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Scientia Pharmaceutica is published by MDPI from Volume 84 Issue 3 (2016). Articles in this Issue were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence. Articles are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Austrian Pharmaceutical Society (Österreichische Pharmazeutische Gesellschaft, ÖPhG).

Table of Contents

Sci. Pharm., Volume 81, Issue 2 (June 2013) – 19 articles , Pages 309-624

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Open AccessShort Communication
Ipvelutine, 7β-Acetoxy-2α-(tigloyloxy)tropane, an Unusual Tropane Alkaloid from Ipomoea velutina R. BR. (Convolvulaceae)
Sci. Pharm. 2013, 81(2), 543-548; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.1303-13 - 04 Jun 2013
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 800
Abstract
Convolvulaceae provide a rich source of tropane alkaloids, however, 2-substi-tuted tropanes have been described for only few species of this taxon. In this note, 2,7-diesters such as ipvelutine [7β-acetoxy-2α-(tigloyloxy)tropane] isolated from the vegetative parts of the Australian Ipomoea velutina R. BR. are described [...] Read more.
Convolvulaceae provide a rich source of tropane alkaloids, however, 2-substi-tuted tropanes have been described for only few species of this taxon. In this note, 2,7-diesters such as ipvelutine [7β-acetoxy-2α-(tigloyloxy)tropane] isolated from the vegetative parts of the Australian Ipomoea velutina R. BR. are described as a new group of tropane diesters. Full article
Open AccessArticle
7-Aza-des-A-steroids with Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activity
Sci. Pharm. 2013, 81(2), 329-338; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.1303-03 - 14 Apr 2013
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 652
Abstract
This paper describes a convenient approach to the 7-aza-des-A-steroid (6,6a,7,8,9,9a-hexahydro-5H-cyclopenta[h]quinoline) scaffold starting from Grundmann's ketone using two different pyridine annulation protocols. The biological evaluation of the pyridine and pyridinium products revealed that these compounds unexpectedly do not [...] Read more.
This paper describes a convenient approach to the 7-aza-des-A-steroid (6,6a,7,8,9,9a-hexahydro-5H-cyclopenta[h]quinoline) scaffold starting from Grundmann's ketone using two different pyridine annulation protocols. The biological evaluation of the pyridine and pyridinium products revealed that these compounds unexpectedly do not interfere with ergosterol and cholesterol biosynthesis. The pyridinium compound 6 showed significant antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities which are most likely due to its detergent-like structure. Full article
Open AccessArticle
A Biological Approach to the Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles with Streptomyces sp JAR1 and its Antimicrobial Activity
Sci. Pharm. 2013, 81(2), 607-624; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.1302-02 - 28 Mar 2013
Cited by 47 | Viewed by 935
Abstract
The biological approach to synthesize metal nanoparticles is an important aspect of current nanotechnology research. Silver nanoparticles have been well-known for their inhibitory and antimicrobial effects. The ever-increasing antibiotic resistance in pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms is a major threat to the health care [...] Read more.
The biological approach to synthesize metal nanoparticles is an important aspect of current nanotechnology research. Silver nanoparticles have been well-known for their inhibitory and antimicrobial effects. The ever-increasing antibiotic resistance in pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms is a major threat to the health care industry. In the present investigation, silver nanoparticles have been successfully biosynthesized by Streptomyces sp JAR1. Biosynthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by means of several analytical techniques including a UV-Visible spectrophotometer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction pattern analysis, and atomic force microscopy. An evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was carried out against clinically important pathogenic microorganisms. The metal nanoparticles were also evaluated for their combined effects with antibiotics against the clinical pathogens. The anti-bacterial activities of the antibiotics increased in the presence of the biologically synthesized AgNPs against the clinically important pathogens. The highest enhancing effect was observed for erythromycin against the test pathogens. Full article
Open AccessReview
An Update on the Status of Potent Inhibitors of Metallo-β-Lactamases
Sci. Pharm. 2013, 81(2), 309-328; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.1302-08 - 28 Mar 2013
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 807
Abstract
The production of metallo-β-lactamases is the most important strategy by which pathogenic bacteria become resistant to currently known β-lactam antibiotics. The emergence of these enzymes is particularly concerning for the future treatment of bacterial infections. There are no clinically available drugs capable of [...] Read more.
