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J. Mar. Sci. Eng., Volume 8, Issue 12 (December 2020) – 85 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The work focuses on comparing the effects of the wave spectrum, computed using the discrete interaction approximation (DIA) and the Webb–Resio–Tracy (WRT) methods, on statistical wave properties such as skewness and kurtosis. In addition, the minimum spatial domain size required to obtain meaningful statistical wave properties is investigated. The results indicate that the spatial domain should be at least 10 times the wavelength to obtain meaningful statistical values. The results suggest that selecting a more computationally expensive WRT method does not affect the statistical values to a great extent. The most noticeable effect is due to the energy dissipation filter that is applied. Hence, more accurate energy dissipation mechanisms due to wave breaking are needed. View this paper.
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Article
Bubble Sweep-Down of Research Vessels Based on the Coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian Method
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(12), 1040; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8121040 - 21 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 646
Abstract
To explore the reason for the bubble sweep-down phenomenon of research vessels and its effect on the position of the stern sonar of a research vessel, the use of a fairing was investigated as a defoaming appendage. The separation vortex turbulence model was [...] Read more.
To explore the reason for the bubble sweep-down phenomenon of research vessels and its effect on the position of the stern sonar of a research vessel, the use of a fairing was investigated as a defoaming appendage. The separation vortex turbulence model was selected for simulation, and the coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian method was adopted to study the characteristics of the bubble sweep-down motion, captured using a discrete element model. The interaction between the bubbles, water, air, and hull was defined via a multiphase interaction method. The bubble point position and bubble layer were calculated separately. The spatial movement characteristics of the bubbles were extracted from bubble trajectories. It was demonstrated that the bubble sweep-down phenomenon is closely related to the distribution of the bow pressure field and that the bubble motion characteristics is related to the speed and initial bubble position. When the initial bubble position is between the water surface and the ship bottom, the impact on the middle of the ship bottom is greater and increases further with increasing speed. A deflector forces the bubbles to both sides through physical shielding, strengthening the local vortex structure and keeping bubbles away from the middle of the ship bottom. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrodynamic Design of Ships)
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Article
Reliability of Extreme Significant Wave Height Estimation from Satellite Altimetry and In Situ Measurements in the Coastal Zone
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(12), 1039; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8121039 - 21 Dec 2020
Viewed by 1064
Abstract
Measurements of significant wave height from satellite altimeter missions are finding increasing application in investigations of wave climate, sea state variability and trends, in particular as the means to mitigate the general sparsity of in situ measurements. However, many questions remain over the [...] Read more.
Measurements of significant wave height from satellite altimeter missions are finding increasing application in investigations of wave climate, sea state variability and trends, in particular as the means to mitigate the general sparsity of in situ measurements. However, many questions remain over the suitability of altimeter data for the representation of extreme sea states and applications in the coastal zone. In this paper, the limitations of altimeter data to estimate coastal Hs extremes (<10 km from shore) are investigated using the European Space Agency Sea State Climate Change Initiative L2P altimeter data v1.1 product recently released. This Sea State CCI product provides near complete global coverage and a continuous record of 28 years. It is used here together with in situ data from moored wave buoys at six sites around the coast of the United States. The limitations of estimating extreme values based on satellite data are quantified and linked to several factors including the impact of data corruption nearshore, the influence of coastline morphology and local wave climate dynamics, and the spatio-temporal sampling achieved by altimeters. The factors combine to lead to considerable underestimation of estimated Hs 10-yr return levels. Sensitivity to these factors is evaluated at specific sites, leading to recommendations about the use of satellite data to estimate extremes and their temporal evolution in coastal environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extreme Waves)
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Article
Exploring Traits of Engineered Coral Entities to be Employed in Reef Restoration
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(12), 1038; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8121038 - 21 Dec 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1122
Abstract
Aggregated settlement of coral larvae results in a complex array of compatible (chimerism) and incompatible (rejection) allogenic responses. Each chimeric assemblage is considered as a distinct biological entity, subjected to selection, however, the literature lacks the evolutionary and ecological functions assigned to these [...] Read more.
Aggregated settlement of coral larvae results in a complex array of compatible (chimerism) and incompatible (rejection) allogenic responses. Each chimeric assemblage is considered as a distinct biological entity, subjected to selection, however, the literature lacks the evolutionary and ecological functions assigned to these units of selection. Here, we examined the effects of creating chimera/rejecting partners in terms of growth and survival under prolonged field conditions. Bi/multichimeras, bi/multi-rejecting entities, and genetically homogenous colonies (GHC) of the coral Stylophora pistillata were monitored under prolonged field conditions in a mid-water floating nursery in the northern Red Sea. Results revealed an increased aerial size and aeroxial ecological volume for rejected and chimeric entities compared to GHCs. At age 18 months, there were no significant differences in these parameters among the entities and traits, and rejecting partners did not differ from GHC. However, survival probabilities were significantly higher for chimeras that further revealed disparate initiation of up-growing branches and high diversity of chimeric phenotypes. These results suggest enhanced fitness for chimerism, augmenting earlier alluded chimeric benefits that trail the increased size at crucial early life-stages. Adding chimerism to the tool-box of reef restoration may enhance coral fitness in mitigating anthropogenic/climate change impacts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Marine Biology)
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Article
One-Dimensional Gas Flow Analysis of the Intake and Exhaust System of a Single Cylinder Diesel Engine
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(12), 1036; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8121036 - 20 Dec 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 885
Abstract
In order to design a diesel engine system and to predict its performance, it is necessary to analyze the gas flow of the intake and exhaust system. Gas flow analysis in a three-dimensional (3D) format needs a high-resolution workstation and an enormous amount [...] Read more.
