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Sci. Pharm., Volume 91, Issue 1 (March 2023) – 8 articles

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Editorial
Acknowledgment to the Reviewers of Scientia Pharmaceutica in 2022
Sci. Pharm. 2023, 91(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm91010008 - 29 Jan 2023
Viewed by 288
Abstract
High-quality academic publishing is built on rigorous peer review [...] Full article
Article
Phytochemical Characterization of Pterocephalus frutescens with In-Silico Evaluation as Chemotherapeutic Medicine and Oral Pharmacokinetics Prediction Study
Sci. Pharm. 2023, 91(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm91010007 - 28 Jan 2023
Viewed by 411
Abstract
Virtual screening of the potential lead chemotherapeutic phytochemicals from medicinal plants has useful application in the field of in-silico modelling and computer-based drug design by orienting and scoring ligands in the active binding site of a target protein. The phytochemical investigation of the [...] Read more.
Virtual screening of the potential lead chemotherapeutic phytochemicals from medicinal plants has useful application in the field of in-silico modelling and computer-based drug design by orienting and scoring ligands in the active binding site of a target protein. The phytochemical investigation of the Pterocephalus frutescens extract in n-butanol resulted in the isolation and structure elucidation of three iridoids and four flavonoids which were identified as Geniposide (1), Geniposidic acid (2), Nepetanudoside C (3), Isovitexin (4), Luteolin-7-O-glucoside (5) Isoorientin (6) and Orientin (7), respectively. Molecular docking studies were used to compare the binding energies of the isolated phytochemicals at four biological cancer-relevant targets; namely, aromatase, carbonic anhydrase IX, fatty acid synthase, and topoisomerase II-DNA complex. The docking study concluded that the isolated compounds have promising cytotoxic activities, in particular, Luteolin-7-O-glucoside (5) and Orientin (7) which exhibited high binding affinities among the isolated compounds at the active sites of the target enzymes; Aromatase (−8.73 Kcal/mol), and Carbonic anhydrase IX (−8.92 Kcal/mol), respectively, surpassing the corresponding binding scores of the co-crystallized ligands and the reference drugs at these target enzymes. Additionally, among the isolated compounds, Luteolin-7-O-glucoside (5) showed the most outstanding binding affinities at the active sites of the target enzymes; Fatty acid synthase, and Topisomerase II-DNA complex with binding scores of −6.82, and −7.99 Kcal/mol, respectively. Finally, the SwissADME online web tool predicted that most of these compounds possessed acceptable oral bioavailability and drug likeness characteristics. Full article
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Review
A Review of the Biological Properties of Purple Corn (Zea mays L.)
Sci. Pharm. 2023, 91(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm91010006 - 19 Jan 2023
Viewed by 334
Abstract
In the food and beverage industries, replacing synthetic colorants with plant-based colorants has become popular in recent times. Purple corn (Zea mays L.) is an important source of natural colorants due to its range in color from orange to purple. The whole [...] Read more.
In the food and beverage industries, replacing synthetic colorants with plant-based colorants has become popular in recent times. Purple corn (Zea mays L.) is an important source of natural colorants due to its range in color from orange to purple. The whole plant of purple corn has a high amount of anthocyanin content. Anthocyanin is the water-soluble pigment found in various fruits and vegetables. The color pigments are chiefly found in the pericarp or kernels, in addition to corn cobs. Purple corn is rich in various health-promoting compounds, mainly anthocyanins such as cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, perlagonidin-3-O-glucoside, peonidin 3-O-glucoside, and their malonylated forms. This review emphasized recent updates regarding the in vitro and in vivo biological properties of extracts and compounds from purple corn. Purple corn color extracts possess a variety of biological properties, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, etc. The results of in vitro and in vivo studies of the biological properties of purple corn could lead to the development of different health-promoting products in the near future. Full article
Article
Detailing the Ten Main Professional Roles of a Pharmacist to Provide the Scope of Professional Functions
Sci. Pharm. 2023, 91(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm91010005 - 13 Jan 2023
Viewed by 695
Abstract
As members of a public trust profession, pharmacists are the most accessible medical team members. Therefore, every pharmacist must know the scope of their professional roles (PR) and professional functions (PF). The study aimed to detail the major PR into a pooled set [...] Read more.