The production of metallo-β-lactamases is the most important strategy by which pathogenic bacteria become resistant to currently known β-lactam antibiotics. The emergence of these enzymes is particularly concerning for the future treatment of bacterial infections. There are no clinically available drugs capable of inhibiting any of the metallo-β-lactamases, so there is an urgent need to find such inhibitors. In this review, an up-to-date status of the inhibitors investigated for the inhibition of metallo-β-lactamases has been given so that this rich source of structural information of presently known metallo-β-lactamases could be helpful in generating a broad-spectrum potent inhibitor of metallo-β-lactamases. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Ameliorative Effects of a Polyphenolic Fraction of Cinnamomum zeylanicum L. Bark in Animal Models of Inflammation and Arthritis
Sci. Pharm. 2013, 81(2), 567-590; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.1301-16 - 25 Feb 2013
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 1471
Abstract
Cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Syn C. verum, family: Lauraceae) is one of the oldest traditional medicines for inflammatory- and pain-related disorders. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of the polyphenol fraction from Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark (CPP) [...] Read more.
Cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Syn C. verum, family: Lauraceae) is one of the oldest traditional medicines for inflammatory- and pain-related disorders. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of the polyphenol fraction from Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark (CPP) in animal models of inflammation and rheumatoid arthritis. Dose-response studies of CPP (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) used in a separate set of in vivo experiments were conducted in acute (carrageenan-induced rat paw edema), subacute (cotton pellet-induced granuloma), and sub-chronic (AIA, adjuvant-induced established polyarthrtis) models of inflammation in rats and the acetic acid-induced writhing model of pain in mice. Effects of CPP on cytokine (IL-2, IL-4, and IFNγ) release from Concanavalin (ConA)-stimulated lymphocytes were also evaluated in vitro. CPP showed a strong and dose-dependent reduction in paw volume, weight loss reversal effects against carrageenan-induced paw edema, and cotton pellet-induced granuloma models in rats. CPP (200 mg/kg p.o. for 10 days) showed a significant reduction in elevated serum TNF-α concentration without causing gastric ulcerogenicity in the AIA model in rats. CPP also demonstrated mild analgesic effects during acute treatment as evidenced by the reduction in the writhing and paw withdrawal threshold of the inflamed rat paw during the acetic acid-induced writhing model and Randall-Selitto test. CPP was found to inhibit cytokine (IL-2, IL-4, and IFNγ) release from ConA-stimulated lymphocytes in vitro. In conclusion, CPP demonstrated prominent action in animal models of inflammation and arthritis and therefore can be considered as a potential anti-rheumatic agent with disease-modifying action. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Development and Validation of a Novel Stability-Indicating RP-HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Halometasone, Fusidic Acid, Methylparaben, and Propylparaben in Topical Pharmaceutical Formulation
Sci. Pharm. 2013, 81(2), 505-518; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.1301-21 - 25 Feb 2013
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 1385
Abstract
A stability-indicating reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of halometasone, fusidic acid, methylparaben, and propylparaben in topical pharmaceutical formulation. The desired chromatographic separation was achieved on an Agilent Zorbax CN (Cyano), 5 μm (250 x 4.6 mm) [...] Read more.