In order to design a diesel engine system and to predict its performance, it is necessary to analyze the gas flow of the intake and exhaust system. Gas flow analysis in a three-dimensional (3D) format needs a high-resolution workstation and an enormous amount of time for analysis. Calculation using the method of characteristics (MOC), which is a gas flow analysis in a one-dimensional (1D) format, has a fast calculation time and can be analyzed with a low-resolution workstation. However, there is a problem with poor accuracy in certain areas. It was assumed that the reason was that 1D could not implement the shape. The error that occurs in the shape of the bent pipe used in the intake and exhaust ports of the diesel engine was analyzed and to find a solution to the low accuracy, the results of the experiment and 1D analysis were compared. The discharge coefficient was calculated using the average mass flow rate, and as a result of applying it, the accuracy was improved for the maximum negative pressure by 0.56–1.93% and the maximum pressure by 3.11–7.86% among the intake pipe pressure results. The difference in phase of the exhaust pipe pressure did not improve. It is considered as a limitation of 1D analysis that does not improve even by applying the discharge coefficient. In the future, we intend to implement a bent pipe that cannot be realized in 1D using a 3D format and to prepare a method to supplement the reliability by using 1D–3D coupling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Engines Performance and Emissions)
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Review
The Tidal Stream Energy Resource of the Fromveur Strait—A Review
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(12), 1037; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8121037 - 19 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1214
Abstract
Refined assessments of the available tidal stream energy resource are required to optimize turbines design and guarantee successful implementations and operations of devices in the marine environment. Investigations primary focused on identifying areas with maximum current speeds. However, further information may be reached [...] Read more.
Refined assessments of the available tidal stream energy resource are required to optimize turbines design and guarantee successful implementations and operations of devices in the marine environment. Investigations primary focused on identifying areas with maximum current speeds. However, further information may be reached by exhibiting (i) resource temporal variability, (ii) superimposed effects of meteo-oceanographic conditions (including especially wind-generated surface-gravity waves), and (iii) potential environmental impacts of operating turbines at the regional (e.g., changes in sediment transport and surrounding seabed features, effects on marine water quality, etc.) and local (wake-wake interactions and energy output) scales. These aspects are here investigated by reviewing a series of research studies dedicated to the Fromveur Strait off western Brittany, a region with strong potential for tidal array development along the coast of France. Particular attention is dedicated to the exploitation of combined in-situ and remote-sensing observations and numerical simulations. Beyond a site specific characterization of the tidal stream energy resource, this review promotes a series of original approaches and analysis methods for turbines optimization, thus complementing technical specifications to secure the key steps of a tidal energy project and promote the growth of a reliable tidal stream energy exploitation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Offshore and Onshore Marine Renewable Energy)
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Article
An Operational Supporting System for Oil Spill Emergencies Addressed to the the Italian Coast Guard
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(12), 1035; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8121035 - 19 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 952
Abstract
Oil spill models are used to simulate the evolution of an oil slick that occurs after an accidental ship collision, malfunctioning of oil extraction platforms, or illegal discharges intentionally released by ships into the marine environment. We present an integrated operational oil spill [...] Read more.
Oil spill models are used to simulate the evolution of an oil slick that occurs after an accidental ship collision, malfunctioning of oil extraction platforms, or illegal discharges intentionally released by ships into the marine environment. We present an integrated operational oil spill prediction system that improves capacities in preventing and mitigating maritime risks from oil spills. The objective is to provide forecast information about the transport and the fate of a hypothetical oil spill under Nearly-Real Time hydrodynamic conditions in the western and central Mediterranean Sea. This complex forecast system is developed in the framework of the project SOS-Piattaforme & Impatti Off-Shore to the needs of Italian Coast Guard and other institutions, such as the Ministry of the Environment. This service has been operational since July 2020. The innovative aspect of this work is a graphical user interface (the GUI), which allows to select properties, time, and location of a potential oil spill and show the evolution of oil slick concentration and oil fate parameters. This platform represents the first component of a future Decision Support System aimed to identify the risk assessment of oil spills in order to better manage emergencies and minimize economic damages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Marine Pollution and Disaster)
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Article
Numerical Study on Wave Radiation by a Barge with Large Amplitudes and Frequencies
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(12), 1034; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8121034 - 19 Dec 2020
Viewed by 557
Abstract
A two-dimensional boundary element method is used to study the hydrodynamics of a single barge with prescribed motions of large amplitudes and high frequencies. The wave radiation problem is solved in the time domain based on the fully nonlinear potential flow theory. For [...] Read more.
A two-dimensional boundary element method is used to study the hydrodynamics of a single barge with prescribed motions of large amplitudes and high frequencies. The wave radiation problem is solved in the time domain based on the fully nonlinear potential flow theory. For numerical simulations, special treatments like plunging wave cutting and remeshing approaches are presented in detail. The numerical schemes are verified through comparing with analytical results. Both the generated outgoing wave amplitudes and hydrodynamic coefficients can be calculated with sufficient accuracy. Then, we focus on large heave, sway and roll motions to investigate the nonlinear effects on hydrodynamic forces, respectively. In particular, the heave motion with two frequencies is also simulated to study the interactions between results at different frequencies. It is interesting to see the sum and difference frequency components and the envelopes in time histories as a result. For forces caused by forced sway or roll motions, there are only even-order harmonics for vertical forces and only odd-order harmonics for horizontal forces. Finally, a single body with combined sway, heave and roll motion is studied to examine the interactions between motion modes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ocean Engineering)
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Review
Can Proteomics Be Considered as a Valuable Tool to Assess the Toxicity of Nanoparticles in Marine Bivalves?
