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Epigenetics and Mechanobiology in Heart Development and Congenital Heart Disease

1
Department of Bioengineering, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
2
Department of Pediatrics, Children’s Hospital Colorado, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this review.
Diseases 2019, 7(3), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases7030052
Received: 31 July 2019 / Revised: 30 August 2019 / Accepted: 30 August 2019 / Published: 1 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epigenetics and Disease)
Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common birth defect worldwide and the number one killer of live-born infants in the United States. Heart development occurs early in embryogenesis and involves complex interactions between multiple cell populations, limiting the understanding and consequent treatment of CHD. Furthermore, genome sequencing has largely failed to predict or yield therapeutics for CHD. In addition to the underlying genome, epigenetics and mechanobiology both drive heart development. A growing body of evidence implicates the aberrant regulation of these two extra-genomic systems in the pathogenesis of CHD. In this review, we describe the stages of human heart development and the heart defects known to manifest at each stage. Next, we discuss the distinct and overlapping roles of epigenetics and mechanobiology in normal development and in the pathogenesis of CHD. Finally, we highlight recent advances in the identification of novel epigenetic biomarkers and environmental risk factors that may be useful for improved diagnosis and further elucidation of CHD etiology. View Full-Text
Keywords: DNA methylation; histone modification; microRNA; cardiac development; congenital heart defects; endocardium; hemodynamics; mechanotransduction; biomarkers; maternal diabetes DNA methylation; histone modification; microRNA; cardiac development; congenital heart defects; endocardium; hemodynamics; mechanotransduction; biomarkers; maternal diabetes
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jarrell, D.K.; Lennon, M.L.; Jacot, J.G. Epigenetics and Mechanobiology in Heart Development and Congenital Heart Disease. Diseases 2019, 7, 52.

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