A stability-indicating reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of halometasone, fusidic acid, methylparaben, and propylparaben in topical pharmaceutical formulation. The desired chromatographic separation was achieved on an Agilent Zorbax CN (Cyano), 5 μm (250 x 4.6 mm) column using gradient elution at 240 nm detector wavelength. The optimized mobile phase consisted of a mixture of 0.01 M phosphate buffer and 0.1% orthophosphoric acid, pH-adjusted to 2.5 with an ammonia solution as solvent-A and acetonitrile as solvent-B. The developed method separated halometasone, fusidic acid, methylparaben, and propylparaben in the presence of known impurities/ degradation products. The stability-indicating capability was established by forced degradation experiments and separation of known and unknown degradation products. The developed RP-HPLC method was validated according to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. This validated method was applied for the simultaneous estimation of HM, FA, MP, and PP in commercially available cream samples. Further, the method can be extended for the estimation of HM, FA, MP, and PP in various commercially available dosage forms. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Determination of Cefixime by a Validated Stability-Indicating HPLC Method and Identification of its Related Substances by LC-MS/MS Studies
Sci. Pharm. 2013, 81(2), 493-504; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.1301-15 - 18 Feb 2013
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1318
Abstract
Cefixime is an important cephalosporin antibiotic that easily decomposes and releases different related substances in preparation and storage steps. The objective of the current study was to develop a simple, precise, and accurate isocratic liquid chromatography (LC) method for the determination of cefixime [...] Read more.
Cefixime is an important cephalosporin antibiotic that easily decomposes and releases different related substances in preparation and storage steps. The objective of the current study was to develop a simple, precise, and accurate isocratic liquid chromatography (LC) method for the determination of cefixime in the presence of its related substances generated from thermal stress in the bulk drug. The chromatographic conditions were comprised of a reversed‐phase C18 column (4.6 × 250 mm, 5 μm) with a mobile phase composed of water: acetonitrile (85:15 v/v, with 0.5% formic acid) and ultraviolet detection (UV). Some thermal degradation products were identified using a proposed liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method. Five peaks (A, B, C, D, and E impurities based on British Pharmacopoeia) were known and a few unknown peaks appeared in the thermal stress solution of cefixime. The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plot of the LC-UV method showed a good linear relationship in the concentration range 0.9–1000.0 μg mL−1. The recovery of the optimized method was between 94.6 and 98.4% and the inter- and intra-day relative standard deviations were less than 3.3%. The obtained results shown in the LC-UV proposed method can be conveniently used in a quality control laboratory for routine analysis of cefixime for the assay and related substances, as well as for the evaluation of stability samples of bulk drugs. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Complexity in Estimation of Esomeprazole and its Related Impurities' Stability in Various Stress Conditions in Low-Dose Aspirin and Esomeprazole Magnesium Capsules
Sci. Pharm. 2013, 81(2), 475-492; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.1212-13 - 18 Feb 2013
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1035
Abstract
A complex, sensitive, and precise high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the profiling of impurities of esomeprazole in low-dose aspirin and esomeprazole capsules has been developed, validated, and used for the determination of impurities in pharmaceutical products. Esomeprazole and its related impurities’ development in [...] Read more.
A complex, sensitive, and precise high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the profiling of impurities of esomeprazole in low-dose aspirin and esomeprazole capsules has been developed, validated, and used for the determination of impurities in pharmaceutical products. Esomeprazole and its related impurities’ development in the presence of aspirin was traditionally difficult due to aspirin’s sensitivity to basic conditions and esomeprazole’s sensitivity to acidic conditions. When aspirin is under basic, humid, and extreme temperature conditions, it produces salicylic acid and acetic acid moieties. These two byproducts create an acidic environment for the esomeprazole. Due to the volatility and migration phenomenon of the produced acetic acid and salicylic acid from aspirin in the capsule dosage form, esomeprazole’s purity, stability, and quantification are affected. The objective of the present research work was to develop a gradient reversed-phase liquid chromatographic method to separate all the degradation products and process-related impurities from the main peak. The impurities were well-separated on a RP8 column (150 mm x 4.6mm, X-terra, RP8, 3.5μm) by the gradient program using a glycine buffer (0.08 M, pH adjusted to 9.0 with 50% NaOH), acetonitrile, and methanol at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min−1 with detection wavelength at 305 nm and column temperature at 30°C. The developed method was found to be specific, precise, linear, accurate, rugged, and robust. LOQ values for all of the known impurities were below reporting thresholds. The drug was subjected to stress conditions of hydrolysis, oxidation, photolysis, and thermal degradation in the presence of aspirin. The developed RP-HPLC method was validated according to the present ICH guidelines for specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection, limit of quantification, ruggedness, and robustness. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Validation of a Stability-Indicating RP-HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Trimethoprim and Sulfadimethoxine Sodium in Oral Liquid Dosage Form
Sci. Pharm. 2013, 81(2), 459-474; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.1212-30 - 18 Feb 2013
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 858
Abstract
A simple, specific, accurate, and stability-indicating RP-HPLC method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of Trimethoprim (TMP) and Sulfadimethoxine sodium (SDMS) in Vetricine® oral solution product. The desired separation was achieved on an ODS column (250×4.6 mm i.d., 5 μm) at [...] Read more.