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(12), 1033; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8121033 - 18 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 772
Abstract
Exposure to nanoparticles (NPs) has been identified as a major concern for marine ecosystems. Because of their peculiar physico-chemical features, NPs are accumulated in marine organisms, which suffer a variety of adverse effects. In particular, bivalve mollusks represent a unique target for NPs, [...] Read more.
Exposure to nanoparticles (NPs) has been identified as a major concern for marine ecosystems. Because of their peculiar physico-chemical features, NPs are accumulated in marine organisms, which suffer a variety of adverse effects. In particular, bivalve mollusks represent a unique target for NPs, mainly because they are suspension-feeders with highly developed processes for cellular internalization of nano- and micrometric particles. Several studies have demonstrated that the uptake and the accumulation of NPs can induce sub-lethal effects towards marine bivalves. However, to understand the real risk of NP exposures the application of the so-called “omics” techniques (e.g., proteomics, genomics, metabolomics, lipidomics) has been suggested. In particular, proteomics has been used to study the effects of NPs and their mechanism(s) of action in marine bivalves, but to date its application is still limited. The present review aims at summarizing the state of the art concerning the application of proteomics as a tool to investigate the effects of nanoparticles on the proteome of marine bivalves, and to critically discuss the advantages and limitations of proteomics in this field of research. Relying on results obtained by studies that applied proteomics on bivalve tissues, proteomics application needs to be considered cautiously as a promising and valuable tool to shed light on toxicity and mechanism(s) of action of NPs. Although on one hand, the analysis of the current literature demonstrated undeniable strengths, potentiality and reliability of proteomics, on the other hand a number of limitations suggest that some gaps of knowledge need to be bridged, and methodological and technical improvements are necessary before proteomics can be readily and routinely applied to nanotoxicology studies. Full article
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Article
Distribution and Sediment Selection by the Mud Shrimp Upogebia noronhensis (Crustacea: Thalassinidea) and the Potential Effects on the Associated Macroinfaunal Community
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(12), 1032; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8121032 - 18 Dec 2020
Viewed by 676
Abstract
Burrowers such as thalassinideans remobilize sediment in benthic ecosystems, altering granulometry, enhancing organic matter cycling and oxygenation. We characterized the distribution of the mud shrimp Upogebia noronhensis and the associated macroinfauna along a depth and granulometric gradient in a shallow subtidal area in [...] Read more.
Burrowers such as thalassinideans remobilize sediment in benthic ecosystems, altering granulometry, enhancing organic matter cycling and oxygenation. We characterized the distribution of the mud shrimp Upogebia noronhensis and the associated macroinfauna along a depth and granulometric gradient in a shallow subtidal area in the southern Brazilian coast. Mud shrimp densities were estimated by burrow opening count using 0.25 m2 quadrats in three sediment zones: sand, sand-mud transition and mud. Macroinfaunal community descriptors and sediment granulometric characteristics were assessed. U. noronhensis average density varied from 0.6 to 145 individuals m−2 and was highest in the transition zone and lowest in the sand zone. Macrofauna in the sand zone was at least three times more abundant and 1.2 times richer, averaging 436.3 organisms and 39 species, while the transition and mud zones were more even in species distribution (species evenness > 0.7). The shrimp presence seems to be linked to a coarse sand content <80% and clay and silt <40% in the sediment, a compromise between gallery construction ability and filter-feeding suitability. High densities and aggregated distribution of mud shrimp, combined with alteration of sediment grain composition and organic matter, are likely to affect macroinfaunal abundance nearby the burrows. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioturbation in Marine Ecosystems: Current and Future Challenges)
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Article
Predicting the Deflection of Square Plates Subjected to Fully Confined Blast Loading
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(12), 1031; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8121031 - 18 Dec 2020
Viewed by 606
Abstract
The main objective of this study is to conveniently and rapidly develop a new dimensionless number to characterize and predict the deflection of square plates subjected to fully confined blast loading. Firstly, based on the Kirchhoff–Love theory and dimension analysis, a set of [...] Read more.
The main objective of this study is to conveniently and rapidly develop a new dimensionless number to characterize and predict the deflection of square plates subjected to fully confined blast loading. Firstly, based on the Kirchhoff–Love theory and dimension analysis, a set of dimensionless parameters was obtained from the governing equation representing the response of a thin plate subjected to impact load. A new dimensionless number with a definite physical meaning was then proposed based on dimensional analysis, in which the influence of bending, torsion moment and membrane forces on the dynamic response of the blast-loaded plate were considered along with the related parameters of the blast' energy, the yield strength of the material, the plate thickness and dimensions of the confined space. By analyzing the experimental data of plates subjected to confined blast loading, an approximately linear relationship between the midpoint deflection–thickness ratio of the target plate and the new dimensionless number was derived. On this basis, an empirical formula to predict the deflection of square plates subjected to fully confined blast loading was subsequently regressed, and its calculated results agree well with the experimental data. Furthermore, numerical simulations of square plates subjected to blast loading in a cuboid chamber with different lengths were performed. The numerical results were compared with the calculated data to verify the applicability of the present empirical formula in different scenarios of blast loading from explosions in a cuboid space. It is indicated that the new dimensionless number and corresponding empirical formula presented in this paper have good applicability and reliability for the deflection prediction of plates subjected to fully confined explosions in a cuboid chamber with different lengths, especially when the plates experience a large deflection–thickness ratio. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Accidental Limit States of Marine Structures)
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Review
Review of Estimating Trophic Relationships by Quantitative Fatty Acid Signature Analysis
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(12), 1030; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8121030 - 18 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 640
Abstract
The dynamic predator–prey relations in the food web are vital for understanding the function and structure of ecosystems. Dietary estimation is a research hotspot of quantitative ecology, providing key insights into predator–prey relationships. One of the most promising approaches is quantitative fatty acid [...] Read more.
