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Sci. Pharm., Volume 81, Issue 1 (March 2013) – 21 articles , Pages 1-308

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134 KiB  
Short Communication
Stereochemistry of Consabatine from Convolvulus sabatius VIV. (Convolvulaceae)
by Sonja Christina OTT, Kristina JENETT-SIEMS and Eckart EICH
Sci. Pharm. 2013, 81(1), 247-250; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.1208-14 - 05 Feb 2013
Viewed by 957
Abstract
The stereochemistry of consabatine, which was isolated from the roots of Convolvulus sabatius VIV. as a novel natural compound, has now been determined by the synthesis of its Mosher esters. Consabatine was found to be 1'R-configurated. Full article
364 KiB  
Article
Inhibition of Key Digestive Enzymes Related to Diabetes and Hyperlipidemia and Protection of Liver-Kidney Functions by Trigonelline in Diabetic Rats
by Khaled HAMDEN, Kais MNAFGUI, Zahra AMRI, Ahmed ALOULOU and Abdelfattah ELFEKI
Sci. Pharm. 2013, 81(1), 233-246; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.1211-14 - 20 Dec 2012
Cited by 57 | Viewed by 1771
Abstract
Diabetes is a serious health problem and a source of risk for numerous severe complications such as obesity and hypertension. Treatment of diabetes and its related diseases can be achieved by inhibiting key digestive enzymes related to starch and lipid digestion. The findings [...] Read more.
Diabetes is a serious health problem and a source of risk for numerous severe complications such as obesity and hypertension. Treatment of diabetes and its related diseases can be achieved by inhibiting key digestive enzymes related to starch and lipid digestion. The findings revealed that the administration of trigonelline to surviving diabetic rats helped to protect the pancreas β-cells from death and damage. Additionally, the supplement of trigonelline to surviving diabetic rats significantly decreased intestinal α-amylase and maltase by 36 and 52%, respectively, which led to a significant decrease in the blood glucose rate by 46%. Moreover, the administration of trigonelline to surviving diabetic rats potentially inhibited key enzymes of lipid metabolism and absorption such as lipase activity in the small intestine by 56%, which led to a notable decrease in serum triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) rates and an increase in the HDL cholesterol level. This treatment also improved glucose, maltase, starch, and lipid oral tolerance. Trigonelline was also observed to protect the liver-kidney functions efficiently, which was evidenced by the significant decrease in the serum aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities and creatinine, albumin, and urea rates. The histological analysis of the pancreas, liver, and kidney tissues further established the positive effect of trigonelline. Overall, the findings presented in this study demonstrate that the administration of trigonelline to diabetic rats can make it a potentially strong candidate for industrial application as a pharmacological agent for the treatment of hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and liver-kidney dysfunctions. Full article
276 KiB  
Article
Comprehensive Assessment of Degradation Behavior of Aspirin and Atorvastatin Singly and in Combination by Using a Validated RP-HPLC Method
by Omkar SHERIKAR and Priti MEHTA
Sci. Pharm. 2013, 81(1), 195-210; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.1210-19 - 11 Dec 2012
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1540
Abstract
A fixed-dose combination of atorvastatin and aspirin is widely used for the treatment of myocardial infarction. The present work describes a compre-hensive study of the stress degradation behavior of atorvastatin and aspirin alone as well as in combination of 1:1 and 1:7.5 ratios, [...] Read more.
A fixed-dose combination of atorvastatin and aspirin is widely used for the treatment of myocardial infarction. The present work describes a compre-hensive study of the stress degradation behavior of atorvastatin and aspirin alone as well as in combination of 1:1 and 1:7.5 ratios, respectively, as per ICH guidelines. The degradation products of aspirin as well as atorvastatin were successfully separated by a developed simple, selective, and precise stability-indicating reversed-phase HPLC method. Chromatographic separation was achieved on the Phenomenex Luna analytical column, 150 mm x 4.6 mm, 5μm. The mobile phase consisted of 0.1% glacial acetic acid in water and acetonitrile in the ratio of 50:50 v/v at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. UV detection was performed at 246 nm. The extent of degradation was significantly influenced when both of the drugs were present in combination. Stress degradation behavior of atorvastatin was highly influenced by aspirin under acid hydrolysis, thermal degradation, and oxidative stress conditions. Similarly, the stress degradation behavior of aspirin was affected by atorvastatin especially under neutral hydrolysis, thermal degradation, and oxidative stress conditions. Additionally, the combination ratio of aspirin and atorvastatin also influenced the percentage degradation of each other. A mixture of aspirin and atorvastatin was also analyzed after a one-month stability study at 40 °C and 75% RH. All the results indicate chemical incompatibility of both aspirin and atorvastatin if present in combination. Full article
141 KiB  
Editorial
Scientia Pharmaceutica, Autorenhinweise 2013
by Scientia Pharmaceutica Editorial Office
Sci. Pharm. 2013, 81(1), 297-308; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.aut-13-01 - 10 Dec 2012
Viewed by 921
609 KiB  
Article
Synthesis, Characterization, and In Vitro Evaluation of New Ibuprofen Polymeric Prodrugs Based on 2-Hydroxypropyl Methacrylate
by Mirzaagha BABAZADEH, Maryam SHEIDAEI, Sara ABBASPOUR and Ladan EDJLALI
Sci. Pharm. 2013, 81(1), 281-296; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.1204-14 - 10 Dec 2012
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 1290
Abstract
The present research work describes the synthesis and evaluation of new acrylic-type polymeric systems having degradable ester bonds linked to ibuprofen as materials for drug delivery. Ibuprofen was linked to 2-hydroxy-propyl methacrylate by an activated ester methodology in a one-pot procedure with a [...] Read more.