A simple, specific, accurate, and stability-indicating RP-HPLC method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of Trimethoprim (TMP) and Sulfadimethoxine sodium (SDMS) in Vetricine® oral solution product. The desired separation was achieved on an ODS column (250×4.6 mm i.d., 5 μm) at room temperature. The optimized mobile phase consisted of an isocratic solvent mixture of water:acetonitrile:triethylamine (700:299:1, v/v/v), adjusted to a pH of 5.7 ± 0.05 with 0.2N acetic acid. The mobile phase was fixed at 0.8 ml/min and the analytes were monitored at 254 nm using a photodiode array detector. The effects of the chromatographic conditions on the peaks USP tailing factor, column efficiency, and resolution were systematically optimized. Forced degradation experiments were carried out by exposing TMP, SDMS standards, and the oral solution formulation to thermal, photolytic, oxidative, and acid-base hydrolytic stress conditions. The degradation products were well-resolved from the main peaks and the excipients, thus proving the reliable stability-indicating method. The method was validated as per ICH and USP guidelines (USP34/NF29) and found to be adequate for the routine quantitative estimation of TMP and SDMS in commercially available Vetricine® oral liquid dosage form. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Preparation and In Vitro/Ex Vivo Evaluation of Moxifloxacin-Loaded PLGA Nanosuspensions for Ophthalmic Application
Sci. Pharm. 2013, 81(2), 591-606; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.1204-16 - 04 Feb 2013
Cited by 37 | Viewed by 1141
Abstract
The aim of the present investigation was to prepare a colloidal ophthalmic formulation to improve the residence time of moxifloxacin. Moxifloxacin-loaded poly(dl-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanosuspensions were prepared by using the solvent evaporation technique. The nanosuspensions were characterised physically by using different techniques [...] Read more.
The aim of the present investigation was to prepare a colloidal ophthalmic formulation to improve the residence time of moxifloxacin. Moxifloxacin-loaded poly(dl-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanosuspensions were prepared by using the solvent evaporation technique. The nanosuspensions were characterised physically by using different techniques like particle size, zeta potential, FTIR, DSC, and XRD analysis. In vitro and ex vivo studies of nanosuspensions were carried out using a modified USP dissolution apparatus and all-glass Franz diffusion cells, respectively. The antibacterial activities of the nanosuspension and marketed formulations were performed against S. aureus and P. aeroginosa. The moxifloxacin-loaded PLGA nanosuspensions showed uniform particle size, ranging between 164–490 nm with negative zeta potential for all batches. The percentage entrapment efficiency of the drug-loaded nano-suspension was found to be between 84.09 to 92.05%. In vitro drug release studies suggest that all of the formulations showed extended drug release profiles and follow Korsemeyer-Peppas release kinetics. In vitro corneal permeability was found to be comparable with that of the marketed formulation across isolated goat cornea, indicating the suitability of the nanosuspension formulation in the ophthalmic delivery of moxifloxacin. The optimised nano-suspension was found to be more active against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa compared to the marketed eye drops. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Synthesis and Biological Activity of New Thiopyrano[2,3-d]thiazoles Containing a Naphthoquinone Moiety
Sci. Pharm. 2013, 81(2), 423-436; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.1301-13 - 04 Feb 2013
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 789
Abstract
Novel 11-substituted 3,11-dihydro-2H-benzo[6,7]thiochromeno[2,3-d][1,3]-thiazole-2,5,10-triones 4a–i were synthesized in 75–90% yields via the hetero-Diels-Alder reaction of 5-arylidene-4-thioxo-2-thiazolidinones with 1,4-naphtho-quinone. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their antineoplastic and antimycobacterial activities. A moderate selectivity against melanoma cancer cells (GI50 (UACC-257-melanoma) = [...] Read more.
