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Membranes, Volume 9, Issue 2 (February 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Many micropollutants are known to permeate reverse osmosis (RO) membranes and pose problems, e.g., [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Membrane Fouling Mechanisms in Combined Microfiltration-Coagulation of Algal Rich Water Applying Ceramic Membranes
Received: 28 January 2019 / Revised: 15 February 2019 / Accepted: 19 February 2019 / Published: 22 February 2019
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Abstract
In this paper, we investigated the membrane fouling mechanism according to the coagulant dosage in algal rich water using a ceramic membrane. The algae that were used in this experiment were Microcystis sp. of cyanobacteria, and the fouling mechanism was analyzed through irrigation [...] Read more.
In this paper, we investigated the membrane fouling mechanism according to the coagulant dosage in algal rich water using a ceramic membrane. The algae that were used in this experiment were Microcystis sp. of cyanobacteria, and the fouling mechanism was analyzed through irrigation and filtration resistance through a constant flow operation. The experimental results showed that the filtration resistance decreased as the coagulant dosage increased, but the irreversibility at above optimum coagulant dosage increased. Additionally, as the coagulant dosage increased, the resistance value due to cake and adsorption contamination decreased, and membrane fouling by adsorption was dominant in comparison with cake fouling and adsorption fouling. The specific cake resistance was decreased as the coagulant dosage increased. The characteristics of the cake layer according to the coagulant dosage were found to loosely form the cake layer by increasing micro-size algae as the coagulant dosage increased. The results of this experiment confirmed the membrane fouling mechanism according to coagulant dosage when the ceramic membrane filtered algal rich water. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Antibiofouling Performance by Polyethersulfone Membranes Cast with Oxidized Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes and Arabic Gum
Received: 20 January 2019 / Revised: 15 February 2019 / Accepted: 17 February 2019 / Published: 22 February 2019
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Abstract
Despite extensive research efforts focusing on tackling membrane biofouling, one of the biggest problems associated with membrane technology, there has been little headway in this area. This study presents novel polyethersulfone (PES) membranes synthesized via a phase inversion method at incremental loadings of [...] Read more.
Despite extensive research efforts focusing on tackling membrane biofouling, one of the biggest problems associated with membrane technology, there has been little headway in this area. This study presents novel polyethersulfone (PES) membranes synthesized via a phase inversion method at incremental loadings of functionalized oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (OMWCNT) along with 1 wt. % arabic gum (AG). The synthesized OMWCNT were examined using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy for morphological changes compared to the commercially obtained carbon nanotubes. Additionally energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy was carried out on the raw and OMWCNT materials, indicating an almost 2-fold increase in oxygen content in the latter sample. The cast PES/OMWCNT membranes were extensively characterized, and underwent a series of performance testing using bovine serum albumin solution for fouling tests and model Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacterial species for anti-biofouling experiments. Results indicated that the composite PES membranes, which incorporated the OMWCNT and AG, possessed significantly stronger hydrophilicity and negative surface charge as evidenced by water contact angle and zeta potential data, respectively, when compared to plain PES membranes. Furthermore atomic force microscopy analysis showed that the PES/OMWCNT membranes exhibited significantly lower surface roughness values. Together, these membrane surface features were held responsible for the anti-adhesive nature of the hybrid membranes seen during biofouling tests. Importantly, the prepared membranes were able to inhibit bacterial colonization upon incubation with both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial suspensions. The PES/OMWCNT membranes also presented more resilient normalized flux values when compared to neat PES and commercial membrane samples during filtration of both bacterial suspensions and real treated sewage effluents. Taken together, the results of this study allude to OMWCNT and AG as promising additives, for incorporation into polymeric membranes to enhance biofouling resistance. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Performances of Anion-Exchange Blend Membranes on Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries
Received: 10 January 2019 / Revised: 29 January 2019 / Accepted: 12 February 2019 / Published: 17 February 2019
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Abstract
Anion exchange blend membranes (AEBMs) were prepared for use in Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries (VRFBs). These AEBMs consisted of 3 polymer components. Firstly, PBI-OO (nonfluorinated PBI) or F6-PBI (partially fluorinated PBI) were used as a matrix polymer. The second polymer, a bromomethylated PPO, [...] Read more.
