Special Issue "Rotation Effects in Relativity"

A special issue of Universe (ISSN 2218-1997).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 December 2019.

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Matteo Luca Ruggiero

INFN, Sezione di Torino; Politecnico di Torino; IIS “Russell-Moro-Guarini”
Website | E-Mail
Interests: rotation effects in relativity; gravito-magnetic effects in general relativity; rotating observers in special relativity; gravitational theories with torsion (Einstein–Cartan Theory); relativistic theories of gravity and experimental tests; gravitational waves; relativistic positioning systems

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Rotation and circular motion have always played a peculiar role in the development of scientific thought. While in the context of Aristotelian physics, circular motion was thought of as perfect and incorruptible, and the whole universe was represented as an ensemble of concentric rotating spheres, the peculiarity of rotation was recognized on experimental grounds, and not only as a philosophical speculation, at the beginning of the modern scientific era. In fact, in the framework of Newtonian physics, Foucault's pendulum provided spectacular evidence of the absolute character of rotation. Subsequently, in the context of the theory of relativity, the absolute character of rotation was emphasized by the Sagnac effect, which also stimulated a long and interesting debate on the foundations of relativity. Further peculiarities are shown by the solutions of Einstein's equations for the gravitational field of a rotating source: Lense and Thirring proved a fascinating similarity between the gravitational field of a distribution of mass and the electromagnetic field of a distribution of charge. Just like charge currents produce a magnetic field, mass currents produce a field that, by analogy, is called a gravito-magnetic field; the latter has an important role in the debate on the origin of inertia, according to the general relativistic interpretation of Mach's ideas. Even if it does not appear to be viable due to observational constraints, the Gödel model of a rotating universe is important for the implications on closed time-like curves, causality and the meaning of time. Eventually, rotating solutions are very important in astrophysics and, in particular, in the study of black holes.

Rotation effects in relativity are indeed quite ubiquitous: they are important not only from a theoretical viewpoint, but it is worth mentioning that they have an impact on everyday life, since it is well known that the global positioning system would not have the same accuracy if it neglected the relativistic effects due to the rotation of the Earth. 

This Special Issue will focus on what we know about rotation effects in relativity and, more in general, on relativistic theories of gravity, one hundred years after the birth of Einstein's theory. We encourage contributions that encompass fundamental issues, theoretical problems and experimental proposals, both on a purely classical background and at the interface between classical and quantum physics. As a result, we do expect to provide a useful reference for those who, now and in the future, have an interest in this field.

Dr. Matteo Luca Ruggiero
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Universe is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

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Keywords

  • rotation in relativity
  • rotation in alternative theories of gravity
  • rotating observers
  • rotating reference frames
  • rotating sources
  • spinning particles
  • spin
  • torsion
  • gravitomagnetism
  • rotating solutions
  • measurements in space–time

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
A Theory of Inertia Based on Mach’s Principle
Universe 2019, 5(8), 188; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe5080188
Received: 8 July 2019 / Revised: 12 August 2019 / Accepted: 12 August 2019 / Published: 16 August 2019
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Abstract
A non-relativistic theory of inertia based on Mach’s principle is presented as has been envisaged, but not achieved, by Ernst Mach in 1872. The central feature is a space-dependent, anisotropic, symmetric inert mass tensor. The contribution of a mass element dm to [...] Read more.
A non-relativistic theory of inertia based on Mach’s principle is presented as has been envisaged, but not achieved, by Ernst Mach in 1872. The central feature is a space-dependent, anisotropic, symmetric inert mass tensor. The contribution of a mass element d m to the inertia of a particle m 0 experiencing an acceleration from rest is proportional to cos 2 α , where α is the angle between the line connecting m 0 and d m and the direction of the acceleration. Apsidal precession for planets circling around a central star is not a consequence of this theory, thereby avoiding the prediction of an apsidal precession with the wrong sign as is done by Mach-like theories with isotropic inert mass. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rotation Effects in Relativity)
Figures