Novel 11-substituted 3,11-dihydro-2H-benzo[6,7]thiochromeno[2,3-d][1,3]-thiazole-2,5,10-triones 4a–i were synthesized in 75–90% yields via the hetero-Diels-Alder reaction of 5-arylidene-4-thioxo-2-thiazolidinones with 1,4-naphtho-quinone. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their antineoplastic and antimycobacterial activities. A moderate selectivity against melanoma cancer cells (GI50 (UACC-257-melanoma) = 0.22 μM) was demonstrated for 4i, whereas derivatives 4a, 4c, 4g, and 4h showed promising antimycobacterial activity at a low toxicity level. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Analysis of the Cytotoxic Potential of Anisomelic Acid Isolated from Anisomeles malabarica
Sci. Pharm. 2013, 81(2), 559-566; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.1210-15 - 25 Jan 2013
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 726
Abstract
Anisomelic acid (AA), one of the major compounds in Anisomeles malabarica, was tested for its cytotoxicity and apoptosis-inducing potential in breast and cervical cancer cells. The MTT assay for cell viability indicated that AA is cytotoxic to all of the four cell lines [...] Read more.
Anisomelic acid (AA), one of the major compounds in Anisomeles malabarica, was tested for its cytotoxicity and apoptosis-inducing potential in breast and cervical cancer cells. The MTT assay for cell viability indicated that AA is cytotoxic to all of the four cell lines tested in a dose- and duration-dependent manner. Acridine Orange & Ethidium Bromide (AO & EB) and Hoechst 33258 staining of AA-treated cells revealed typical apoptotic morphology such as condensed chromatin and formation of apoptotic bodies. The comet assay revealed DNA strand break(s), indicating that AA induces DNA damage which culminates in apoptosis. Thus, the study revealed the anti-proliferative and apoptosis-inducing properties of AA in both breast and cervical cancer cells. Therefore, anisomelic acid offers potential for application in breast and cervical cancer therapy. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Preventive Effects of Curcumin Against Drug- and Starvation-Induced Gastric Erosions in Rats
Sci. Pharm. 2013, 81(2), 549-558; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.1207-17 - 07 Jan 2013
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 723
Abstract
The present study was designed to investigate the gastroprotective, analgesic, and antipyretic effects of curcumin (Cur), the major constituent of turmeric. Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) was used in this study as a standard drug for comparison. The analgesic activity was measured using the Hot-Plate [...] Read more.