The dynamic predator–prey relations in the food web are vital for understanding the function and structure of ecosystems. Dietary estimation is a research hotspot of quantitative ecology, providing key insights into predator–prey relationships. One of the most promising approaches is quantitative fatty acid signature analysis (QFASA), which is the first generation of statistical tools to estimate the quantitative trophic predator–prey relationships by comparing the fatty acid (FA) signatures among predators and their prey. QFASA has been continuously widely applied, refined and extended since its introduction. This article reviewed the research progress of QFASA from development and application. QFASA reflects the long-term diet of predator, and provides the quantitative dietary composition of predator, but it is sensitive to the metabolism of predator. The calibration coefficients (CCs) and the FA subset are two crucial parameters to explain the metabolism of predators, but the incorrect construction or improper use of CCs and the FA subset may cause bias in dietary estimation. Further study and refinement of the QFASA approach is needed to identify recommendations for which CCs and subsets of FA work best for different taxa and systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coastal Fish Research)
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Review
Influence of Vertical Loading on Behavior of Laterally Loaded Foundation Piles: A Review
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(12), 1029; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8121029 - 17 Dec 2020
Viewed by 937
Abstract
The majority of installed offshore wind turbines are supported on large-diameter, open-ended steel pile foundations, known as monopiles. These piles are subjected to vertical and lateral loads while in service. In current design practice, interaction of vertical and lateral loads are not considered, [...] Read more.
The majority of installed offshore wind turbines are supported on large-diameter, open-ended steel pile foundations, known as monopiles. These piles are subjected to vertical and lateral loads while in service. In current design practice, interaction of vertical and lateral loads are not considered, rather piles are designed to resist vertical and lateral loads independently. Whilst interaction effects are widely studied for shallow foundations, the limited research on this topic for pile foundations often produces conflicting results. This paper reviews the research of the influence of vertical loading on the lateral response of pile foundations under combined loads, from the perspective of analytical research, numerical research, and experimental research from tests performed on 1-g (gravitational acceleration) model, centrifuge, and full-scale piles. The potential reasons for the differences among the results of previous research are discussed. Some guidance for future research on the effect of vertical loads on the lateral response of piles is provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Offshore Wind Soil–Structure Interaction (SSI))
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Article
Statistical Prediction of Extreme Storm Surges Based on a Fully Supervised Weather-Type Downscaling Model
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(12), 1028; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8121028 - 16 Dec 2020
Viewed by 859
Abstract
Increasing our capacity to predict extreme storm surges is one of the key issues in terms of coastal flood risk prevention and adaptation. Dynamically forecasting storm surges is computationally expensive. Here, we focus on an alternative data-driven approach and set up a weather-type [...] Read more.
Increasing our capacity to predict extreme storm surges is one of the key issues in terms of coastal flood risk prevention and adaptation. Dynamically forecasting storm surges is computationally expensive. Here, we focus on an alternative data-driven approach and set up a weather-type statistical downscaling for daily maximum storm surge (SS) prediction, using atmospheric hindcasts (CFSR and CFSv2) and 15 years of tidal gauge station measurements. We focus on predicting the storm surge at La Rochelle–La Pallice tidal gauge station. First, based on a sensitivity analysis to the various parameters of the weather-type approach, we find that the model configuration providing the best performance in SS prediction relies on a fully supervised classification using minimum daily sea level pressure (SLP) and maximum SLP gradient, with 1° resolution in the northeast Atlantic domain as the predictor. Second, we compare the resulting optimal model with the inverse barometer approach and other statistical models (multi-linear regression; semi-supervised and unsupervised weather-types based approaches). The optimal configuration provides more accurate predictions for extreme storm surges, but also the capacity to identify unusual atmospheric storm patterns that can lead to extreme storm surges, as the Xynthia storm for instance (a decrease in the maximum absolute error of 50%). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ocean Engineering)
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Article
Laboratory Culture-Based Characterization of the Resting Stage Cells of the Brown-Tide-Causing Pelagophyte, Aureococcus anophagefferens
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(12), 1027; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8121027 - 16 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 771
Abstract
Life history (life cycle) plays a vital role in the ecology of some microalgae; however, the well-known brown-tide-causing pelagophyte Aureococcus anophagefferens has been barely investigated in this regard. Recently, based mainly on detections in marine sediments from China, we proved that this organism [...] Read more.