The present research work describes the synthesis and evaluation of new acrylic-type polymeric systems having degradable ester bonds linked to ibuprofen as materials for drug delivery. Ibuprofen was linked to 2-hydroxy-propyl methacrylate by an activated ester methodology in a one-pot procedure with a high yield. The resulting material was copolymerized with either 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate or methyl methacrylate (in 1:3 mole ratios) by the free radical polymerization method, utilizing azoisobutyronitrile at 65–70 °C. The characterization of the resulting products by FTIR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, DSC, and elemental analysis confirmed their synthesis successfully. Ibuprofen release from the obtained polymers was preliminarily evaluated at different buffered solutions (pH 1, 7.4, and 10) into dialysis bags to show the capacity of prodrugs to release the drug under hydrolytic conditions. Detection of hydrolysis by UV spectroscopy at selected intervals showed that the drug can be released by selective hydrolysis of the ester bond at the side of the drug moiety. The release profiles indicated that the hydrolytic behavior of polymers is strongly based on the polymer hydrophilicity and the pH value of the hydrolysis solution. The results suggest that these polymers could be useful in controlled release systems. Full article
901 KiB  
Article
An Improvement of the Efficacy of Moxifloxacin HCl for the Treatment of Bacterial Keratitis by the Formulation of Ocular Mucoadhesive Microspheres
by Panchaxari Mallappa DANDAGI, Amit Manohar BELEKAR, Vinayak Shivamurthy MASTIHOLIMATH, Anand Panchakshari GADAD, Vivek Wamanrao SONTAKE and Prashant Sanjivrao SALIAN
Sci. Pharm. 2013, 81(1), 259-280; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.1204-08 - 10 Dec 2012
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1503
Abstract
The aim of this study was to prepare novel ocular mucoadhesive microspheres of Moxifloxacin HCl to increase its residence time on the ocular surface and to enhance its therapeutic efficacy in ocular bacterial keratitis. Microspheres were fabricated with different grades of Methocel and [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to prepare novel ocular mucoadhesive microspheres of Moxifloxacin HCl to increase its residence time on the ocular surface and to enhance its therapeutic efficacy in ocular bacterial keratitis. Microspheres were fabricated with different grades of Methocel and Sodium CMC as polymers. Microspheres were evaluated for their particle size, morphology, encapsulation efficiency, mucoadhesion, antimicrobial efficacy, and in vitro drug release studies. In vivo studies were carried out for the promising formulation on eyes of albino rabbits by inducing bacterial keratitis. A sterile microspheres suspension in light mineral oil was applied to infected eyes twice a day. A marketed conventional eye drop was used as a positive control. Eyes were examined daily for improvement of clinical signs of bacterial keratitis by an ophthalmologist. The average particle size of microspheres was found to be less than 80 μm. Methocel microspheres were found to have a smoother surface than Sodium CMC. Entrapment efficiency was enhanced with an increased polymer concentration and viscosity. The formulation containing Methocel K100M with a drug: polymer ratio of 1:2 exerted longer corneal and conjunctival mucoadhesion time of 8.45±0.15 h and 9.40±0.53 h respectively. In vitro release of Moxifloxacin HCl from microspheres was retarded with increased viscosity and concentration of polymers, and was controlled by diffusion as well as polymer relaxation. All formulations showed comparable antimicrobial activity in comparison with conventional marketed eye drops. The formulation containing Methocel K100M with a drug: polymer ratio of 1:2 was found to be a promising formulation and was used for the in vivo studies. The in vivo studies revealed that microspheres demonstrated significantly lower clinical scores and reduced the total duration of therapy than the marketed Moxifloxacin HCl eye drops. In vitro and in vivo studies showed that ocular mucoadhesive microspheres of Moxifloxacin HCl were found to have an improved efficacy in the treatment of ocular bacterial keratitis in comparison with the marketed formulation. Full article
157 KiB  
Article
A Novel, Validated Stability-Indicating UPLC Method for the Estimation of Lansoprazole and its Impurities in Bulk Drug and Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms
by Papanaboina VENKATA RAO, Morrisetty NAGENDRA KUMAR and Maram RAVI KUMAR
Sci. Pharm. 2013, 81(1), 183-194; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.1210-09 - 03 Dec 2012
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1719
Abstract
A novel, reversed-phase ultra-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed and validated for the determination of the assay and related substances of Lansoprazole (LAN) in bulk drug and capsule dosage forms. The related substances include degradation and process-related impurities. The method was developed using [...] Read more.
