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Open AccessArticle

Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Markers Associated with Fasting Serum Insulin and Urinary Albumin Excretion Independent of Fasting Plasma Glucose

1
Division of Diabetes, Metabolism & Endocrinology, The Jikei University School of Medicine, 3-25-8 Nishishimbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-8461, Japan
2
Public Health Promotion Unit, Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, Mannerheimintie 166, FI-00271 Helsinki, Finland
3
Gastroenterology, Akasaka Sanno Medical Center, 4-1-26W Akasaka, Minato-ku, Tokyo 107-8402, Japan
4
The Jikei University School of Medicine, 3-25-8 Nishishimbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-8461, Japan
5
Department of Health-Care Center, The Jikei University School of Medicine, 3-25-8 Nishishimbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-8461, Japan
6
Diabetes Research Group, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(10), 3161; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9103161
Received: 24 August 2020 / Revised: 19 September 2020 / Accepted: 22 September 2020 / Published: 29 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Should Physicians Consider NAFLD a Primary or Secondary Disease?)
Objective: We examined the association between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) markers and fasting serum immunoreactive insulin (FIRI) and urinary albumin excretion (UAE). Subjects and methods: This study comprised Periods I and II from January 2007 to May 2009, and from June 2009 to December 2011, respectively. After excluding people with ethanol intake ≥210 g/week in men and ≥140 g/week in women, 961 people (613 men, 348 women; mean age: 44 years) were included. We evaluated the fatty liver using ultrasonography score (FLUS) and measured liver enzymes. Results: The mean observation period was 25 ± 9 months. We stratified people into two groups by fasting plasma glucose (FPG) in Period I. The cutoff point between the lower FPG and higher FPG was 100 mg/dL. In regression analysis, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (p < 0.001), FLUS (p < 0.001) and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGTP) (p = 0.022) in Period I were independently associated with FIRI in Period II, whereas in all participants FPG was not. ALT (p < 0.001) and GGTP (p = 0.001) were also independently associated with UAE in people with FPG < 100 mg/dL in Period II. Conclusions: Some NAFLD markers were associated with FIRI and UAE independently of fasting plasma glucose. View Full-Text
Keywords: non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; fasting serum insulin; urinary albumin excretion; serum alanine aminotransferase; diabetes; impaired fasting glucose non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; fasting serum insulin; urinary albumin excretion; serum alanine aminotransferase; diabetes; impaired fasting glucose
MDPI and ACS Style

Katoh, S.; Peltonen, M.; Zeniya, M.; Sakamoto, Y.; Utsunomiya, K.; Nishimura, R.; Tuomilehto, J. Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Markers Associated with Fasting Serum Insulin and Urinary Albumin Excretion Independent of Fasting Plasma Glucose. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 3161. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9103161

AMA Style

Katoh S, Peltonen M, Zeniya M, Sakamoto Y, Utsunomiya K, Nishimura R, Tuomilehto J. Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Markers Associated with Fasting Serum Insulin and Urinary Albumin Excretion Independent of Fasting Plasma Glucose. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2020; 9(10):3161. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9103161

Chicago/Turabian Style

Katoh, Shuichi; Peltonen, Markku; Zeniya, Mikio; Sakamoto, Yoichi; Utsunomiya, Kazunori; Nishimura, Rimei; Tuomilehto, Jaakko. 2020. "Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Markers Associated with Fasting Serum Insulin and Urinary Albumin Excretion Independent of Fasting Plasma Glucose" J. Clin. Med. 9, no. 10: 3161. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9103161

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