Life history (life cycle) plays a vital role in the ecology of some microalgae; however, the well-known brown-tide-causing pelagophyte Aureococcus anophagefferens has been barely investigated in this regard. Recently, based mainly on detections in marine sediments from China, we proved that this organism has a resting stage. We, therefore, conducted a follow-up study to characterize the resting stage cells (RSCs) of A. anophagefferens using the culture CCMP1984. The RSCs were spherical, larger than the vegetative cells, and smooth in cell surface and contained more aggregated plastid but more vacuolar space than vegetative cells. RSCs contained a conspicuous lipid-enriched red droplet. We found a 9.9-fold decrease in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content from vegetative cells to RSCs, indicative of a "resting" or dormant physiological state. The RSCs stored for 3 months (at 4 °C in darkness) readily reverted back to vegetative growth within 20 days after being transferred to the conditions for routine culture maintenance. Our results indicate that the RSCs of A. anophagefferens are a dormant state that differs from vegetative cells morphologically and physiologically, and that RSCs likely enable the species to survive unfavorable conditions, seed annual blooms, and facilitate its cosmopolitan distribution that we recently documented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Taxonomy and Ecology of Marine Algae)
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Review
The Issue of Using Ordinal Quantities to Estimate the Vulnerability of Seabirds to Oil Spills
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(12), 1026; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8121026 - 16 Dec 2020
Viewed by 676
Abstract
Oil spills can have a serious negative effect on seabirds. Numerous studies have been carried out for relative vulnerability assessment of seabirds to oil, with the majority of such works based on ordinal quantities. This study aims to assess (from the aspect of [...] Read more.
Oil spills can have a serious negative effect on seabirds. Numerous studies have been carried out for relative vulnerability assessment of seabirds to oil, with the majority of such works based on ordinal quantities. This study aims to assess (from the aspect of measurement theory) the methodological approaches used for calculating the vulnerability of seabirds to oil spills, and corresponding conclusions. We assess several well-known works on the vulnerability of seabirds (1979–2004). We consider the effect on derived conclusions of (a) monotonic initial data transformations on an ordinal scale, (b) multiplication operations on the same scale, and (c) the replacement of initial metric data to ordinal. Our results show the following: (a) the conclusions for arithmetic operations may not be saved with permissible monotonic transformations of ordinal quantities; (b) partially uncertain results can be obtained with arithmetic operations on an ordinal scale as compared with metric; (c) the replacement of metric values to scores changes the real relationships among initial data and affects the final result. Thus, conclusions in works which use arithmetic operations with ordinal quantities cannot be considered to be justified and correct, since they are based on unacceptable operations and, quite often, on the distorted original data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Marine Biology)
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Article
Component Velocities and Turbulence Intensities within Ship Twin-Propeller Jet Using CFD and ADV
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(12), 1025; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8121025 - 15 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 839
Abstract
This study presents the decays of three components of velocity for a ship twin-propeller jet associated with turbulence intensities using the Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry (ADV) measurement and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods. Previous research has shown that a single-propeller jet consists of a [...] Read more.
This study presents the decays of three components of velocity for a ship twin-propeller jet associated with turbulence intensities using the Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry (ADV) measurement and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods. Previous research has shown that a single-propeller jet consists of a zone of flow establishment and a zone of established flow. Twin-propeller jets are more complex than single-propeller jets, and can be divided into zones with four peaks, two peaks, and one peak. The axial velocity distribution is the main contributor and can be predicted using the Gaussian normal distribution. The axial velocity decay is described by linear equations using the maximum axial velocity in the efflux plane. The tangential and radial velocity decays show linear and nonlinear distributions in different zones. The turbulence intensity increases locally in the critical position of the noninterference zone and the interference zone. The current research converts the axial momentum theory of a single propeller into twin-propeller jet theory with a series of equations used to predict the overall twin-propeller jet structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ocean Engineering)
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Article
Storm Surge Inundation Analysis with Consideration of Building Shape and Layout at Ise Bay by Maximum Potential Typhoon
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(12), 1024; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8121024 - 15 Dec 2020
Viewed by 716
Abstract
Global warming is feared to cause sea-level rise and intensification of typhoons, and these changes will lead to an increase in storm surge levels. For that reason, it is essential to predict the inundation areas for the maximum potential typhoon and evaluate the [...] Read more.
Global warming is feared to cause sea-level rise and intensification of typhoons, and these changes will lead to an increase in storm surge levels. For that reason, it is essential to predict the inundation areas for the maximum potential typhoon and evaluate the disaster mitigation effect of seawalls. In this study, we analyzed storm surge inundation of the inner part of Ise Bay (coast of Aichi and Mie Prefecture, Japan) due to the maximum potential typhoon in the future climate with global warming. In the analysis, a high-resolution topographical model was constructed considering buildings’ shape and arrangement and investigated the inundation process inside the seawall in detail. The results showed that buildings strongly influence the storm surge inundation process inside the seawall, and a high-velocity current is generated in some areas. It is also found that closing the seawall door delays the inundation inside the seawall, but the evacuation after inundation is more difficult under the seawall doors closed condition than opened condition when the high tide level exceeds the seawall. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Storm Surge Hazards Evaluation and Prediction)
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Article
Influence of Computed Wave Spectra on Statistical Wave Properties
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(12), 1023; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8121023 - 15 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 802
Abstract
The main goal of the paper is to compare the effects of the wave spectrum, computed using the Discrete Interaction Approximation (DIA) and the Webb–Resio–Tracy (WRT) methods, on statistical wave properties such as skewness and kurtosis in the context of large ocean waves. [...] Read more.