A novel, reversed-phase ultra-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed and validated for the determination of the assay and related substances of Lansoprazole (LAN) in bulk drug and capsule dosage forms. The related substances include degradation and process-related impurities. The method was developed using the Waters Acquity BEH C18 column and gradient program with mobile phase A as a pH 7.0 phosphate buffer and methanol in the ratio of 90: 10 (v/v), and mobile phase B as methanol and acetonitrile in the ratio of 50:50 (v/v). Lansoprazole and its impurities were monitored at 285 nm. Lansoprazole was subjected to the stress conditions of oxidative, acid, base, hydrolytic, thermal, humidity, and photolytic degradation and found to degrade significantly under acid and oxidative stress conditions. The degradation products were well-resolved from the main peak and its impurities, proving the stability-indicating power of the method. The performance of the method was validated according to the present ICH guidelines for specificity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, linearity, accuracy, precision, ruggedness, and robustness. Full article
191 KiB  
Article
Development and Validation of a Stability-Indicating HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Sulfadiazine Sodium and Trimethoprim in Injectable Solution Formulation
by Mashhour M. GHANEM and Saleh A. ABU-LAFI
Sci. Pharm. 2013, 81(1), 167-182; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.1210-12 - 22 Nov 2012
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1907
Abstract
A direct, precise, and stability-indicating HPLC method that is based on reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) coupled with a photodiode array detector (PDA) was developed, optimized, and validated for the simultaneous determination of sulfadiazine sodium (SDZS) and Trimethoprim (TMP) in Bactizine® forte injectable solution. [...] Read more.
A direct, precise, and stability-indicating HPLC method that is based on reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) coupled with a photodiode array detector (PDA) was developed, optimized, and validated for the simultaneous determination of sulfadiazine sodium (SDZS) and Trimethoprim (TMP) in Bactizine® forte injectable solution. The separation was achieved using a C18 column (250 mm×4.6 mm i.d., 5 μm particle size) at room temperature, and an isocratic mobile phase that consisted of a trinary solvent mixture of water–acetonitrile–triethylamine (838:160:2, v/v) at pH 5.5 ± 0.05. The mobile phase was delivered at 1.4 ml/min and the analytes were monitored at 254 nm. The effects of the operational chromatographic conditions on the peak’s USP tailing factor, column efficiency, and resolution were systematically optimized. Forced degradation experiments were carried out by exposing SDZS, TMP standards, and their formulation to thermal, photolytic, oxidative, and acid-base hydrolytic stress conditions. The method was successfully validated in accordance to International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) and United States Pharmacopoeia (USP34/NF29) guidelines and found to be suitable for the quantitative determination and stability of SDZS and TMP in Bactizine® forte injectable solution. Full article
497 KiB  
Article
A Rapid, Validated RP-HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Cleaning Validation and Cross-Contamination of 12 Beta-Lactam Compounds
by Harshal Kanubhai TRIVEDI, Nayan KSHTRI and Mukesh C. PATEL
Sci. Pharm. 2013, 81(1), 151-166; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.1208-20 - 17 Nov 2012
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1709
Abstract
The present work reports a rapid reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method for the simultaneous determination of 12 beta-lactam components for cleaning validation and cross-contamination. A strategic experimental approach was implemented for the method development. The desired chromatographic separation was achieved on a [...] Read more.