As members of a public trust profession, pharmacists are the most accessible medical team members. Therefore, every pharmacist must know the scope of their professional roles (PR) and professional functions (PF). The study aimed to detail the major PR into a pooled set of PF. The research materials were the provisions of the World Health Organization, the International Pharmaceutical Federation, and scientific works on the PR of pharmacists. Methods of critical analysis, concretization, functional decomposition, and scientific generalization were used. As a result of detailing the 10 main PR according to the “ten-star pharmacist” concept for each, a combined set of partial PFs of the pharmacist was obtained. The decomposition takes into account the principle of complexity limitation, which allowed three to six partial PF for the respective PR to be obtained, namely: three PFs for a life-long-learner, five PFs for a caregiver, a decision-maker, a teacher, a leader, a researcher, an entrepreneur, and an agent of positive change, six PFs for a communicator and a manager. Thus, due to the decomposition of each of the 10 main PR of the pharmacist into three or six corresponding partial PFs, we received a multifunctional verbal model of difficult to organize, professional activities, which is identified by a total of 50 PFs. The importance of using this model in formulating professional competencies and learning outcomes of educational programs for pharmacists is emphasized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Scientia Pharmaceutica)
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Review
Effectiveness of Platelet-Rich Plasma in the Treatment of Androgenic Alopecia Compared to Placebo and Topical Minoxidil: A Systematic Review
Sci. Pharm. 2023, 91(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm91010004 - 31 Dec 2022
Viewed by 621
Abstract
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has become an increasingly popular alternative or additional method in treating androgenic alopecia (AGA). AGA is a multifactorial disease, in which testosterone plays a significant role in influencing hair growth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness [...] Read more.
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has become an increasingly popular alternative or additional method in treating androgenic alopecia (AGA). AGA is a multifactorial disease, in which testosterone plays a significant role in influencing hair growth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of PRP treatment in AGA affecting men and women. The research was performed using the following databases: PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library. The effects were measured with a TrichoScan by comparing the initial and final hair density. A significant difference was observed between the areas of the scalp where PRP injections were made and those where saline was administered. Compared to conventional minoxidil 5% topical PRP, PRP is more effective in treating alopecia. A beneficial outcome of combined therapy with PRP and minoxidil 5% was observed. Therefore, PRP is not only an excellent alternative for patients in whom the minoxidil 5% topical monotherapy did not bring the expected effects or who experienced unacceptable side effects, but can also be used as a complementary therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Scientia Pharmaceutica)
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Review
Secondary Metabolites of Endophytes Associated with the Zingiberaceae Family and Their Pharmacological Activities
Sci. Pharm. 2023, 91(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm91010003 - 23 Dec 2022
Viewed by 523
Abstract
Zingiberaceae is commonly known as the ginger family and has been extensively studied in the last decades for its pharmacological purposes. The study of ginger includes microorganisms known as endophytes, which raise interest for the research community because they can produce a wide [...] Read more.
Zingiberaceae is commonly known as the ginger family and has been extensively studied in the last decades for its pharmacological purposes. The study of ginger includes microorganisms known as endophytes, which raise interest for the research community because they can produce a wide range of secondary metabolites. This review discusses the secondary metabolites of endophytes from the Zingiberaceae family and their pharmacological activities. We detail the group of secondary metabolites, updated for its absolute structures, source and part origins, and, especially, pharmacological divided properties. Zingiberaceae endophytes have 106 volatile compounds and 52 isolated constituents, including 17 polyketides, five nonribosomal peptides, five aromatic compounds, three alkaloids, and 21 terpene-alkaloids. They have antimicrobial, anticancer, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. Secondary metabolites from plant endophytes of the Zingiberaceae family have the potential to be therapeutic drugs in the future. Research on endophytic bacteria or fungi has been little performed. Therefore, this study supports a new drug discovery from Zingiberaceae endophytes and compares them for future drug development. Full article
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Article
In Vitro and In Silico Screening Analysis of Artabotrys sumatranus Leaf and Twig Extracts for α-Glucosidase Inhibition Activity and Its Relationship with Antioxidant Activity
Sci. Pharm. 2023, 91(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm91010002 - 22 Dec 2022
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Abstract
Artabotrys sumatranus is one of the Artabotrys species, which lives in Sumatera, Java, and Borneo in Indonesia. No research has been found related to its activity. The objective of this study was to explore the potential of A. sumatranus leaf and twig extracts [...] Read more.