The main goal of the paper is to compare the effects of the wave spectrum, computed using the Discrete Interaction Approximation (DIA) and the Webb–Resio–Tracy (WRT) methods, on statistical wave properties such as skewness and kurtosis in the context of large ocean waves. The statistical properties are obtained by integrating the three-dimensional free-surface Euler equations with a high-order spectral method combined with a phenomenological filter to account for the energy dissipation due to breaking waves. In addition, we investigate the minimum spatial domain size required to obtain meaningful statistical wave properties. The example we chose to illustrate the influence of the wave spectrum on statistical wave properties is that of a hindcast of the sea state that occurred when the extreme Draupner wave was recorded. The numerical simulations are performed over a physical domain of size 4.13 km × 4.13 km. The results indicate that statistical properties must be computed over an area of at least 4 km2. The results also suggest that selecting a more computationally expensive WRT method does not affect the statistical values to a great extent. The most noticeable effect is due to the energy dissipation filter that is applied. It is concluded that selecting the WRT or the DIA algorithm for computing the wave spectrum needed for the numerical simulations does not lead to major differences in the statistical wave properties. However, more accurate energy dissipation mechanisms due to wave breaking are needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extreme Waves)
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Article
Interaction of a Solitary Wave with Vertical Fully/Partially Submerged Circular Cylinders with/without a Hollow Zone
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(12), 1022; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8121022 - 15 Dec 2020
Viewed by 747
Abstract
In this article, a three-dimensional, fully nonlinear potential wave model is applied based on a curvilinear grid system. This model calculates the wave action on a fully/partially submerged vertical cylinder with or without a hollow zone. As basic verification, a solitary wave hitting [...] Read more.
In this article, a three-dimensional, fully nonlinear potential wave model is applied based on a curvilinear grid system. This model calculates the wave action on a fully/partially submerged vertical cylinder with or without a hollow zone. As basic verification, a solitary wave hitting a single fully or partially submerged circular cylinder is tested, and our numerical results agree with the experimental results obtained by others. The influence of cylinder immersion depth and size on the wave elevation change on the cylinder surface is considered. The model is also applied to investigate the wave energy of a solitary wave passing through a hollow circular cylinder to determine the effect of the size and draft on the wave oscillating in the hollow zone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wave Interactions with Coastal Structures)
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Article
Behavioural Responses of the Colonial Sea Squirt Botrylloides violaceus Oka to Suspended Food Micro-Particles in Laboratory Cultures
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(12), 1021; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8121021 - 14 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 789
Abstract
Violet sea squirts are noteworthy model organisms, because they provide insights into various physiologic processes, including cell senescence, ageing, apoptosis and allorecognition. Consequently, their culture is critical to permit experimental studies. Most papers refer to short periods of rearing using various feeds, both [...] Read more.
Violet sea squirts are noteworthy model organisms, because they provide insights into various physiologic processes, including cell senescence, ageing, apoptosis and allorecognition. Consequently, their culture is critical to permit experimental studies. Most papers refer to short periods of rearing using various feeds, both living and conserved, missing a formal justification for their use or indications of their actual nutritional value. Here, we use two behavioural responses—the percentage of open siphons and the frequency of zooid contractions—as compared to the abundance of suspended microparticles during feeding tests, to identify feeds able to promote filter-feeding. The results will enable to formulate compound diets that maximise positive physiological responses. Our tests demonstrated that plant items, such as dry microalgae and cyanobacteria (Arthrospira platensis, commercially known as Spirulina), along with living planktonic Haptophyta (Isochrysis galbana), trigger clear positive reactions, represented by a higher frequency of zooid contractions and larger proportions of open siphons. These responses correspond to decreases in the concentrations of suspended microparticles during the experiment and indicate higher filter-feeding activity. In contrast, feeds commonly administered to colonies, such as milk powder, dried eggs and artificial plankton, triggered negative behavioural responses, and their intake was lower during the feeding trials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Marine Biology)
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Article
Management of Dredging Activities in a Highly Vulnerable Site: Simulation Modelling and Monitoring Activity
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(12), 1020; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8121020 - 13 Dec 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 679
Abstract
Unfortunately, more and more contaminants, such as heavy metals and other organic micro-pollutants, degrade the good ecological status of marine systems. The removal of contaminated sediments from harbours through dredging activities may cause harmful changes in the environment. This present work shows how [...] Read more.
Unfortunately, more and more contaminants, such as heavy metals and other organic micro-pollutants, degrade the good ecological status of marine systems. The removal of contaminated sediments from harbours through dredging activities may cause harmful changes in the environment. This present work shows how monitoring the activity and validated numerical models can be of great help to dredging activities that can cause environmental impacts due to the increase of the suspended solid concentration (SSC) and their dispersion and deposition far from the dredging point. This study is applied to a hypothetical dredging project in a very vulnerable coastal site in Southern Italy, the Mar Piccolo Basin. A statistical analysis of the simulated parameter SSC was carried out to numerically estimate its spatial (vertical and horizontal) variability, thereby allowing an evaluation of the potential environmental effects on the coastal area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Coastal Engineering)
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Article
Experimental Observation on Beach Evolution Process with Presence of Artificial Submerged Sand Bar and Reef
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(12), 1019; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8121019 - 13 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 784
Abstract
For observation on the influence mechanism of environmentally and aesthetically friendly artificial submerged sand bars and reefs in a process-based way, a set of experiments was conducted in a 50 m-long flume to reproduce the cross-shore beach morphodynamic process under four irregular wave [...] Read more.