The present work reports a rapid reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method for the simultaneous determination of 12 beta-lactam components for cleaning validation and cross-contamination. A strategic experimental approach was implemented for the method development. The desired chromatographic separation was achieved on a Symmetry C18 (4.6 X 75 mm, 3.5 μm) column using gradient elution. The optimized mobile phase consisted of the buffer tetrabutylammonium hydroxide pH-6.8 and acetonitrile. The eluted compounds were monitored at 215 nm and 254 nm wavelength using a photodiode array detector. The developed method separated 12-beta-lactam compounds from each other within a run time of 50 min. The method is effective for the determination of cross-contamination of penicillin and cephalo-sporin production blocks. The present method is specific and a lower limit of quantification was determined on the basis of the signal-to-noise ratio method; it is 1 μg/mL for all components. The developed RP-HPLC method was validated according to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. Full article
264 KiB  
Article
Development and Validation of a Stability-Indicating LC-Method for the Simultaneous Estimation of Levodropropizine, Chloropheniramine, Methylparaben, Propylparaben, and Levodropropizine Impurities
by Palakurthi Ashok KUMAR, Thummala Veera Raghava RAJU, Dongala THIRUPATHI, Ravindra KUMAR and Jaya SHREE
Sci. Pharm. 2013, 81(1), 139-150; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.1210-18 - 17 Nov 2012
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 1847
Abstract
A simple, fast, and efficient RP-HPLC method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous estimation of Levodropropizine, Chloropheniramine, Methylparaben, Propylparaben, and the quantification of Levodropropizine impurities in the Reswas syrup dosage form. A gradient elution method was used for the separation of [...] Read more.
A simple, fast, and efficient RP-HPLC method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous estimation of Levodropropizine, Chloropheniramine, Methylparaben, Propylparaben, and the quantification of Levodropropizine impurities in the Reswas syrup dosage form. A gradient elution method was used for the separation of all the actives and Levodropropizine impurities by using the X-Bridge C18, 150 mm × 4.6 mm, 3.5 μm column with a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and detector wavelength at 223 nm. The mobile phase consisted of a potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate buffer and acetonitrile. All the peaks were symmetrical and well-resolved (resolution was greater than 2.5 for any pair of components) with a shorter run time. The limit of detection for Levodropropizine and its Impurity B was 0.07 μg/ml & 0.05 μg/ml, whereas the limit of quantification was 0.19 μg/ml & 0.15 μg/ml respectively. The method was validated in terms of precision, accuracy, linearity, robustness, and specificity. Degradation products resulting from the stress studies were well-resolved and did not interfere with the detection of Levodropropizine, Chloropheniramine, Methylparaben, Propylparaben, and Levodropropizine Impurity B, thus the test method is stability-indicating. Validation of the method was carried out as per International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. Full article
146 KiB  
Article
Inhibitions of Several Antineoplastic Drugs on Serum Sialic Acid Levels in Mice Bearing Tumors
by Da-Yong LU, Jing XU, Ting-Ren LU, Hong-Ying WU and Bin XU
Sci. Pharm. 2013, 81(1), 223-232; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.1209-18 - 14 Nov 2012
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1179
Abstract
Six murine tumors, including ascetic tumors HepA, EC, P388 leukemia, S180 and solid tumor S180, and Lewis lung carcinoma, were employed in this work. The free sialic acid concentrations in both blood and ascites were measured in tumor-bearing mice. The results showed that [...] Read more.
Six murine tumors, including ascetic tumors HepA, EC, P388 leukemia, S180 and solid tumor S180, and Lewis lung carcinoma, were employed in this work. The free sialic acid concentrations in both blood and ascites were measured in tumor-bearing mice. The results showed that the content of sialic acids in blood was increased in tumor growth and certain tumor types. Higher sialic acid content was observed in ascites than that present in blood. The influence of antineoplastic agents (vincristine, thiotepa, adriamycin, probimane, cisplatin, oxalysine, cortisone, nitrogen mustard, lycobetaine, Ara-C, harringtonine, and cyclophosphamide) on the content of sialic acids in mice blood bearing solid tumors of either S180 or Lewis lung carcinoma was observed. Different inhibitions of antineoplastic drugs on both tumor growth and serum sialic acid levels in mice bearing tumors were found. Among these antineoplastic drugs, probimane, cisplatin, nitrogen mustard, and lycobetaine were able to decrease the serum sialic acid levels in mice bearing tumors. Since these four antineoplastic drugs are all DNA chelating agents, it was proposed that the inhibition of tumor sialic acids by these drugs might be through the DNA template via two ways. Since we have found no effect of antineoplastic drugs on serum sialic acid levels in normal mice, this suggests that the inhibition of antineoplastic drugs on sialic acids is by tumor involvement. Full article
204 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Anti-Quorum Sensing Activity for Some Ornamental and Medicinal Plants Native to Egypt
by Ahmed A. ZAKI, Mona I. SHAABAN, Nadia E. HASHISH, Mohamed A. AMER and Mohamed-Farid LAHLOUB
Sci. Pharm. 2013, 81(1), 251-258; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.1204-26 - 05 Nov 2012
Cited by 41 | Viewed by 2356
Abstract
This study investigated the effects of some plant extracts on the bacterial communication system, expressed as quorum sensing (QS) activity. Quorum sensing has a directly proportional effect on the amount of certain compounds, such as pigments, produced by the bacteria. Alcohol extracts of [...] Read more.