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Open AccessArticle
A HERO for General Relativity
Universe 2019, 5(7), 165; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe5070165
Received: 14 June 2019 / Revised: 29 June 2019 / Accepted: 1 July 2019 / Published: 5 July 2019
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Abstract
HERO (Highly Eccentric Relativity Orbiter) is a space-based mission concept aimed to perform several tests of post-Newtonian gravity around the Earth with a preferably drag-free spacecraft moving along a highly elliptical path fixed in its plane undergoing a relatively fast secular precession. We [...] Read more.
HERO (Highly Eccentric Relativity Orbiter) is a space-based mission concept aimed to perform several tests of post-Newtonian gravity around the Earth with a preferably drag-free spacecraft moving along a highly elliptical path fixed in its plane undergoing a relatively fast secular precession. We considered two possible scenarios—a fast, 4-h orbit with high perigee height of 1047 km and a slow, 21-h path with a low perigee height of 642 km . HERO may detect, for the first time, the post-Newtonian orbital effects induced by the mass quadrupole moment J 2 of the Earth which, among other things, affects the semimajor axis a via a secular trend of ≃4–12 cm yr 1 , depending on the orbital configuration. Recently, the secular decay of the semimajor axis of the passive satellite LARES was measured with an error as little as 0 . 7 cm yr 1 . Also the post-Newtonian spin dipole (Lense-Thirring) and mass monopole (Schwarzschild) effects could be tested to a high accuracy depending on the level of compensation of the non-gravitational perturbations, not treated here. Moreover, the large eccentricity of the orbit would allow one to constrain several long-range modified models of gravity and accurately measure the gravitational red-shift as well. Each of the six Keplerian orbital elements could be individually monitored to extract the G J 2 / c 2 signature, or they could be suitably combined in order to disentangle the post-Newtonian effect(s) of interest from the competing mismodeled Newtonian secular precessions induced by the zonal harmonic multipoles J of the geopotential. In the latter case, the systematic uncertainty due to the current formal errors σ J of a recent global Earth’s gravity field model are better than 1 % for all the post-Newtonian effects considered, with a peak of 10 7 for the Schwarzschild-like shifts. Instead, the gravitomagnetic spin octupole precessions are too small to be detectable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rotation Effects in Relativity)
Open AccessArticle
Gravitational Radiation, Vorticity And Super–Energy: A Conspicuous Threesome
Universe 2019, 5(7), 164; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe5070164
Received: 23 May 2019 / Revised: 20 June 2019 / Accepted: 1 July 2019 / Published: 4 July 2019
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Abstract
We elaborate on the link relating gravitational radiation, vorticity and a flux of super–energy on the plane orthogonal to the vorticity vector. We examine the vorticity appearing in the congruence of observers at the outside of the source, as well as the vorticity [...] Read more.
We elaborate on the link relating gravitational radiation, vorticity and a flux of super–energy on the plane orthogonal to the vorticity vector. We examine the vorticity appearing in the congruence of observers at the outside of the source, as well as the vorticity of the fluid distribution, the source of the gravitational radiation is made of. The information provided by the study of the physical aspects of the source poses new questions which could, in principle, be solved by the observational evidence. Besides the study of the theoretical issues associated to such relationship, we also stress the new observational possibilities to detect gravitational radiation, appearing as consequence of the above mentioned link. The high degree of development achieved in the gyroscope technology, as well as recent proposals to detect rotations by means of ring lasers, atom interferometers, atom lasers and anomalous spin–precession experiments, lead us to believe that an alternative to the laser interferometers used so far to detect gravitational waves, may be implemented based on the detection of the vorticity associated with gravitational radiation. Additionally, this kind of detectors might be able to elucidate the open question about the physical properties of the tail of the waves appearing as the consequence of the violation of the Huygens’s principle in general relativity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rotation Effects in Relativity)
Open AccessArticle
Gravitational Qubits
Universe 2019, 5(5), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe5050123
Received: 14 March 2019 / Revised: 15 May 2019 / Accepted: 16 May 2019 / Published: 21 May 2019
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Abstract
We report on the behavior of two-level quantum systems, or qubits, in the background of rotating and non-rotating metrics and provide a method to derive the related spin currents and motions. The calculations are performed in the external field approximation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rotation Effects in Relativity)

Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Reinoud Jan Slagter, University of Amsterdam, Netherlands

Gunraj Prasad, Kamla Nehru Institute of Physical and Social Sciences, Sultanpur, UP, India

Albert Minkevich, Department of Physics and Computer Methods, Warmia and Mazury University in Olsztyn, Olsztyn, Poland

Christian Corda, Research Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics of Maragha (RIAAM), Maragha, Iran

Matthew Lake, School of Physics, Sun Yat-Sen University, China

Volkmar Putz, University College of Teacher Education Vienna (PH Wien) Grenzackerstrasse 18, A-1100 Vienna, Austria

Salvatore Capozziello, Astronomy and Astrophysics at Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Napoli "Federico II", 80138 Napoli, Italy

Robert O'Connell, Department of Physics & Astronomy, Louisiana State University, USA

Luis Acedo, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Valencia, Spain

Jon-Paul Wells, School of Physical and Chemical Sciences, University of Canterbury, PB 4800, Christchurch 8140, New Zealand

Ulrich Schreiber, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany

Jackson Levi Said, Physics Department, University of Malta, Malta

Gabriel Farrugia, Physics Department, University of Malta, Malta

Jérôme A. Pétri, Université de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France

Don KoksDefence Science and Technology Group, Edinburgh, Australia

Diego Julio Cirilo-Lombardo, Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russian

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