Anion exchange blend membranes (AEBMs) were prepared for use in Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries (VRFBs). These AEBMs consisted of 3 polymer components. Firstly, PBI-OO (nonfluorinated PBI) or F6-PBI (partially fluorinated PBI) were used as a matrix polymer. The second polymer, a bromomethylated PPO, was quaternized with 1,2,4,5-tetramethylimidazole (TMIm) which provided the anion exchange sites. Thirdly, a partially fluorinated polyether or a non-fluorinated poly (ether sulfone) was used as an ionical cross-linker. While the AEBMs were prepared with different combinations of the blend polymers, the same weight ratios of the three components were used. The AEBMs showed similar membrane properties such as ion exchange capacity, dimensional stability and thermal stability. For the VRFB application, comparable or better energy efficiencies were obtained when using the AEBMs compared to the commercial membranes included in this study, that is, Nafion (cation exchange membrane) and FAP 450 (anion exchange membrane). One of the blend membranes showed no capacity decay during a charge-discharge cycles test for 550 cycles run at 40 mA/cm2 indicating superior performance compared to the commercial membranes tested. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membranes for Electrolysis, Fuel Cells and Batteries)
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Open AccessArticle Performance of Acacia Gum as a Novel Additive in Thin Film Composite Polyamide RO Membranes
Received: 16 January 2019 / Revised: 4 February 2019 / Accepted: 11 February 2019 / Published: 15 February 2019
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Abstract
Novel thin film composite (TFC) polyamide (PA) membranes blended with 0.01–0.2 wt.% of Acacia gum (AG) have been prepared using the interfacial polymerization technique. The properties of the prepared membranes were evaluated using contact angle, zeta potential measurements, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, [...] Read more.
Novel thin film composite (TFC) polyamide (PA) membranes blended with 0.01–0.2 wt.% of Acacia gum (AG) have been prepared using the interfacial polymerization technique. The properties of the prepared membranes were evaluated using contact angle, zeta potential measurements, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and surface profilometer. It was found that the use of AG as an additive to TFC PA membranes increased the membrane’s hydrophilicity (by 45%), surface charge (by 16%) as well as water flux (by 1.2-fold) compared with plain PA membrane. In addition, the prepared PA/AG membranes possessed reduced surface roughness (by 63%) and improved antifouling behavior while maintaining NaCl rejection above 96%. The TFC PA/AG membranes were tested with seawater collected from the Arabian Gulf and showed higher salt rejection and lower flux decline during filtration when compared to commercial membranes (GE Osmonics and Dow SW30HR). These findings indicate that AG can be used as an efficient additive to enhance the properties of TFC PA membranes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Membrane Applications in Water Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle Antibacterial Properties of Polysulfone Membranes Blended with Arabic Gum
Received: 8 January 2019 / Revised: 3 February 2019 / Accepted: 11 February 2019 / Published: 14 February 2019
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Abstract
Polysulfone (PS) membranes blended with different loadings of arabic gum (AG) were synthesized using phase inversion method and the antibacterial properties of the synthesized membranes were tested using a number Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram-positive [...] Read more.
Polysulfone (PS) membranes blended with different loadings of arabic gum (AG) were synthesized using phase inversion method and the antibacterial properties of the synthesized membranes were tested using a number Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) bacterial species. It was shown that AG addition to the dope polymer solutions essentially changed porous structure, hydrophilicity and zeta potential of the cast PS/AG membranes. These changes were due to the amphiphilic properties of AG macromolecules that contained negatively charged hydrophilic residues. A pronounced decrease in bacterial attachment was seen in the field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images for PS/AG membrane samples compared to both commercial (Microdyn-Nadir) and bare PS (without AG) membranes. AG loading dependent trend was observed where the prevention of bacterial colonization on the membrane surface was strongest at the highest (7 wt. %) AG loading in the casting solution. Possible mechanisms for the prevention of bacterial colonization were discussed. Significantly, the inhibition of bacterial attachment and growth on PS/AG membranes was observed for both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial models, rendering these novel membranes with strong biofouling resistance attractive for water treatment applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Membrane Applications in Water Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle In Situ Modification of Reverse Osmosis Membrane Elements for Enhanced Removal of Multiple Micropollutants
Received: 10 January 2019 / Revised: 7 February 2019 / Accepted: 11 February 2019 / Published: 13 February 2019
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Abstract
Reverse osmosis (RO) membranes are widely used for desalination and water treatment. However, they insufficiently reject some small uncharged micropollutants, such as certain endocrine-disrupting, pharmaceutically active compounds and boric acid, increasingly present in water sources and wastewater. This study examines the feasibility of [...] Read more.