This study investigated the effects of some plant extracts on the bacterial communication system, expressed as quorum sensing (QS) activity. Quorum sensing has a directly proportional effect on the amount of certain compounds, such as pigments, produced by the bacteria. Alcohol extracts of 23 ornamental and medicinal plants were tested for anti-QS activity by the Chromobacterium violaceum assay using the agar cup diffusion method. The screening revealed the anti-QS activity of six plants; namely the leaves of Adhatoda vasica Nees, Bauhinia purpurea L., Lantana camara L., Myoporum laetum G. Forst.; the fruits of Piper longum L.; and the aerial parts of Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg. Full article
327 KiB  
Article
Development and Validation of a Precise, Single HPLC Method for the Determination of Tolperisone Impurities in API and Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms
by Thummala Veera Raghava RAJU, Raja Kumar SESHADRI, Srinivas ARUTLA, Tharlapu Satya Sankarsana Jagan MOHAN, Ivaturi Mrutyunjaya RAO and Someswara Rao NITTALA
Sci. Pharm. 2013, 81(1), 123-138; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.1209-17 - 05 Nov 2012
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2638
Abstract
A novel, sensitive, stability-indicating HPLC method has been developed for the quantitative estimation of Tolperisone-related impurities in both bulk drugs and pharmaceutical dosage forms. Effective chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 stationary phase with a simple mobile phase combination delivered in a [...] Read more.
A novel, sensitive, stability-indicating HPLC method has been developed for the quantitative estimation of Tolperisone-related impurities in both bulk drugs and pharmaceutical dosage forms. Effective chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 stationary phase with a simple mobile phase combination delivered in a simple gradient programme, and quantitation was by ultraviolet detection at 254 nm. The mobile phase consisted of a buffer and acetonitrile delivered at a flow rate 1.0 ml/min. The buffer consisted of 0.01 M potassium dihydrogen phosphate with the pH adjusted to 8.0 by using diethylamine. In the developed HPLC method, the resolution between Tolperisone and its four potential impurities was found to be greater than 2.0. Regression analysis showed an R value (correlation coefficient) of greater than 0.999 for the Tolperisone impurities. This method was capable of detecting all four impurities of Tolperisone at a level of 0.19 μg/mL with respect to the test concentration of 1000 μg/mL for a 10 μl injection volume. The tablets were subjected to the stress conditions of hydrolysis, oxidation, photolysis, and thermal degradation. Considerable degradation was found to occur in base hydrolysis, water hydrolysis, and oxidation. The stress samples were assayed against a qualified reference standard and the mass balance was found to be close to 100%. The established method was validated and found to be linear, accurate, precise, specific, robust, and rugged. Full article
177 KiB  
Article
Method Development and Validation of a Stability-Indicating RP-HPLC Method for the Quantitative Analysis of Dronedarone Hydrochloride in Pharmaceutical Tablets
by Batuk DABHI, Yashwantsinh JADEJA, Madhavi PATEL, Hetal JEBALIYA, Denish KARIA and Anamik SHAH
Sci. Pharm. 2013, 81(1), 115-122; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.1209-15 - 05 Nov 2012
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1623
Abstract
A simple, precise, and accurate HPLC method has been developed and validated for the quantitative analysis of Dronedarone Hydrochloride in tablet form. An isocratic separation was achieved using a Waters Symmetry C8 (100 x 4.6 mm), 5 μm particle size column with a [...] Read more.
A simple, precise, and accurate HPLC method has been developed and validated for the quantitative analysis of Dronedarone Hydrochloride in tablet form. An isocratic separation was achieved using a Waters Symmetry C8 (100 x 4.6 mm), 5 μm particle size column with a flow rate of 1 ml/min and UV detector at 290 nm. The mobile phase consisted of buffer: methanol (40:60 v/v) (buffer: 50 mM KH2PO4 + 1 ml triethylamine in 1 liter water, pH=2.5 adjusted with ortho-phosphoric acid). The method was validated for specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy, robustness, and solution stability. The specificity of the method was determined by assessing interference from the placebo and by stress testing the drug (forced degradation). The method was linear over the concentration range 20–80 μg/ml (r2 = 0.999) with a Limit of Detection (LOD) and Limit of Quantitation (LOQ) of 0.1 and 0.3 μg/ml respectively. The accuracy of the method was between 99.2–100.5%. The method was found to be robust and suitable for the quantitative analysis of Dronedarone Hydrochloride in a tablet formulation. Degradation products resulting from the stress studies did not interfere with the detection of Dronedarone Hydrochloride so the assay is thus stability-indicating. Full article
217 KiB  
Article
Antidepressant Effect of Aminophylline After Ethanol Exposure
by Sarah Souza ESCUDEIRO, Paula Matias SOARES, Anália Barbosa ALMEIDA, Rodrigo De Freitas Guimarães LOBATO, Dayane Pessoa De ARAUJO, Danielle Silveira MACEDO, Francisca Cléa Florenço SOUSA, Manoel Cláudio Azevedo PATROCÍNIO and Silvânia Maria Mendes VASCONCELOS
Sci. Pharm. 2013, 81(1), 211-222; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.1208-17 - 23 Oct 2012
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1142
Abstract
This work investigated the association of acute ethanol and aminophylline administration on behavioral models of depression and prefrontal monoamine levels (i.e. norepinephrine and dopamine) in mice. The animals received a single dose of ethanol (2 g/kg) or aminophylline (5 or 10 mg/kg) alone [...] Read more.
