Next Issue
Volume 6, September
Previous Issue
Volume 6, March

Table of Contents

Resources, Volume 6, Issue 2 (June 2017) – 8 articles

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Cover Story (view full-size image) Collection and treatment of wastewater have huge impacts on environment and economy, both at local [...] Read more.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessReview
Integrated, Decentralized Wastewater Management for Resource Recovery in Rural and Peri-Urban Areas
Resources 2017, 6(2), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources6020022 - 15 Jun 2017
Cited by 48 | Viewed by 5746
Abstract
Collection and treatment of wastewater have a huge impact on the environment and economy, both at the local and global levels. Eco-innovation may play a paramount role in the reduction of the environmental impact of such systems, and in their greater sustainability in [...] Read more.
Collection and treatment of wastewater have a huge impact on the environment and economy, both at the local and global levels. Eco-innovation may play a paramount role in the reduction of the environmental impact of such systems, and in their greater sustainability in economic, environmental, and social terms. Decentralization appears as a logical solution to tackle sustainability problems of wastewater management systems, as it focuses on the on-site treatment of wastewater and on local recycling and reuse of resources contained in domestic wastewater (in primus, water itself). This paper analyses the needs, technological options and contribution to water management of decentralized systems. Decentralized solutions in general will tend to be compatible with local water use and reuse requirements, where locally treated water could support agricultural productivity or (in more urban areas) be used as a substitute for drinking-quality supply water for compatible uses. In analyzing sustainability of technology, different dimensions should be taken into account (in particular, local issues). There is no fixed or universal solution to the technological issue; to the contrary, all relevant studies demonstrated there are varying degrees of sustainability in the way a technology is selected and operated, to avoid exporting problems over time or space. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Evaluating the Role of CSR and SLO in Ecotourism: Collaboration for Economic and Environmental Sustainability of Arctic Resources
Resources 2017, 6(2), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources6020021 - 12 Jun 2017
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4267
Abstract
Abstract: Major biophysical, economic, and political changes in the Arctic regions during the past two decades has grown business opportunities in the Arctic countries, such as tourism. More specifically, with a focus on sustainability of resources, the industry of ecotourism has emerged [...] Read more.
Abstract: Major biophysical, economic, and political changes in the Arctic regions during the past two decades has grown business opportunities in the Arctic countries, such as tourism. More specifically, with a focus on sustainability of resources, the industry of ecotourism has emerged and become the fastest growing area within tourism. Ecotourism is a travel experience that embraces environmental conservation and the sustainability of local resources and culture. Ecotourism and related businesses must practice ethical behavior to obtain both government and social permission to conduct and carry out their operations. Government and community acceptance, or gaining a social license to operate (SLO) is key. Being accepted as a part of the community is not a formal agreement or document, but ongoing negotiations, practices, and acts of corporate social responsibility (CSR). For example, in many Arctic regions where tourism occurs, the land and resources have other designated uses such as agriculture, forestry, or fisheries. Added infrastructure grows a smaller community, as revenue generating opportunities bring an influx of people and use the resources and infrastructure, as well as have an impact on the local culture and traditions. Sustaining the local and traditional resources and lands, especially in the Arctic where damage can be unrepairable, becomes a key factor in decisions regarding tourism developments. Thus, the need for responsible businesses with a sustainability focus. The need for practices of CSR and SLO in ecotourism is undeniable. Understanding that businesses hold responsibility and play a role in society, the environment, and the life of the locals is very important. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Putting Phosphorus First: The Need to Know and Right to Know Call for a Revised Hierarchy of Natural Resources
Resources 2017, 6(2), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources6020020 - 04 Jun 2017
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4093
Abstract
The aim of this paper is to develop two concepts regarding phosphorus that will serve as a contribution fulfilling the call for intergenerational equity: to improve knowledge of future resources and to develop a framework by setting priorities for maximizing availability with a [...] Read more.
