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Fibers, Volume 8, Issue 1 (January 2020) – 7 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Data analysis serving advanced characterization is now emerging for material design, quality [...] Read more.
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Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Fibers in 2019
Fibers 2020, 8(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib8010007 - 14 Jan 2020
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Open AccessArticle
CFRP Laminates Reinforcing Performance of Short-Span Wedge-Blocks Segmental Beams
Fibers 2020, 8(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib8010006 - 10 Jan 2020
Viewed by 514
Abstract
Two of the main advantages of segmental construction are economics, as well as the rapid construction technique. One of the forms of segmental construction, for structural elements, is the segmental beams that built-in short sections, which referred to segments. This research aims to [...] Read more.
Two of the main advantages of segmental construction are economics, as well as the rapid construction technique. One of the forms of segmental construction, for structural elements, is the segmental beams that built-in short sections, which referred to segments. This research aims to exhibit a new technique for the fabrication of short-span segmental beams from wedge-shaped concrete segments and carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) in laminate form. The experimental campaign included eight short-span segmental beams. In this study, two selected parameters were considered. These parameters are; the number of layers of CFRP laminates and the adhesive material that used to bond segments to each other, forming short-span segmental beams. The test results showed that for segmental beams reinforced by 2-layer of CFRP laminates, undergoes less deflection and sustained considerable ultimate loading value of 38.4%–104% than beams reinforced by 1-layer. Moreover, the test of segmental beams fabricated by adhering to the concrete segments with epoxy resin exhibited an increase in ultimate loading by 16%–65% than beams constructed using cementitious adhesive for bonding the wedge-shaped segments. Theoretically, segmental beams were analyzed by the American Concrete Institute (ACI) 440.2R-17 procedure with slight modifications. The analysis gave an overestimation of flexural strength for segmental beams when compared with experimental outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composites 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
Compressive Behaviour of Coconut Fibre (Cocos nucifera) Reinforced Concrete at Elevated Temperatures
Fibers 2020, 8(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib8010005 - 01 Jan 2020
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Abstract
Fire outbreaks in buildings have been a major concern in the world today. The integrity of concrete is usually questioned due to the fact that after these fire outbreaks the strength of the concrete is reduced considerably. Various methods have been adopted to [...] Read more.
Fire outbreaks in buildings have been a major concern in the world today. The integrity of concrete is usually questioned due to the fact that after these fire outbreaks the strength of the concrete is reduced considerably. Various methods have been adopted to improve the fire resistance property of concrete. This study focused on the use of coconut fibre to achieve this feat. In this study, varying percentages of treated and untreated coconut fibres were incorporated into concrete and the compressive strength was tested for both before heating and after heating. The percentages of replacement were 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1% fibre content by weight of cement. Concrete cubes that had 0% fibre served as control specimens. After subjecting these concrete cubes to 250 °C and 150 °C for a period of 2 h, the compressive strength increased when compared to the control. The compressive strength increased up to 0.5% replacement by 3.88%. Beyond 0.5% fibre, the compressive strength reduced. Concrete having coconut fibre that had been treated with water also exhibited the highest compressive strength of 28.71 N/mm². It is concluded that coconut fibres are a great material in improving the strength of concrete, even after it was exposed to a certain degree of elevated temperature. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Thermal Properties of Sago Fiber-Epoxy Composite
Fibers 2020, 8(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib8010004 - 28 Dec 2019
Viewed by 696
Abstract
The aim of this study is to analyze the thermal properties of sago fiber-epoxy composite. The sago fiber-based composite has been prepared using epoxy resin as the matrix, via a simple mixing followed by compression. The compression process includes hot compression (100 °C/10 [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to analyze the thermal properties of sago fiber-epoxy composite. The sago fiber-based composite has been prepared using epoxy resin as the matrix, via a simple mixing followed by compression. The compression process includes hot compression (100 °C/10 kgf cm−2) and cold compression (ambient/10 kgf cm−2). The composite series was prepared with 9%, 13%, 17%, 20%, and 23% (w/w) of epoxy resin. Microstructures of all materials used were observed using an SEM (scanning electron microscope) instrument. The thermal properties of the composite and its components were examined through TG/DTA characterization. The samples were heated using the heating rate of 10 °C/min from room temperature to 400 °C, except for epoxy resin, which was heated to 530 °C. TG/DTA results depict three stages of thermal processes of sago fiber-epoxy composite: evaporation of water molecules at below 100 °C with the peak point within the range of 51.3 and 57.3 °C, the damage of sago fiber within the range of 275 and 370 °C with the peak point within the range of 333.3 and 341.3 °C and the damage of epoxy resin at above 350 °C with the peak point at 376.2 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Fibers and Composites: Science and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Applying Machine Learning to Nanoindentation Data of (Nano-) Enhanced Composites
Fibers 2020, 8(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib8010003 - 21 Dec 2019
Viewed by 745
Abstract
Carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRPs) are continuously gaining attention in aerospace and space applications, and especially their multi-scale reinforcement with nanoadditives. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphene, carbon nanofibers (CNFs), and their functionalized forms are often incorporated into interactive systems to engage specific changes in [...] Read more.
Carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRPs) are continuously gaining attention in aerospace and space applications, and especially their multi-scale reinforcement with nanoadditives. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphene, carbon nanofibers (CNFs), and their functionalized forms are often incorporated into interactive systems to engage specific changes in the environment of application to a smart response. Structural integrity of these nanoscale reinforced composites is assessed with advanced characterization techniques, with the most prominent being nanoindentation testing. Nanoindentation is a well-established technique, which enables quantitative mapping of nanomechanical properties with the μm surficial and nm indentation resolution scale and high precision characterization. This feature enables the characterization of the interface in a statistical and quantitative manner and the correlation of (nano-) reinforcement to interface properties of CFRPs. Identification of reinforcement is performed with k-Nearest Neighbors and Support Vector Machine classification algorithms. Expertise is necessary to describe the physical problem and create representative training/testing datasets. Development of open source Machine Learning algorithms can have an influential impact on uniformity of nanometry data creation and management. The statistical character of nanoindentation is a key factor to supply information on heterogeneity of multiscale reinforced composites. Both the identification of (nano-) reinforcement and quality assessment of composites are provided by involving artificial intelligence. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Dissolution and Diffusion-Based Reactions within YBa2Cu3O7−x Glass Fibers
Fibers 2020, 8(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib8010002 - 20 Dec 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 653
Abstract
This work presents a thorough identification and analysis of the dissolution and diffusion-based reaction processes that occur during the drawing of YBa2Cu3O7−x (YBCO) glass-clad fibers, using the molten-core approach, on a fiber draw tower in vacuum and in [...] Read more.
This work presents a thorough identification and analysis of the dissolution and diffusion-based reaction processes that occur during the drawing of YBa2Cu3O7−x (YBCO) glass-clad fibers, using the molten-core approach, on a fiber draw tower in vacuum and in oxygen atmospheres. The results identify the dissolution of the fused silica cladding and the subsequent diffusion of silicon and oxygen into the molten YBCO core. This leads to a phase separation due to a miscibility gap which occurs in the YBCO–SiO2 system. Due to this phase separation, silica-rich precipitations form upon quenching. XRD analyses reveal that the core of the vacuum as-drawn YBCO fiber is amorphous. Heat-treatments of the vacuum as-drawn fibers in the 800–1200 °C range show that cuprite crystallizes out of the amorphous matrix by 800 °C, followed by cristobalite by 900 °C. Heat-treatments at 1100 °C and 1200 °C lead to the formation of barium copper and yttrium barium silicates. These results provide a fundamental understanding of phase relations in the YBCO–SiO2 glass-clad system as well as indispensable insights covering general glass-clad fibers drawn using the molten-core approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Glass Fibers)
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Open AccessReview
Structural Features, Modification, and Functionalities of Beta-Glucan
Fibers 2020, 8(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib8010001 - 20 Dec 2019
Viewed by 705
Abstract
Β-glucan is a strongly hydrophilic non-starchy polysaccharide, which, when incorporated in food, is renowned for its ability to alter functional characteristics such as viscosity, rheology, texture, and sensory properties of the food product. The functional properties of β-glucans are directly linked to their [...] Read more.
Β-glucan is a strongly hydrophilic non-starchy polysaccharide, which, when incorporated in food, is renowned for its ability to alter functional characteristics such as viscosity, rheology, texture, and sensory properties of the food product. The functional properties of β-glucans are directly linked to their origin/source, molecular weight, and structural features. The molecular weight and structural/conformational features are in turn influenced by method of extraction and modification of the β-glucan. For example, whereas physical modification techniques influence only the spatial structures, modification by chemical agents, enzyme hydrolysis, mechanical treatment, and irradiation affect both spatial conformation and primary structures of β-glucan. Consequently, β-glucan can be modified (via one or more of the aforementioned techniques) into forms that have desired morphological, rheological, and (bio)functional properties. This review describes how various modification techniques affect the structure, properties, and applications of β-glucans in the food industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Fibers)
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