This work investigated the association of acute ethanol and aminophylline administration on behavioral models of depression and prefrontal monoamine levels (i.e. norepinephrine and dopamine) in mice. The animals received a single dose of ethanol (2 g/kg) or aminophylline (5 or 10 mg/kg) alone or in association. Thirty minutes after the last drug administration, the animals were assessed in behavioral models by the forced swimming and tail suspension tests. After these tests, the animals were sacrificed and the prefrontal cortices dissected to measure monoamine content. Results showed that ethanol presented depression-like activity in the forced swimming and tail suspension tests. These effects were reversed by the association with aminophylline in all tests. Norepinephrine and dopamine levels decreased, while an increase in the dopamine metabolite, (4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)acetic acid (DOPAC), after ethanol administration was observed. On the contrary, the association of ethanol and aminophylline increased the norepinephrine and dopamine content, while it decreased DOPAC when compared to the ethanol group, confirming the alterations observed in the behavioral tests. These data reinforce the involvement of the adenosinergic system on ethanol effects, highlighting the importance of the norepinephrine and dopamine pathways in the prefrontal cortex to the effects of ethanol. Full article
150 KiB  
Article
Chromatographic Behaviour Predicts the Ability of Potential Nootropics to Permeate the Blood-Brain Barrier
by Oldřich FARSA
Sci. Pharm. 2013, 81(1), 81-92; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.1208-19 - 14 Oct 2012
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1345
Abstract
The log BB parameter is the logarithm of the ratio of a compound’s equilibrium concentrations in the brain tissue versus the blood plasma. This parameter is a useful descriptor in assessing the ability of a compound to permeate the blood-brain barrier. The aim [...] Read more.
The log BB parameter is the logarithm of the ratio of a compound’s equilibrium concentrations in the brain tissue versus the blood plasma. This parameter is a useful descriptor in assessing the ability of a compound to permeate the blood-brain barrier. The aim of this study was to develop a Hansch-type linear regression QSAR model that correlates the parameter log BB and the retention time of drugs and other organic compounds on a reversed-phase HPLC containing an embedded amide moiety. The retention time was expressed by the capacity factor log k'. The second aim was to estimate the brain’s absorption of 2-(azacycloalkyl)acetamidophenoxyacetic acids, which are analogues of piracetam, nefiracetam, and meclofenoxate. Notably, these acids may be novel nootropics. Two simple regression models that relate log BB and log k' were developed from an assay performed using a reversed-phase HPLC that contained an embedded amide moiety. Both the quadratic and linear models yielded statistical parameters comparable to previously published models of log BB dependence on various structural characteristics. The models predict that four members of the substituted phenoxyacetic acid series have a strong chance of permeating the barrier and being absorbed in the brain. The results of this study show that a reversed-phase HPLC system containing an embedded amide moiety is a functional in vitro surrogate of the blood-brain barrier. These results suggest that racetam-type nootropic drugs containing a carboxylic moiety could be more poorly absorbed than analogues devoid of the carboxyl group, especially if the compounds penetrate the barrier by a simple diffusion mechanism. Full article
199 KiB  
Article
In Vitro Antileishmanial, Trypanocidal, and Mammalian Cell Activities of Diverse N,N'-Dihetaryl Substituted Diamines and Related Compounds
by Sandra M. LEAL, Diego F. AMADO, Vladimir V. KOUZNETSOV and Patricia ESCOBAR
Sci. Pharm. 2013, 81(1), 43-56; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.1205-14 - 14 Oct 2012
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1534
Abstract
The leishmaniasis and Chagas diseases constitute a serious public health problem worldwide with few and ineffective treatment options. The search for new antiparasitic candidates at the initial steps of drug discovery and development is still necessary. The synthesis of 22 de novo synthetized [...] Read more.