The present study was designed to investigate the gastroprotective, analgesic, and antipyretic effects of curcumin (Cur), the major constituent of turmeric. Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) was used in this study as a standard drug for comparison. The analgesic activity was measured using the Hot-Plate Test. The antipyretic and antiulcer effects were assessed using yeast-induced pyrexia and gastric ulceration, respectively. Curcumin (100 mg/kg) injected intra-peritoneally 1 hr prior to the Hot-Plate Test showed significant analgesic activity expressed by both parameters: an increase in latency time and a reduction in paw licking as compared to the controls. In the animal model of pyrexia, curcumin (100 mg/kg injected intra-peritoneally) exhibited a significant reduction in the rectal temperature after 1 hr, 2 hrs, 4 hrs, and 5 hrs of treatment, indicating the antipyretic effect of curcumin. Rats with orally administered curcumin (200 mg/kg) did not show any lesions on the inner lining of the stomach after a 16 hr fast, indicating the gastroprotective effects of curcumin as compared to saline- and acetylsalicylic acid-administered rats. The significantly low ulcer index in curcumin-treated rats following starvation highlights the gastroprotective characteristics of curcumin. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Synthesis, Anti-Inflammatory, and Ulcerogenicity Studies of Novel Substituted and Fused Pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ones
Sci. Pharm. 2013, 81(2), 393-422; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.1211-21 - 07 Jan 2013
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 812
Abstract
In the present investigation, some new pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4(5H)-one derivatives (7–12) as well as fused pyrazolo[3',4':4,5]pyrimido[1,2-b]pyridazin-4(1H)-one (14–16) and 7,8,9,10-tetrahydropyrazolo[3',4':4,5]pyrimido[1,2-b]-cinnolin-4(1H)-one (17) ring systems were synthesized using the starting [...] Read more.
In the present investigation, some new pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4(5H)-one derivatives (7–12) as well as fused pyrazolo[3',4':4,5]pyrimido[1,2-b]pyridazin-4(1H)-one (14–16) and 7,8,9,10-tetrahydropyrazolo[3',4':4,5]pyrimido[1,2-b]-cinnolin-4(1H)-one (17) ring systems were synthesized using the starting compound 5-amino-6-methyl-1-phenyl-1,5-dihydro-4H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-one (5). The structures of the newly synthesized compounds were elucidated by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, mass spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. The theoretical calculation of their lipophilicity as C log P was performed. The anti-inflammatory activity of all newly synthesized compounds was evaluated using the carrageenan-induced paw edema test in rats using indomethacin as the reference drug. Ulcer indices for the most active compounds were calculated. Seven compounds (10b, 11a–f) showed consistently good anti-inflammatory activity. In particular, 5-{[4-(4-bromophenyl)-3-(4-chlorophenyl)-1,3-thiazol-2(3H)-ylidene]amino}-6-methyl-1-phenyl-1,5-dihydro-4H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimi-din-4-one (11e) and its 3,4-bis(4-chlorophenyl) analog (11f) were found to be the most effective among the other derivatives, showing activity comparable to that of indomethacin with minimal ulcerogenic effects. Correlation of the biological data of the active compounds with their theoretically calculated C log P values revealed that lipophilicity influences the biological response. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Combinatorial Effects of Thymoquinone on the Anticancer Activity and Hepatotoxicity of the Prodrug CB 1954
Sci. Pharm. 2013, 81(2), 519-530; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.1211-15 - 03 Jan 2013
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 924
Abstract
Background: One of the major causes of clinical trial termination is the liver toxicity induced by chemotherapeutic agents. Treatment with anticancer drugs like CB 1954 (5-(Aziridin-1-yl)-2,4-dinitrobenzamide) is associated with significant hepatotoxicity. Thymoquinone (TQ), extracted from Nigella sativa, is reported to possess anticancer [...] Read more.