For observation on the influence mechanism of environmentally and aesthetically friendly artificial submerged sand bars and reefs in a process-based way, a set of experiments was conducted in a 50 m-long flume to reproduce the cross-shore beach morphodynamic process under four irregular wave conditions. The beach behavior is characterized by the scarp (indicating erosion) and the breaker bar (indicating deposition), respectively, and the scarp location can be formulated as a linear equation regarding the natural exponential of the duration time. Overall, main conclusions are: (1) the cross-shore structure of significant wave height and set-up is mainly determined by the artificial reef (AR); (2) the cross-shore distribution of wave skewness, asymmetry, and undertow (indicating shoaling and breaking) is more affected by the artificial submerged sand bar (ASB); (3) the ASB deforms and loses its sand as it attenuates incident waves, which leads to a complex sediment transport pattern; (4) the scarp retreat is related to the beach state, which can be changed by the AR and the ASB; (5) the AR, the ASB, and their combination decrease wave attack on the beach. In conclusion, this study proves positive effects of the AR and the ASB in beach protection through their process-based influences on beach behaviors and beach states for erosive waves. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Coastal Engineering)
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Article
The Environmental Impact of a Complex Hydrogeological System on Hydrocarbon-Pollutants’ Natural Attenuation: The Case of the Coastal Aquifers in Eleusis, West Attica, Greece
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(12), 1018; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8121018 - 13 Dec 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 799
Abstract
The study area is the Thriassion Plain, an important area, in antiquity, surrounding the famous ancient town of Eleusis, 20 km west of Athens. The modern town and port and the entire area were heavily industrialized (1965–1995) coupled with unregulated urban and agricultural [...] Read more.
The study area is the Thriassion Plain, an important area, in antiquity, surrounding the famous ancient town of Eleusis, 20 km west of Athens. The modern town and port and the entire area were heavily industrialized (1965–1995) coupled with unregulated urban and agricultural development. The presence of two crude oil refineries and other oil-related industries have strongly impacted the entire environment, including soils, waters and sediments of the broader area. The purpose of this work is to better understand how a multi-layered groundwater system affects the potential underground spread of certain fuel volatile compounds, namely the BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and total xylenes) as well as their attenuation after their direct or indirect release into the aquifer system. The spatial distribution of BTEX in groundwaters show that they were concentrated mainly in four rather restricted locations. Three of them were spotted, as expected, in the close vicinity of known pollution sources (a military airfield and two crude oil refineries). The other one corresponds to an abandoned site with no outstanding pollution sources where wells exist, eventually used for illegal dumping of oily wastes. It is important that the concentrations decrease significantly from autumn to spring. This decline could be characterized as natural attenuation, related to natural dilution phenomena and a flushing out of pollutants discharging through underwater springs to the sea during the rainy period (October to April). This, in turn, could be associated to the specific geological conditions affecting the hydrology, such as the unconsolidated non-permeable deposits and the multi layered formations of the area’s aquifers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change and Marine Geological Dynamics)
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Article
Seaports and Economic Growth: Panel Data Analysis of EU Port Regions
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(12), 1017; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8121017 - 12 Dec 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1096
Abstract
Seaports are an important factor in regional economies since their operations create positive effects on the economy. The application of new technologies and innovations is important for the successful operation of seaports; their use reduces costs, facilitates business, increases transparency, and attracts new [...] Read more.
Seaports are an important factor in regional economies since their operations create positive effects on the economy. The application of new technologies and innovations is important for the successful operation of seaports; their use reduces costs, facilitates business, increases transparency, and attracts new business entities. This paper analyses the impact of seaports on the growth of regional economies within the endogenous growth theory based on research and development (R&D) for a sample of 107 European Union’s (EU) port regions observed over the period from 2005 to 2015. The model was tested by using the two-step generalized method of moments. The results of the research indicate that seaports have a significant impact on the economic growth of the EU port regions, yet it is necessary to consider other factors that affect the growth of regional economies such as investments in R&D and human capital. These factors are often underestimated in relation to investment in transport infrastructure; therefore, the guidelines for partial diversion of funds might follow such a path. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maritime Transport and Its Impact on Regional Economic Development)
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Article
Underwater Pipeline Oil Spill Detection Based on Structure of Root and Branch Cells
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(12), 1016; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8121016 - 11 Dec 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 775
Abstract
The existing oil spill detection methods mainly rely on physical sensors or numerical models cannot locate the spill position accurately and in time. To solve this problem, combining with underwater image processing technology, an unsupervised detection algorithm for oil spill in underwater pipelines [...] Read more.
The existing oil spill detection methods mainly rely on physical sensors or numerical models cannot locate the spill position accurately and in time. To solve this problem, combining with underwater image processing technology, an unsupervised detection algorithm for oil spill in underwater pipelines is proposed for the first time. First, the oil spill region to be detected is regarded as the moving target, and the foreground detection algorithm is applied to the processed images. Then, the HSV (Hue, Saturation, Value) color space of the image is used to screen the oil spill region meeting the threshold requirements. Next, the bitwise of foreground mask and HSV mask into cells are divided. Finally, according to the characteristics of the oil spill image, false detection is eliminated by classifying cells three times. After qualitative and quantitative analysis, it is proved that the proposed algorithm can detect oil spill region accurately. Full article
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Article
Long-Term and Seasonal Trends in Global Wave Height Extremes Derived from ERA-5 Reanalysis Data
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(12), 1015; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8121015 - 11 Dec 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 995
Abstract
A non-stationary extreme value analysis of 41 years (1979–2019) of global ERA5 (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Reanalysis) significant wave height data is undertaken to investigate trends in the values of 100-year significant wave height, Hs100. The analysis shows [...] Read more.
