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Diseases, Volume 7, Issue 3 (September 2019)

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Open AccessArticle
The Prevalence and Correlation of Carotid Artery Calcifications and Dental Pulp Stones in a Saudi Arabian Population
Received: 29 June 2019 / Accepted: 9 July 2019 / Published: 15 July 2019
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Abstract
Background: This study sought to determine the prevalence of carotid artery calcifications (CACs) and pulp stones detected on panoramic radiographs (PRs) and ascertain their correlation. Methods: A total of 2013 digital PRs were retrospectively retrieved and thoroughly examined to determine the prevalence of [...] Read more.
Background: This study sought to determine the prevalence of carotid artery calcifications (CACs) and pulp stones detected on panoramic radiographs (PRs) and ascertain their correlation. Methods: A total of 2013 digital PRs were retrospectively retrieved and thoroughly examined to determine the prevalence of CACs and pulp stones, their correlation with patient age and gender, and the relationship between the presence of pulps stones and radiographically detectable CACs. Results: The prevalence of CACs on PRs was 2.0%; the prevalence of pulp stones was 4.6%. There was no statistical relationship between pulp stones and CACs (p = 0.714). Older patients exhibited a significantly higher prevalence of CACs than younger patients (p < 0.001); pulp stones were statistically more prevalent in younger patients than older patients (p = 0.001). There were no significant differences between male and females in terms of the prevalence of either CACs or pulp stones (p = 0.087 and p = 0.278, respectively). Conclusions: Dentists should be trained to detect CACs on PRs belonging to patients older than 40 to exclude the presence of CACs. Moreover, pulp stones do not function as a diagnostic marker for CACs. Full article
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Open AccessReview
The Limits between Bipolar Disorder and Borderline Personality Disorder: A Review of the Evidence
Received: 10 May 2019 / Revised: 1 July 2019 / Accepted: 3 July 2019 / Published: 5 July 2019
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Abstract
Bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder are among the most frequently diagnosed psychiatric conditions. However, the nosological aspects and diagnostic boundaries of both conditions have historically been the object of considerable controversy. The present paper critically analyzes this debate, in light of available [...] Read more.
Bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder are among the most frequently diagnosed psychiatric conditions. However, the nosological aspects and diagnostic boundaries of both conditions have historically been the object of considerable controversy. The present paper critically analyzes this debate, in light of available evidence. Clinical and neurobiological differences between bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder are discussed, as well as the factors possibly involved in the overlap between both conditions and the potential implications of this. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuro-psychiatric Disorders - Feature Paper)
Open AccessEditorial
Neuro-Psychiatric Disorders: From Diagnosis to Care
Received: 3 July 2019 / Accepted: 4 July 2019 / Published: 5 July 2019
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Abstract
Neuro-psychiatric disorders are an important cause of poor quality of life, disability, and premature mortality [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuro-psychiatric Disorders - from Diagnosis to Care)
Open AccessReview
Cell and Gene Therapies for Mucopolysaccharidoses: Base Editing and Therapeutic Delivery to the CNS
Received: 11 June 2019 / Revised: 21 June 2019 / Accepted: 25 June 2019 / Published: 26 June 2019
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Abstract
Although individually uncommon, rare diseases collectively account for a considerable proportion of disease impact worldwide. A group of rare genetic diseases called the mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs) are characterized by accumulation of partially degraded glycosaminoglycans cellularly. MPS results in varied systemic symptoms and in some [...] Read more.
Although individually uncommon, rare diseases collectively account for a considerable proportion of disease impact worldwide. A group of rare genetic diseases called the mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs) are characterized by accumulation of partially degraded glycosaminoglycans cellularly. MPS results in varied systemic symptoms and in some forms of the disease, neurodegeneration. Lack of treatment options for MPS with neurological involvement necessitates new avenues of therapeutic investigation. Cell and gene therapies provide putative alternatives and when coupled with genome editing technologies may provide long term or curative treatment. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-based genome editing technology and, more recently, advances in genome editing research, have allowed for the addition of base editors to the repertoire of CRISPR-based editing tools. The latest versions of base editors are highly efficient on-targeting deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) editors. Here, we describe a number of putative guide ribonucleic acid (RNA) designs for precision correction of known causative mutations for 10 of the MPSs. In this review, we discuss advances in base editing technologies and current techniques for delivery of cell and gene therapies to the site of global degeneration in patients with severe neurological forms of MPS, the central nervous system, including ultrasound-mediated blood-brain barrier disruption. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Lysosomal Storage Diseases)
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