Background: One of the major causes of clinical trial termination is the liver toxicity induced by chemotherapeutic agents. Treatment with anticancer drugs like CB 1954 (5-(Aziridin-1-yl)-2,4-dinitrobenzamide) is associated with significant hepatotoxicity. Thymoquinone (TQ), extracted from Nigella sativa, is reported to possess anticancer and hepatoprotective effects. The aims of the present study were to use TQ to reduce hepatotoxicity associated with CB 1954 and to augment its anticancer activity against the resistant mouse mammary gland cell line (66 cl-4-GFP). Method: Balb/C mice were transplanted with the 66cl-4-GFP cell line and in vivo antitumor activity was assessed for CB 1954 (141 mg/kg), TQ (10 mg/kg), and a combination of CB 1954 and TQ. Changes in tumor size and body weight were measured for each treatment. Histological examination of tumors and liver tissue samples was performed using the standard hematoxylin/eosin staining protocol, and serum levels of the liver enzymes AST and ALT were used as biomarkers of hepatotoxicity. Results: Severe liver damage and elevated plasma levels of AST and ALT were observed in the group treated with CB 1954. Treatment of tumor-bearing mice with a combination of CB 1954 and TQ caused a significant regression in tumor size and induced extensive necrosis in these tumors. The combination also protected the liver from drug-induced damage and reduced the plasma levels of AST and ALT to their normal ranges. Conclusion: These results suggest that the use of TQ with CB 1954 can reduce CB 1954-induced hepatotoxicity and enhance its anticancer activity, indicating the potential use of this combination in clinical studies. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Synthesis, Structural Elucidation, and In Vitro Antitumor Activities of Some Pyrazolopyrimidines and Schiff Bases Derived from 5-Amino-3-(arylamino)-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxamides
Sci. Pharm. 2013, 81(2), 339-358; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.1211-07 - 03 Jan 2013
Cited by 32 | Viewed by 944
Abstract
The reaction of 5-amino-3-(arylamino)-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxamides 1a,b with acetylacetone 2 and arylidenemalononitriles 5a–c yielded the pyrazolo[1,5-a]-pyrimidine derivatives 4a,b and 7a–f respectively. On the other hand, Schiff bases 9a,b and 12a–j were obtained upon treatment of carboxamides 1a,b with isatin 8 and [...] Read more.
The reaction of 5-amino-3-(arylamino)-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxamides 1a,b with acetylacetone 2 and arylidenemalononitriles 5a–c yielded the pyrazolo[1,5-a]-pyrimidine derivatives 4a,b and 7a–f respectively. On the other hand, Schiff bases 9a,b and 12a–j were obtained upon treatment of carboxamides 1a,b with isatin 8 and some selected aldehydes 11a–e. The newly synthesized compounds were characterized by analytical and spectroscopic data. Representative examples of the synthesized products 4a,b, 7e, 7f, 9b, 12b–f, 12h, and 12j were screened for their in vitro antitumor activities against different human cancer cell lines and the structure-activity relationship (SAR) was discussed. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Effects of Inhaled Rosemary Oil on Subjective Feelings and Activities of the Nervous System
Sci. Pharm. 2013, 81(2), 531-542; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.1209-05 - 23 Dec 2012
Cited by 32 | Viewed by 3677
Abstract
Rosemary oil is one of the more famous essential oils widely used in aromatherapy. However, the effects of rosemary oil on the human body, in particular the nervous system, have not been sufficiently studied. This study investigates the effects of the inhalation of [...] Read more.
Rosemary oil is one of the more famous essential oils widely used in aromatherapy. However, the effects of rosemary oil on the human body, in particular the nervous system, have not been sufficiently studied. This study investigates the effects of the inhalation of rosemary oil on test subjects’ feelings, as well as its effects on various physiological parameters of the nervous system. Twenty healthy volunteers participated in the experiment. All subjects underwent autonomic nervous system (ANS) recording. This consisted of measurements of skin temperature; heart rate; respiratory rate; blood pressure; evaluations of the subjects’ mood states; and electroencephalography (EEG) recordings in the pre-, during treatment, and post-rosemary inhalation periods as compared with control conditions. Our results showed significant increases in blood pressure, heart rate, and respiratory rate after rosemary oil inhalation. After the inhalation treatments, subjects were found to have become more active and stated that they felt “fresher”. The analysis of EEGs showed a reduction in the power of alpha1 (8–10.99 Hz) and alpha2 (11–12.99 Hz) waves. Moreover, an increment in the beta wave (13–30 Hz) power was observed in the anterior region of the brain. These results confirm the stimulatory effects of rosemary oil and provide supporting evidence that brain wave activity, autonomic nervous system activity, as well as mood states are all affected by the inhalation of the rosemary oil. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Synthesis and Anticancer Activity of 2-(Alkyl-, Alkaryl-, Aryl-, Hetaryl-)-[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-c]quinazolines
Sci. Pharm. 2013, 81(2), 359-392; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.1211-08 - 23 Dec 2012
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 807
Abstract
The combinatorial library of novel potential anticancer agents, namely, 2-(аlkyl-, alkaryl-, aryl-, hetaryl-)[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-c]quinazolines, was synthesized by the heterocyclization of the аlkyl-, alkaryl-, aryl-, hetarylcarboxylic acid (3Н-quinazoline-4-ylidene)hydrazides by oxidative heterocyclization of the 4-(arylidenehydrazino)quinazolines using bromine, and by the heterocyclization of [...] Read more.