The leishmaniasis and Chagas diseases constitute a serious public health problem worldwide with few and ineffective treatment options. The search for new antiparasitic candidates at the initial steps of drug discovery and development is still necessary. The synthesis of 22 de novo synthetized N,N'-dihetaryl-alkyldiamine derivatives and in vitro antiparasitic activity were evaluated for the first time against intracellular and extracellular forms of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum, L. (Viannia) panamensis, L. (Leishmania) amazonensis, and Trypanosoma cruzi. Additionally, the toxicity on mammalian cells was determined. Some of these substituted N,N'-diamines (25–35 % of the tested compounds) showed interesting results against free-living forms of parasites with activities at the inhibitory concentration (IC50) level of 1.96 to 28.83 μM for L. (L.) infantum promastigotes and IC50 of 0.02 to 5.31 μM for T. cruzi epimastigotes. No activity at the IC50 level on intracellular amastigotes of T. cruzi was observed. However, N1,N2-dibenzylethane-1,2-diamine 5a revealed an important activity against the intracellular amastigotes of L. infantum (IC50 25.42 μM ±0.33) and L. panamensis (IC50 58.20 μM ±3.23), while their analogue N1,N4-dibenzylbutane-1,4-diamine 5c resulted in activity only against L. panamensis (IC50 11.19 μM ±0.20) without toxicity on Vero and THP-1 mammalian cells. The active compounds against intracellular parasites with low toxicity in mammalian cells may be considered for future studies in experimental models. Full article
332 KiB  
Article
Stress Degradation Behavior of Atorvastatin Calcium and Development of a Suitable Stability-Indicating LC Method for the Determination of Atorvastatin, its Related Impurities, and its Degradation Products
by Pallavi VUKKUM, J. MOSES BABU and R. MURALIKRISHNA
Sci. Pharm. 2013, 81(1), 93-114; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.1208-06 - 09 Oct 2012
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 2842
Abstract
A rapid, reversed-phase liquid chromatographic method was developed for the quantitative determination of Atorvastatin calcium, its related substances (12 impurities), and degradation impurities in bulk drugs. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a Zorbax Bonus-RP column by employing a gradient elution with water–acetonitrile–trifluoroacetic [...] Read more.
A rapid, reversed-phase liquid chromatographic method was developed for the quantitative determination of Atorvastatin calcium, its related substances (12 impurities), and degradation impurities in bulk drugs. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a Zorbax Bonus-RP column by employing a gradient elution with water–acetonitrile–trifluoroacetic acid as the mobile phase in a shorter run time of 25 min. The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min and the detection wavelength was 245 nm. The drug substance was subjected to stress studies such as hydrolysis, oxidation, photolysis, and thermal degradation, and considerable degradation was observed in acidic hydrolysis, oxidative, thermal, and photolytic stress conditions. The formed degradation products were reported and were well-resolved from the Atorvastatin and its related substances. The stressed samples were quantified against a qualified reference standard and the mass balance was found to be close to 99.5% (w/w) when the response of the degradant was considered to be equal to the analyte (i.e. Atorvastatin), which demonstrates the stability-indicating capability of the method. The method was validated in agreement with ICH requirements. The method developed here was single and shorter (25 min method for the determination of all 12 related impurities of Atorvastatin and its degradation products), with clearly better resolution and higher sensitivity than the European (85 min method for the determination of six impurities) and United States pharmacopeia (115 min and 55 min, two different methods for the determination of six related substances). Full article
459 KiB  
Article
Design and Evaluation of Novel Antimicrobial and Anticancer Agents Among Tetrazolo[1,5-c]quinazoline-5-thione S-Derivatives
by Lyudmyla M. ANTYPENKO, Sergey I. KOVALENKO, Olexii M. ANTYPENKO, Andrey M. KATSEV and Olena M. ACHKASOVA
Sci. Pharm. 2013, 81(1), 15-42; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.1208-13 - 09 Oct 2012
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 1489
Abstract
The novel heterocyclization of 5-(2-aminophenyl)-1Н-tetrazole with potassium ethylxanthogenate or carbon disulfide was proposed. The potassium salt of the tetrazolo[1,5-c]quinazoline-5-thione was subsequently modified by alkylation with proper halogen derivatives to (tetrazolo[1,5-c]quinazolin-5-ylthio)alkyls, N,N-dialkylethylamines, 1-aryl-2-ethanones, 1-(alkyl)aryl-2-ethanols, carboxylic [...] Read more.