The aim of this paper is to develop two concepts regarding phosphorus that will serve as a contribution fulfilling the call for intergenerational equity: to improve knowledge of future resources and to develop a framework by setting priorities for maximizing availability with a hierarchy of natural resources. The increasing human demand for minerals and metals is causing persistent concern about long-term supply security. This holds true particularly for phosphorus. Phosphorus is bioessential; it cannot be substituted. There are no unlimited resources for phosphorus. The question of how large the reserves are and the potential for finding additional reserves and resources for a long-term supply are, therefore, of interest to numerous stakeholders, from governments to individuals. We examine governments’ needs and individuals’ rights to know private exploration data. Because of the essential nature of phosphorus, we emphasize the public’s special right to know as much as possible about phosphate reserves, resources and the geopotential for new discoveries, based upon the basic human right to feed oneself in dignity. To fulfill the call for intergenerational equity, however, knowledge alone is not enough; guidelines for management have to follow. This can be achieved by defining a hierarchy of natural resources for setting priorities. For humankind’s technological and cultural development, a sufficient supply of energy resources must be considered the key element; therefore, efforts to maximize information that will enable best decisions to be made have been the strongest. A hierarchy of natural resources with fossil and nuclear energies at the top was proposed. However, with the new development of renewable forms of energy and the decreasing role of fossil-fuel energy, the hierarchy of natural resources that defines priorities must be revised. We propose a hierarchy that replaces fossil-fuel energy at the top with phosphorus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toward Integrated Water-Energy-Land-Food Management)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Effect of Urine, Poultry Manure, and Dewatered Faecal Sludge on Agronomic Characteristics of Cabbage in Accra, Ghana
Resources 2017, 6(2), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources6020019 - 19 May 2017
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3593
Abstract
The study was to assess the: (i) effect of human urine and other organic inputs on cabbage growth, yield, nutrient uptake, N-use efficiency, and soil chemical characteristics; (ii) economic returns of the use of urine and/or other organic inputs as a source of [...] Read more.
The study was to assess the: (i) effect of human urine and other organic inputs on cabbage growth, yield, nutrient uptake, N-use efficiency, and soil chemical characteristics; (ii) economic returns of the use of urine and/or other organic inputs as a source of fertiliser for cabbage production. To meet these objectives, participatory field trials were conducted at Dzorwulu, Accra. Four different treatments (Urine alone, Urine + dewatered faecal sludge (DFS), Urine + poultry droppings (PD), NPK (15-15-15) + PD) were applied in a Randomised Complete Block Design (RCBD) with soil alone as control. Each treatment was applied at a rate of 121 kg·N·ha−1 corresponding to the Nitrogen requirement of cabbage in Ghana. Growth and yield parameters, plant nutrient uptake, and soil chemical characteristics were determined using standard protocols. There were no significant differences between treatments for cabbage head weight, or total and marketable yields. However, unmarketable yield from NPK + PD was 1 to 2 times higher (p < 0.05) than those from Urine + PD, Urine + DFS, and Urine alone. Seasonal effect on yields was also pronounced with higher (p < 0.001) cabbage head weight (0.95 kg) and marketable yields (12.7 kg·ha−1) in the dry season than the rainy season (0.42 kg and 6.27 kg·ha−1). There was higher (p < 0.005) phosphorous uptake in cabbage from Urine + PD treated soil than those from other treatments. Nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), and potassium (K) uptake in the dry season was significantly higher than the rainy season. Soils treated with Urine + DFS and Urine + PD were high in total N content. Urine + PD and Urine + DFS treated soils gave fairly high yield than PD + NPK with a net gain of US$1452.0 and US$1663.5, respectively. The application of urine in combination with poultry droppings has the potential to improve cabbage yields, nutrient uptake, and soil nitrogen and phosphorous content. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
“An ounce of Prevention is Worth a Pound of Cure”: Adopting Landscape-Level Precautionary Approaches to Preserve Arctic Coastal Heritage Resources
Resources 2017, 6(2), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources6020018 - 26 Apr 2017
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3314
Abstract
The Arctic region is changing rapidly and dramatically as a result of climate change, perhaps two to three times faster than other areas of the world. Its inaccessibility, remoteness, and low population density no longer offers sufficient protection from expanding human use and [...] Read more.
The Arctic region is changing rapidly and dramatically as a result of climate change, perhaps two to three times faster than other areas of the world. Its inaccessibility, remoteness, and low population density no longer offers sufficient protection from expanding human use and development for its rich and diverse natural and cultural heritage. While considerable attention is being focused on better understanding and more effectively protecting its natural resources, far less is being done to identify and preserve this region’s significant maritime heritage resources. This remoteness and inaccessibility that has protected Arctic resources for so long has also constrained our capacity to conduct sufficient archaeological studies to inform and guide the place-specific identification and preservation of what remains of this compelling history and heritage. The wilderness landscape of the Arctic has a rich and relatively well-documented historical record, spanning more than 2000 years of exploration and commerce, and of Indigenous cultures stretching further back over 4000–6000 years. More effectively using this historical record to identify significant maritime cultural landscapes in the Arctic and expanding the use of precautionary approaches to the preservation of these landscapes will not only assist in establishing regional priorities for targeted archaeological surveys and investigations, but will also likely minimize what will be lost forever as the inevitable “ice-free Arctic”, as well as its expanded human footprint, approaches. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Towards a Balanced Sustainability Vision for the Coffee Industry
Resources 2017, 6(2), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources6020017 - 05 Apr 2017
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 6440
Abstract
As one of the world’s most traded agricultural commodities, coffee constitutes a significant part of the overall economy and a major source of foreign revenue for many developing countries. Coffee also touches a large portion of the world’s population in the South, where [...] Read more.
