Special Issue "Heterocyclic Chemistry in Drug Design 2.0"

A special issue of Scientia Pharmaceutica (ISSN 2218-0532).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2021) | Viewed by 6580

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Roman B. Lesyk
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Department of Pharmaceutical, Organic and Bioorganic Chemistry, Danylo Halytsky Lviv National Medical University, Pekarska str. 69, 79010 Lviv, Ukraine
Interests: medicinal chemistry; drug design; heterocyclic chemistry; thiazolidinones; biological activty; SAR
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Currently, the available chemical space includes more than 100 million organic compounds, mainly related to a limited set of classes and types. At the same time, modern drug design trends require the development of synthetic approaches to equally and diversely fill the chemical space as a source of drug-like structures. These trends have affected heterocyclic chemistry as the main "supplier" of drug-like molecules (all top 10 brand name small molecule drugs contain heterocyclic moieties), which stipulate strict requirements, both for bioactive compounds, as well as the methods of their synthesis. Thus, synthetic methods should provide a diversity of molecular architectonics, high chemo-, regio- and stereoselectivity, as well as atomic efficiency, in order to be ecologically and economically justified. The simultaneous implementation of these requirements is a rather difficult task, and research aimed at achieving a certain balance between them is relevant. As heterocycles are common fragments in the vast majority of marketed drugs, they obviously have a central role in modern drug design. It also should be mentioned that oxygen, sulfur, and, especially, nitrogen-containing rings, prevail among drug molecules.

In this Special Issue, we will focus on recent advances in heterocyclic chemistry in drug design.

Prof. Dr. Roman B. Lesyk
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Scientia Pharmaceutica is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • heterocycles
  • diversity-oriented synthesis
  • regio-, stereo- and chemoselective synthesis
  • drug design
  • drug discovery
  • biological activity
  • SAR
  • lead generation