The combinatorial library of novel potential anticancer agents, namely, 2-(аlkyl-, alkaryl-, aryl-, hetaryl-)[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-c]quinazolines, was synthesized by the heterocyclization of the аlkyl-, alkaryl-, aryl-, hetarylcarboxylic acid (3Н-quinazoline-4-ylidene)hydrazides by oxidative heterocyclization of the 4-(arylidenehydrazino)quinazolines using bromine, and by the heterocyclization of N-(2-cyanophenyl)formimidic acid ethyl ester. The optimal method for synthesis of the s-triazolo[1,5-c]quinazolines appeared to be cyclocondensation of the corresponding carboxylic acid (3H-quinazoline-4-ylidene)hydrazides. The compounds’ structures were established by 1H, 13C NMR, LC- and EI-MS analysis. The in vitro screening of anticancer activity determined the most active compound to be 3,4,5-trimethoxy-N'-[quinazolin-4(3H)-ylidene]benzohydrazide (3.20) in micromolar concentrations with the GI50 level (MG_MID, GI50 is 2.29). Thus, the cancer cell lines whose growth is greatly inhibited by compound 3.20 are: non-small cell lung cancer (NCI-H522, GI50=0.34), CNS (SF-295, GI50=0.95), ovarian (OVCAR-3, GI50=0.33), prostate (PC-3, GI50=0.56), and breast cancer (MCF7, GI50=0.52), leukemia (K-562, GI50=0.41; SR, GI50=0.29), and melanoma (MDA-MB-435, GI50=0.31; SK-MEL-5, GI50=0.74; UACC-62, GI50=0.32). SAR-analysis is also discussed. Full article
Open AccessArticle
A Single Gradient Stability-Indicating Reversed-Phase LC Method for the Estimation of Impurities in Omeprazole and Domperidone Capsules
Sci. Pharm. 2013, 81(2), 437-458; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.1209-12 - 19 Nov 2012
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 863
Abstract
A gradient reversed-phase liquid chromatographic (RP-LC) method was developed for the quantitative estimation of impurities in the pharmaceutical dosage form of Omeprazole and Domperidone capsules. The developed method is a stability-indicating test method for the estimation of impurities generated during the formulation and [...] Read more.
A gradient reversed-phase liquid chromatographic (RP-LC) method was developed for the quantitative estimation of impurities in the pharmaceutical dosage form of Omeprazole and Domperidone capsules. The developed method is a stability-indicating test method for the estimation of impurities generated during the formulation and storage of Omeprazole and Domperidone capsules. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a column packed with octadecyl silane, having a column length of 250 mm and diameter of 4.6 mm with a particle size of 5 μm, and by following a gradient program using a combination of a monobasic potassium phosphate buffer (0.05M) and acetonitrile. Since the spectral properties were similar, both compounds’ individual impurities were estimated at 285 nm. Forced degradation studies were performed on Omeprazole pellets (enteric coated) and Domperidone pellets (SR coated) encapsulated in size '1' hard gelatin capsules. Omeprazole and Domperidone were degraded using acid hydrolysis (0.1 N hydrochloric acid), base (0.1 N sodium hydroxide), oxidation (50% hydrogen peroxide), heat (105 °C), and UV light (254 nm). The established method was validated and found to be linear, accurate, precise, specific, robust, and rugged. Full article
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