A non-stationary extreme value analysis of 41 years (1979–2019) of global ERA5 (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Reanalysis) significant wave height data is undertaken to investigate trends in the values of 100-year significant wave height, Hs100. The analysis shows that there has been a statistically significant increase in the value of Hs100 over large regions of the Southern Hemisphere. There have also been smaller decreases in Hs100 in the Northern Hemisphere, although the related trends are generally not statistically significant. The increases in the Southern Hemisphere are a result of an increase in either the frequency or intensity of winter storms, particularly in the Southern Ocean. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extreme Waves)
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Article
Augmented Reality Lights for Compromised Visibility Navigation
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(12), 1014; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8121014 - 11 Dec 2020
Viewed by 737
Abstract
This paper considers the feasibility of using augmented reality (AR) as a tool for enhancing visualization in maritime operations to avoid collision in different environmental conditions. According to the International Maritime Organization (IMO 2010), 90% of maritime accidents due to collisions at sea [...] Read more.
This paper considers the feasibility of using augmented reality (AR) as a tool for enhancing visualization in maritime operations to avoid collision in different environmental conditions. According to the International Maritime Organization (IMO 2010), 90% of maritime accidents due to collisions at sea are caused in part by human error. This study investigates the new technology (AR) used to superimpose holographic images onto the real world; now reaching a state of readiness for commercial application. This paper demonstrates the competence of AR technology to serve as a maritime navigational aid. The research explores the viability of improving navigational safety in low visibility by projecting holograms of real-world objects in the same geo-location as the real object to make them “visible”. The paper presents the logical deconstruction of the technical problems and identified solutions, together with results of experiments used to validate the concept and technology readiness for real word maritime application. The paper presents a verified demonstrator; a proposed holographic bridge interface with an innovative way of presenting information using AR technology. Furthermore, it identifies that new technologies offer the opportunity for enhanced operator performances, with the expectation being that this should lead to reduce risk to persons, property, and the environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human-Automation Integration in the Maritime Sector)
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Article
A Novel Three-SPR Parallel Platform for Vessel Wave Compensation
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(12), 1013; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8121013 - 10 Dec 2020
Viewed by 574
Abstract
A wave compensation platform based on 3-SPR parallel platform is designed for marine ships with a dynamic positioning system. It can compensate for the heave, rolling, and pitching movement of a vessel under level 4 sea state. The forward kinematics of the mechanism [...] Read more.
A wave compensation platform based on 3-SPR parallel platform is designed for marine ships with a dynamic positioning system. It can compensate for the heave, rolling, and pitching movement of a vessel under level 4 sea state. The forward kinematics of the mechanism is used to draw the central point position workspace and the attitude workspace of the moving deck of the compensation platform. The compensation effects of the 3-RPS parallel compensation platform and the 3-SPR parallel compensation platform are compared, and the feasibility and superiority of the compensation scheme using the 3-SPR parallel compensation platform are proved. To lower the working height of the upper deck of the compensation platform and reduce the extension range of the support legs, the structure of the compensation platform is optimized, and a novel 3-SPR parallel platform is designed. Finally, a simulation model was established. Using the inverse kinematic model as a compensation movement solver which can online calculate the length of branch legs based on the measured heaving, rolling, and pitching values of vessels, the compensation effect of the new structure under a certain sea state is simulated. The result demonstrated the efficiency of the ship motion decoupling movement of the newly designed compensation platform and proved the competence of it. Full article
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Article
Investigating Changes in Aeolian Sediment Transport at Coastal Dunes and Sand Trapping Fences: A Field Study on the German Coast
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(12), 1012; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8121012 - 10 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 932
Abstract
For the restoration and maintenance of beach and dune systems along the coast, knowledge of aeolian sediment transport and its interaction with coastal protection measures is required. As a nature-based solution, sand trapping fences can be an integral part of coastal protection measures [...] Read more.
For the restoration and maintenance of beach and dune systems along the coast, knowledge of aeolian sediment transport and its interaction with coastal protection measures is required. As a nature-based solution, sand trapping fences can be an integral part of coastal protection measures initiating foredune development. There are few detailed studies on aeolian sediment transport rates on coastal dunes and sand trapping fences available to date. Thus, in this work, we present the results of field experiments conducted at the beach, coastal dune, and sand trapping fence on the East Frisian island Langeoog. The vertical sediment flux profile was measured by vertical mesh sand traps, and saltiphones measured the instantaneous sediment transport. A meteorological station was set up to obtain wind data. On the beach, dune toe, and dune crest, the stationary wind profile can be described well by the law of the wall. Saturated aeolian sediment transport rates on the beach and dune toe were predicted by widely used empirical models. Between the sand trapping fence, these empirical transport models could not be applied, as no logarithmic wind profile existed. The upwind sediment supply reduced after each brushwood line of the sand trapping fence, thereby, leading to increased deviation from the saturated conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beach-Dune System Morphodynamics)
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Editorial
Coastal Geohazard and Offshore Geotechnics
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(12), 1011; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8121011 - 10 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 543
Abstract
With the rapid development in the exploration of marine resources, coastal geohazard and offshore geotechnics have attracted a great deal of attention from coastal geotechnical engineers and has achieved significant progress in recent years [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coastal Geohazard and Offshore Geotechnics)
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