As one of the world’s most traded agricultural commodities, coffee constitutes a significant part of the overall economy and a major source of foreign revenue for many developing countries. Coffee also touches a large portion of the world’s population in the South, where it is mainly produced, and in the North, where it is primarily consumed. As a product frequently purchased by a significant share of worldwide consumers on a daily basis in social occasions, the coffee industry has earned a high profile that also attracts the interest of non-governmental organizations, governments, multilateral organizations and development specialists and has been an early adopter of Voluntary Sustainability Standards (VSS). Responding to the trend of increased interest on sustainability, it is therefore not surprising that coffee continues to be at the forefront of sustainability initiatives that transcend into other agricultural industries. Based on literature and authors’ experiences, this article reflects on the VSS evolution and considers a sustainability model that specifically incorporates producers’ local realities and deals with the complex scenario of sustainability challenges in producing regions. Agreeing on a joint sustainability approach with farmers’ effective involvement is necessary so that the industry as a whole (up and downstream value chain actors) can legitimately communicate its own sustainability priorities. This top-down/bottom-up approach could also lead to origin-based, actionable and focused sustainability key performance indicators, relevant for producers and consistent with the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals. The initiative also aims to provide a sustainability platform for single origin coffees and Geographical Indications (GIs) in accordance with growers’ own realities and regions, providing the credibility that consumers now expect from sustainability initiatives, additional differentiation options for origin coffees and economic upgrade opportunities for farmers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Supply Chain Management)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
One-Dimensional Renewable Warranty Management within Sustainable Supply Chain
Resources 2017, 6(2), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources6020016 - 05 Apr 2017
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3992
Abstract
Sensor embedded products utilize sensors implanted into products during their production process. Sensors are useful in predicting the best warranty policy and warranty period to offer a customer for remanufactured components and products. The conditions and remaining lives of components and products can [...] Read more.
Sensor embedded products utilize sensors implanted into products during their production process. Sensors are useful in predicting the best warranty policy and warranty period to offer a customer for remanufactured components and products. The conditions and remaining lives of components and products can be estimated prior to offering a warranty based on the data provided by the sensors. This helps reduce the number of claims during warranty periods, determines the right preventive maintenance (PM) policy, and eliminates unnecessary costs inflicted on the remanufacturer. The renewing, one-dimensional Free Replacement Warranty (FRW), Pro-Rata Warranty (PRW), and combination FRW/PRW policies’ costs for remanufactured products and components were evaluated with/without offering PM for different periods in this paper. To that end, the effect of offering renewable, one-dimensional, Free Replacement Warranty (FRW), or Pro-Rata Warranty (PRW), or combination FRW/PRW warranty policies for each disassembled component and sensor embedded remanufactured product was examined, and the impact of sensor embedded products on warranty costs was assessed. A case study and varying simulation scenarios is examined and presented to illustrate the model’s applicability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Supply Chain Management)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessCommunication
The Link between e-Waste and GDP—New Insights from Data from the Pan-European Region
Resources 2017, 6(2), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources6020015 - 27 Mar 2017
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 5220
Abstract
Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is difficult to sustainably manage. One key issue is the challenge of planning for WEEE flows as current and future quantities of waste are difficult to predict. To address this, WEEE generation and gross domestic product (GDP) [...] Read more.
Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is difficult to sustainably manage. One key issue is the challenge of planning for WEEE flows as current and future quantities of waste are difficult to predict. To address this, WEEE generation and gross domestic product (GDP) data from 50 countries of the pan-European region were assessed. A high economic elasticity was identified, indicating that WEEE and GDP are closely interlinked. More detailed analyses revealed that GDP at purchasing power parity (GDP PPP) is a more meaningful measure when looking at WEEE flows, as a linear dependency between WEEE generation and GDP PPP was identified. This dependency applies to the whole region, regardless of the economic developmental stage of individual countries. In the pan-European region, an increase of 1000 international $ GDP PPP means an additional 0.5 kg WEEE is generated that requires management. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop