Next Issue
Previous Issue

Table of Contents

Universe, Volume 4, Issue 8 (August 2018)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Cover Story (view full-size image) The detection of gravitational waves (GWs) by LIGO/Virgo collaboration provides a new probe into [...] Read more.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-9
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessConference Report Dark Matter with Genuine Spin-2 Fields
Received: 28 June 2018 / Revised: 15 August 2018 / Accepted: 16 August 2018 / Published: 18 August 2018
PDF Full-text (270 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Gravity is the only force which is telling us about the existence of Dark Matter. I will review the idea that this must be the case because Dark Matter is nothing else than a manifestation of Gravity itself, in the guise of an
[...] Read more.
Gravity is the only force which is telling us about the existence of Dark Matter. I will review the idea that this must be the case because Dark Matter is nothing else than a manifestation of Gravity itself, in the guise of an additional, massive, spin-2 particle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gravity, Black Holes and Cosmology XXI)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessConference Report Using Trajectories in Quantum Cosmology
Received: 13 July 2018 / Revised: 3 August 2018 / Accepted: 9 August 2018 / Published: 15 August 2018
PDF Full-text (4318 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Quantum cosmology based on the Wheeler De Witt equation represents a simple way to implement plausible quantum effects in a gravitational setup. In its minisuperspace version wherein one restricts attention to FLRW metrics with a single scale factor and only a few degrees
[...] Read more.
Quantum cosmology based on the Wheeler De Witt equation represents a simple way to implement plausible quantum effects in a gravitational setup. In its minisuperspace version wherein one restricts attention to FLRW metrics with a single scale factor and only a few degrees of freedom describing matter, one can obtain exact solutions and thus acquire full knowledge of the wave function. Although this is the usual way to treat a quantum mechanical system, it turns out however to be essentially meaningless in a cosmological framework. Turning to a trajectory approach then provides an effective means of deriving physical consequences. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessConference Report The Case for Nonlocal Modifications of Gravity
Received: 5 July 2018 / Revised: 3 August 2018 / Accepted: 6 August 2018 / Published: 10 August 2018
PDF Full-text (326 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The huge amounts of undetected and exotic dark matter and dark energy needed to make general relativity work on large scales argue that we should investigate modifications of gravity. The only stable, metric-based and invariant alternative to general relativity is f(R
[...] Read more.
The huge amounts of undetected and exotic dark matter and dark energy needed to make general relativity work on large scales argue that we should investigate modifications of gravity. The only stable, metric-based and invariant alternative to general relativity is f(R) models. These models can explain primordial inflation, but they cannot dispense with either dark matter or dark energy. I advocate nonlocal modifications of gravity, not as new fundamental theories but rather as the gravitational vacuum polarization engendered by infrared quanta produced during primordial inflation. I also discuss some of the many objections which have been raised to this idea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gravity, Black Holes and Cosmology XXI)
Open AccessConference Report Preinflationary Dynamics of Power-Law Potential in Loop Quantum Cosmology
Received: 30 June 2018 / Revised: 2 August 2018 / Accepted: 8 August 2018 / Published: 10 August 2018
PDF Full-text (757 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this article, I mainly discuss the dynamics of the pre-inflationary Universe for the potential V(ϕ)ϕn with n=5/3 in the context of loop quantum cosmology, in which the big bang singularity is resolved
[...] Read more.
In this article, I mainly discuss the dynamics of the pre-inflationary Universe for the potential V ( ϕ ) ϕ n with n = 5 / 3 in the context of loop quantum cosmology, in which the big bang singularity is resolved by a non-singular quantum bounce. In the case of the kinetic energy-dominated initial conditions of the scalar field at the bounce, the numerical evolution of the Universe can be split up into three regimes: bouncing, transition, and slow-roll inflation. In the bouncing regime, the numerical evolution of the scale factor does not depend on a wide range of initial values, or on the inflationary potentials. I calculate the number of e-folds in the slow-roll regime, by which observationally identified initial conditions are obtained. Additionally, I display the phase portrait for the model under consideration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gravity, Black Holes and Cosmology XXI)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperReview Seeing Black Holes: From the Computer to the Telescope
Received: 7 July 2018 / Revised: 29 July 2018 / Accepted: 6 August 2018 / Published: 9 August 2018
PDF Full-text (8553 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Astronomical observations are about to deliver the very first telescopic image of the massive black hole lurking at the Galactic Center. The mass of data collected in one night by the Event Horizon Telescope network, exceeding everything that has ever been done in
[...] Read more.
Astronomical observations are about to deliver the very first telescopic image of the massive black hole lurking at the Galactic Center. The mass of data collected in one night by the Event Horizon Telescope network, exceeding everything that has ever been done in any scientific field, should provide a recomposed image in 2018. All this, forty years after the first numerical simulations performed by the present author. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Universe: Feature Papers 2018 - Gravitational Physics)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessConference Report The Polarizations of Gravitational Waves
Received: 25 June 2018 / Revised: 1 August 2018 / Accepted: 1 August 2018 / Published: 6 August 2018
PDF Full-text (395 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The gravitational wave provides a new method to examine General Relativity and its alternatives in the high speed, strong field regime. Alternative theories of gravity generally predict more polarizations than General Relativity, so it is important to study the polarization contents of theories
[...] Read more.