The novel heterocyclization of 5-(2-aminophenyl)-1Н-tetrazole with potassium ethylxanthogenate or carbon disulfide was proposed. The potassium salt of the tetrazolo[1,5-c]quinazoline-5-thione was subsequently modified by alkylation with proper halogen derivatives to (tetrazolo[1,5-c]quinazolin-5-ylthio)alkyls, N,N-dialkylethylamines, 1-aryl-2-ethanones, 1-(alkyl)aryl-2-ethanols, carboxylic acids, and esters. The structures of all newly synthesized compounds were confirmed by FT-IR, UV-vis, LC-MS, 1H, 13C NMR, and elemental analysis data. The substances were screened for antibacterial and antifungal activities (100 μg) against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter aerogenes, Entrococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Candida albicans. Preliminary bioluminescence inhibition tests against Photobacterium leiognathi Sh1 showed that substances 5.25.4, 6.1, 7.1 with ethanone or carboxylic acid substituents showed toxicity against bacteria cells. The substances chosen by the US National Cancer Institute (NCI) were screened for their ability to inhibit 60 different human tumor cell lines, where 2-(tetrazolo[1,5-c]quinazolin-5-ylthio)-1-(4-tolyl)ethanone (5.2), 3-(tetrazolo[1,5-c]quinazolin-5-ylthio)propanoic and related 3-metyl-butanoic acids (6.2, 6.3), and ethyl tetrazolo[1,5-c]quinazolin-5-ylthio)acetate (7.2) showed lethal antitumor activity (1.0 μM) against the acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line (CCRF-CEM), and substances 5.2 and 6.3 exhibited moderate anticancer properties inhibiting growth of the leukemia MOLT-4 and HL06-(TB) cell lines. The moderate antitumor activity was demonstrated in 1-(2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-(tetrazolo[1,5-c]quinazolin-5-ylthio)ethanone (5.4) against the CNS cancer cell line SNB-75. Comparing the docking mode of the Gefitinib and synthesised substances on the ATP binding site of EGFR, it could be assumed that these compounds might act in the same way. The results of the investigation could be considered as a useful base for future development of potent antimicrobials and antitumor agents among tetrazolo[1,5-c]quinazoline-5-thione S-derivatives. Full article
99 KiB  
Review
Anti-Counterfeit Technologies: A Pharmaceutical Industry Perspective
by Dipika BANSAL, Swathi MALLA, Kapil GUDALA and Pramil TIWARI
Sci. Pharm. 2013, 81(1), 1-14; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.1202-03 - 09 Oct 2012
Cited by 103 | Viewed by 7729
Abstract
Growth of international free trade and inadequate drug regulation have led to the expansion of trade in counterfeit drugs worldwide. Technological protection is seen to be the best way to avoid this problem. Different technologies came into existence like overt, covert, and track [...] Read more.
Growth of international free trade and inadequate drug regulation have led to the expansion of trade in counterfeit drugs worldwide. Technological protection is seen to be the best way to avoid this problem. Different technologies came into existence like overt, covert, and track and trace technologies. This review emphasises ideal technological characteristics, existing anti-counterfeit technologies, and their adoption in different countries. Developed countries like the USA have implemented RFID while the European trend is towards 2D barcodes. The Indian government is getting sensitised about the extent of the problem and has formulated rules mandating barcodes. Even the pharmaceutical companies have been employing these technologies in order to detain illegitimate drugs in their supply chain. Full article
439 KiB  
Article
Predictive Modeling of Antioxidant Coumarin Derivatives Using Multiple Approaches: Descriptor-Based QSAR, 3D-Pharmacophore Mapping, and HQSAR
by Indrani MITRA, Achintya SAHA and Kunal ROY
Sci. Pharm. 2013, 81(1), 57-80; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.1208-01 - 09 Sep 2012
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 1803
Abstract
The inability of the systemic antioxidants to alleviate the exacerbation of free radical formation from metabolic outputs and environmental pollutants claims an urgent demand for the identification and design of new chemical entities with potent antioxidant activity. In the present work, different QSAR [...] Read more.
The inability of the systemic antioxidants to alleviate the exacerbation of free radical formation from metabolic outputs and environmental pollutants claims an urgent demand for the identification and design of new chemical entities with potent antioxidant activity. In the present work, different QSAR approaches have been utilized for identifying the essential structural attributes imparting a potential antioxidant activity profile of the coumarin derivatives. The descriptor-based QSAR model provides a quantitative outline regarding the structural prerequisites of the molecules, while 3D pharmacophore and HQSAR models emphasize the favourable spatial arrangement of the various chemical features and the crucial molecular fragments, respectively. All the models infer that the fused benzene ring and the oxygen atom of the pyran ring constituting the parent coumarin nucleus capture the prime pharmacophoric features, imparting superior antioxidant activity to the molecules. The developed models may serve as indispensable query tools for screening untested molecules belonging to the class of coumarin derivatives. Full article
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