Published Papers (4 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Article
The Search for New Antibacterial Agents among 1,2,3-Triazole Functionalized Ciprofloxacin and Norfloxacin Hybrids: Synthesis, Docking Studies, and Biological Activity Evaluation
Sci. Pharm. 2022, 90(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm90010002 - 22 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1155
Abstract
Among all modern antibiotics, fluoroquinolones are well known for their broad spectrums of activity and efficiency toward microorganisms and viruses. However, antibiotic resistance is still a problem, which has encouraged medicinal chemists to modify the initial structures in order to combat resistant strains. [...] Read more.
Among all modern antibiotics, fluoroquinolones are well known for their broad spectrums of activity and efficiency toward microorganisms and viruses. However, antibiotic resistance is still a problem, which has encouraged medicinal chemists to modify the initial structures in order to combat resistant strains. Our current work is aimed at synthesizing novel hybrid derivatives of ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin and applying docking studies and biological activity evaluations in order to find active promising molecules. We succeeded in the development of a synthetic method towards 1,2,3-triazole-substituted ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin derivatives. The structure and purity of the obtained compounds were confirmed by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, 19F NMR, LC/MS, UV-, IR- spectroscopy. Docking studies, together with in vitro research against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Candida albicans NCTC 885-653 revealed compounds in which activity exceeded the initial molecules. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heterocyclic Chemistry in Drug Design 2.0)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Synthesis and Biological Activity Evaluation of Novel 5-Methyl-7-phenyl-3H-thiazolo[4,5-b]pyridin-2-ones
Sci. Pharm. 2021, 89(4), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm89040052 - 25 Nov 2021
Viewed by 1520
Abstract
A series of 5-methyl-7-phenyl-3H-thiazolo[4,5-b]pyridin-2-ones has been designed, synthesized, and characterized by spectral data. Target compounds were screened for their antimicrobial activity against some pathogenic bacteria and fungi, and most of them showed moderate activity, especially compound 3g, which [...] Read more.
A series of 5-methyl-7-phenyl-3H-thiazolo[4,5-b]pyridin-2-ones has been designed, synthesized, and characterized by spectral data. Target compounds were screened for their antimicrobial activity against some pathogenic bacteria and fungi, and most of them showed moderate activity, especially compound 3g, which displayed the potent inhibitory effect against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli with MIC value of 0.21 μM. The active thiazolopyridine derivatives 3c, 3f, and 3g were screened for their cytotoxicity effects on HaCat, Balb/c 3T3 cells using MTT assay, which revealed promising results. In silico assessment for compounds 3c, 3f, and 3g also revealed suitable drug-like parameters and ADME properties. The binding interactions of the most active compound 3g were performed through molecular docking against MurD and DNA gyrase, with binding energies and an inhibitory constant compared to the reference drug ciprofloxacin. The tested thiazolo[4,5-b]pyridines constitute an exciting background for the further development of new synthetic antimicrobial agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heterocyclic Chemistry in Drug Design 2.0)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Design, Synthesis and In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of 6-(1H-Benzimidazol-2-yl)-3,5-dimethyl-4-oxo-2-thio-3,4-dihydrothieno[2,3-d]pyrimidines
Sci. Pharm. 2021, 89(4), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm89040049 - 18 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1235
Abstract
The rapid development in bacterial resistance to many groups of known antibiotics forces the researchers to discover antibacterial drug candidates with previously unknown mechanisms of action, one of the most relevant being the inhibition of tRNA (Guanine37-N1)-methyltransferase (TrmD). The discovery of selective TrmD [...] Read more.
The rapid development in bacterial resistance to many groups of known antibiotics forces the researchers to discover antibacterial drug candidates with previously unknown mechanisms of action, one of the most relevant being the inhibition of tRNA (Guanine37-N1)-methyltransferase (TrmD). The discovery of selective TrmD inhibitors in the series of carboxamide derivatives of thienopyrimidines became a background for further modification of the similar structures aimed at the development of promising antibacterial agents. As part of this research, we carried out the construction of heterocyclic hybrids bearing the moieties of thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine and benzimidazole starting from 3,5-dimethyl-4-oxo-2-thioxo-1H-thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine-6-carboxylic acid, which was used as the pivotal intermediate. The hybrid molecule of 6-(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)-3,5-dimethyl-2-thioxo-1H-thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-one prepared via condensation of the carboxylic acid with ortho-phenylenediamine was further alkylated with aryl/hetaryl chloroacetamides and benzyl chloride to produce the series of S-alkyl derivatives. The results of molecular docking studies for the obtained series of S-alkyl benzimidazole-thienopyrimidines showed their high affinity to the TrmD isolated from the P. aeruginosa. The results of antimicrobial activity screening revealed the antimicrobial properties for all of the studied molecules against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and the Candida albicans fungal strain. The highest antimicrobial activity was determined for 2-{[6-(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)-3,5-dimethyl-4-oxo-3,4-dihydrothieno[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2-yl]thio}-N-(4-isopropylphenyl)acetamide, which also had the highest affinity to the TrmD inhibitor’s binding site according to the docking studies results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heterocyclic Chemistry in Drug Design 2.0)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Stability Enhancement and Skin Permeation Application of Nicotine by Forming Inclusion Complex with β-Cyclodextrin and Methyl-β-Cyclodextrin
Sci. Pharm. 2021, 89(4), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm89040043 - 28 Sep 2021
Viewed by 1845
Abstract
Nicotine is widely used in pharmaceutical industries, especially for smoking cessation in the form of transdermal patches. Nicotine gel in the patches has limitations from nicotine instability and high volatility. Thus, a nicotine preservation technique is needed. In this study, a nicotine encapsulation [...] Read more.
Nicotine is widely used in pharmaceutical industries, especially for smoking cessation in the form of transdermal patches. Nicotine gel in the patches has limitations from nicotine instability and high volatility. Thus, a nicotine preservation technique is needed. In this study, a nicotine encapsulation process using methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) is investigated and compared with β-cyclodextrin (βCD) to evaluate the preservation and skin permeation of nicotine. The M06-2X/6-31G(d,p) density functional theory calculations indicate a 1:1 host–guest molar ratio for the inclusion complex of nicotine with βCD and MβCD, which have been validated by experimental studies. The encapsulation efficiencies of βCD and MβCD to encapsulate nicotine are 59.96% and 63.76%, respectively. The preservation study of the inclusion complexes compared to pure nicotine shows a stability improvement of nicotine after being encapsulated. After 21 days, the percentages of the nicotine/βCD and nicotine/MβCD inclusion complexes that remain are 89.32% and 76.22%, while only 65.56% of pure nicotine remains. Besides the one-hour skin permeation tests, the amounts of nicotine permeated through pig skin from the nicotine/βCD and nicotine/MβCD inclusion complex gels are 14 and 10 times as much as the pure nicotine gel, respectively. Therefore, the encapsulation of nicotine with βCD and MβCD can be used to enhance the stability and skin permeation application of nicotine-containing products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heterocyclic Chemistry in Drug Design 2.0)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Back to TopTop