The gravitational wave provides a new method to examine General Relativity and its alternatives in the high speed, strong field regime. Alternative theories of gravity generally predict more polarizations than General Relativity, so it is important to study the polarization contents of theories of gravity to reveal the nature of gravity. In this talk, we analyze the polarization contents of Horndeski theory and f(R) gravity. We find out that in addition to the familiar plus and cross polarizations, a massless Horndeski theory predicts an extra transverse polarization, and there is a mix of pure longitudinal and transverse breathing polarizations in the massive Horndeski theory and f(R) gravity. It is possible to use pulsar timing arrays to detect the extra polarizations in these theories. We also point out that the classification of polarizations using Newman–Penrose variables cannot be applied to massive modes. It cannot be used to classify polarizations in Einstein-æther theory or generalized Tensor-Vector-Scalar (TeVeS) theory, either. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gravity, Black Holes and Cosmology XXI)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessConference Report Gravitational Waves in Einstein-Æther Theory and Generalized TeVeS Theory after GW170817
Received: 27 June 2018 / Revised: 27 July 2018 / Accepted: 30 July 2018 / Published: 1 August 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (377 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper , the polarization contents of Einstein-æther theory and the generalized TeVeS theory are studied. The Einstein-æther theory has five polarizations, while the generalized TeVeS theory has six. In particular, transverse and longitudinal breathing polarization are mixed. The possibility of using
[...] Read more.
In this paper , the polarization contents of Einstein-æther theory and the generalized TeVeS theory are studied. The Einstein-æther theory has five polarizations, while the generalized TeVeS theory has six. In particular, transverse and longitudinal breathing polarization are mixed. The possibility of using pulsar timing arrays to detect the extra polarizations in Einstein-æther theory was also investigated. The analysis showed that different polarizations cannot be easily distinguished by using pulsar timing arrays in this theory. For generalized TeVeS theory, one of the propagating modes travels much faster than the speed of light due to the speed bound set by GW170817. In some parameter subspaces, the strong coupling does not take place, so this theory is excluded. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gravity, Black Holes and Cosmology XXI)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle A Generalized Solution of Bianchi Type-V Models with Time-Dependent G and Λ
Received: 14 June 2018 / Revised: 17 July 2018 / Accepted: 19 July 2018 / Published: 27 July 2018
PDF Full-text (501 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We study the homogeneous but anisotropic Bianchi type-V cosmological model with time-dependent gravitational and cosmological “constants”. Exact solutions of the Einstein field equations (EFEs) are presented in terms of adjustable parameters of quantum field theory in a spatially curved and expanding background.
[...] Read more.
We study the homogeneous but anisotropic Bianchi type-V cosmological model with time-dependent gravitational and cosmological “constants”. Exact solutions of the Einstein field equations (EFEs) are presented in terms of adjustable parameters of quantum field theory in a spatially curved and expanding background. It has been found that the general solution of the average scale factor a as a function of time involved the hypergeometric function. Two cosmological models are obtained from the general solution of the hypergeometric function and the Emden–Fowler equation. The analysis of the models shows that, for a particular choice of parameters in our first model, the cosmological “constant” decreases whereas the Newtonian gravitational “constant” increases with time, and for another choice of parameters, the opposite behaviour is observed. The models become isotropic at late times for all parameter choices of the first model. In the second model of the general solution, both the cosmological and gravitational “constants” decrease while the model becomes more anisotropic over time. The exact dynamical and kinematical quantities have been calculated analytically for each model. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessConference Report Non-Locality and Late-Time Cosmic Acceleration from an Ultraviolet Complete Theory
Received: 26 June 2018 / Revised: 24 July 2018 / Accepted: 24 July 2018 / Published: 26 July 2018
PDF Full-text (232 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A local phenomenological model that reduces to a non-local gravitational theory giving dark energy is proposed. The non-local gravity action is known to fit the data as well as Λ-CDM thereby demanding a more fundamental local treatment. It is seen that the
[...] Read more.
A local phenomenological model that reduces to a non-local gravitational theory giving dark energy is proposed. The non-local gravity action is known to fit the data as well as Λ-CDM thereby demanding a more fundamental local treatment. It is seen that the scale-invariant higher-derivative scalar-tensor theory of gravity, which is known to be ultraviolet perturbative renormalizable to all loops and where ghosts become innocuous, generates non-locality at low energies. The local action comprises of two real scalar fields coupled non-minimally with the higher-derivative gravity action. When one of the scalar acquiring the Vacuum Expectation Value (VEV) induces Einstein–Hilbert gravity, generates mass for fields, and gets decoupled from system, it leaves behind a residual theory which in turn leads to a non-local gravity generating dark energy effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gravity, Black Holes and Cosmology XXI)
Back to Top