferroic materials. While this is known to occur for metrics with [...] Read more.
Electromagnetism in spacetime can be treated in terms of an analogue linear dielectric medium. In this paper, we discuss the gravitational analogue of the linear magnetoelectric effect, which can be found in multiferroic materials. While this is known to occur for metrics with non-zero mixed components, we show how it depends on the choice of spatial formalism for the electromagnetic fields, including differences in tensor weight, and also on the choice of coordinate chart. This is illustrated for Langevin–Minkowski, four charts of Schwarzschild spacetime, and two charts of pp gravitational waves. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Universe: Feature Papers 2019 - Gravitational Physics)
Open AccessArticle
A Post-Newtonian Gravitomagnetic Effect on the Orbital Motion of a Test Particle around Its Primary Induced by the Spin of a Distant Third Body
Received: 4 March 2019 / Revised: 20 March 2019 / Accepted: 28 March 2019 / Published: 31 March 2019
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Abstract
We study a general relativistic gravitomagnetic 3-body effect induced by the spin angular momentum SX of a rotating mass MX orbited at distance rX by a local gravitationally bound restricted two-body system S of size rrX consisting [...] Read more.
We study a general relativistic gravitomagnetic 3-body effect induced by the spin angular momentum S X of a rotating mass M X orbited at distance r X by a local gravitationally bound restricted two-body system S of size r r X consisting of a test particle revolving around a massive body M. At the lowest post-Newtonian order, we analytically work out the doubly averaged rates of change of the Keplerian orbital elements of the test particle by finding non-vanishing long-term effects for the inclination I, the node Ω and the pericenter ω . Such theoretical results are confirmed by a numerical integration of the equations of motion for a fictitious 3-body system. We numerically calculate the magnitudes of the post-Newtonian gravitomagnetic 3-body precessions for some astronomical scenarios in our solar system. For putative man-made orbiters of the natural moons Enceladus and Europa in the external fields of Saturn and Jupiter, the relativistic precessions due to the angular momenta of the gaseous giant planets can be as large as ≃10 − 50 milliarcseconds per year (mas year−1). A preliminary numerical simulation shows that, for certain orbital configurations of a hypothetical Europa orbiter, its range-rate signal Δ ρ ˙ can become larger than the current Doppler accuracy of the existing spacecraft Juno at Jupiter, i.e., σ ρ ˙ = 0.015 mm s−1, after 1 d. The effects induced by the Sun’s angular momentum on artificial probes of Mercury and the Earth are at the level of ≃1 − 0.1 microarcseconds per year (μas year−1). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Universe: Feature Papers 2019 - Gravitational Physics)
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