Artabotrys sumatranus is one of the Artabotrys species, which lives in Sumatera, Java, and Borneo in Indonesia. No research has been found related to its activity. The objective of this study was to explore the potential of A. sumatranus leaf and twig extracts as the source of an anti-diabetic agent through the α-glucosidase inhibition mechanism, as well as the relationship between the antioxidant and the α-glucosidase inhibition activities in these extracts. Ethanol extracts from leaf and twig A. sumatranus were subjected to several assays: total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, antioxidant activity using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), radical scavenging activity, and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) analysis, as well as α-glucosidase inhibition. Later, GC-MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometer) and LC-MS/MS (liquid chromatography-mass spectrometer/mass spectrometer) analysis were conducted to identify the compounds inside the extracts. The identified compounds were tested for potential α-glucosidase inhibition activity using a molecular docking simulation. As a result, the A. sumatranus leaf extract showed more potential than the twig extract as α-glucosidase inhibitor and antioxidant agent. In addition, from the comparison between the measured quantities, it can be deduced that most of the α-glucosidase active compounds in the A. sumatranus are also antioxidant agents. Several active compounds with a high affinity to α-glucosidase inhibition were identified using the molecular docking simulation. It was concluded that A. sumatranus twig and leaf extracts seem to be potential sources of α-glucosidase inhibitors. Full article
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Article
Oral Bioavailability Enhancement of Vancomycin Hydrochloride with Cationic Nanocarrier (Leciplex): Optimization, In Vitro, Ex Vivo, and In Vivo Studies
Sci. Pharm. 2023, 91(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm91010001 - 21 Dec 2022
Viewed by 498
Abstract
To explore the performance of the cationic nanocarrier leciplex (LPX) in escalating the oral bioavailability of vancomycin hydrochloride (VAN) by promoting its intestinal permeability. With the aid of a D-optimal design, the effect of numerous factors, including lipid molar ratio, cationic surfactant molar [...] Read more.
To explore the performance of the cationic nanocarrier leciplex (LPX) in escalating the oral bioavailability of vancomycin hydrochloride (VAN) by promoting its intestinal permeability. With the aid of a D-optimal design, the effect of numerous factors, including lipid molar ratio, cationic surfactant molar ratio, cationic surfactant type, and lipid type, on LPX characteristics, including entrapment efficacy (EE%), particle size (P.S.), polydispersity index (P.I.), zeta potential value (Z.P.), and steady-state flux (Jss) were assessed. The optimized formula was further evaluated in terms of morphology, ex vivo permeation, stability, cytotoxicity, and in vivo pharmacokinetic study. The optimized formula was spherical-shaped with an E.E. of 85.2 ± 0.95%, a P.S. of 52.74 ± 0.91 nm, a P.I. of 0.21 ± 0.02, a Z.P. of + 60.8 ± 1.75 mV, and a Jss of 175.03 ± 1.68 µg/cm2/h. Furthermore, the formula increased the intestinal permeability of VAN by 2.3-fold compared to the drug solution. Additionally, the formula was stable, revealed good mucoadhesive properties, and was well tolerated for oral administration. The in vivo pharmacokinetic study demonstrated that the VAN Cmax increased by 2.99-folds and AUC0-12 by 3.41-folds compared to the drug solution. These outcomes proved the potentiality of LPX in increasing the oral bioavailability of poorly absorbed drugs. Full article
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