Reverse osmosis (RO) membranes are widely used for desalination and water treatment. However, they insufficiently reject some small uncharged micropollutants, such as certain endocrine-disrupting, pharmaceutically active compounds and boric acid, increasingly present in water sources and wastewater. This study examines the feasibility of improving rejection of multiple micropollutants in commercial low-pressure RO membrane elements using concentration polarization- and surfactant-enhanced surface polymerization. Low-pressure membrane elements modified by grafting poly(glycidyl methacrylate) showed enhanced rejection of all tested solutes (model organic micropollutants, boric acid, and NaCl), with permeability somewhat reduced, but comparable with commercial brackish water RO membranes. The study demonstrates the potential and up-scalability of grafting as an in situ method for improving removal of various classes of organic and inorganic micropollutants and tuning performance in RO and other dense composite membranes for water purification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reverse Osmosis Membranes)
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Open AccessArticle Treatment of Two-Phase Olive Mill Wastewater and Recovery of Phenolic Compounds Using Membrane Technology
Received: 13 December 2018 / Revised: 10 January 2019 / Accepted: 26 January 2019 / Published: 5 February 2019
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Abstract
The semi-solid wastes (pomace or alperujo) produced in the two-phase olive oil extraction process contains extremely high organic load and phenolic substances. Efficient treatment of such kinds of wastes using membrane filtration, should be sought to reduce the hazardous effects to the environment. [...] Read more.
The semi-solid wastes (pomace or alperujo) produced in the two-phase olive oil extraction process contains extremely high organic load and phenolic substances. Efficient treatment of such kinds of wastes using membrane filtration, should be sought to reduce the hazardous effects to the environment. On the other hand, phenolic compounds can be isolated and purified up to a level of commercial exploitation using the membrane technology. Firstly, the extraction process with mixtures of water and ethanol was optimized by testing extraction parameters (e.g., solvent’s mixture, duration, and temperature) at laboratory scale. Next, extraction was conducted using larger volumes and the treatment was continued in a pilot membrane filtration system, consisted of ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes. The extracted solution from the olive oil pomace was fed to the pilot membrane filtration system, where all fat, lipids, and solids were removed while the phenolic compounds were concentrated in the retentate streams of NF and/or RO. Total phenolic content (TPC) at the RO’s concentrate stream was 225 mg/L and at the final effluent was lower than 10 mg/lt. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) value at the final effluent was much lower (~280 mg/L) than in the feed stream (>32,000 mg/L). Full article
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Open AccessReview Models for Facilitated Transport Membranes: A Review
Received: 9 December 2018 / Revised: 14 January 2019 / Accepted: 15 January 2019 / Published: 2 February 2019
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Abstract
Facilitated transport membranes are particularly promising in different separations, as they are potentially able to overcome the trade-off behavior usually encountered in solution-diffusion membranes. The reaction activated transport is a process in which several mechanisms take place simultaneously, and requires a rigorous theoretical [...] Read more.
Facilitated transport membranes are particularly promising in different separations, as they are potentially able to overcome the trade-off behavior usually encountered in solution-diffusion membranes. The reaction activated transport is a process in which several mechanisms take place simultaneously, and requires a rigorous theoretical analysis, which unfortunately is often neglected in current studies more focused on material development. In this work, we selected and reviewed the main mathematical models introduced to describe mobile and fixed facilitated transport systems in steady state conditions, in order to provide the reader with an overview of the existing mathematical tools. An analytical solution to the mass transport problem cannot be achieved, even when considering simple reaction schemes such as that between oxygen (solute) and hemoglobin (carrier) ( A + C A C ), that was thoroughly studied by the first works dealing with this type of biological facilitated transport. Therefore, modeling studies provided approximate analytical solutions and comparison against experimental observations and exact numerical calculations. The derivation, the main assumptions, and approximations of such modeling approaches is briefly presented to assess their applicability, precision, and flexibility in describing and understanding mobile and fixed site carriers facilitated transport membranes. The goal is to establish which mathematical tools are more suitable to support and guide the development and design of new facilitated transport systems and materials. Among the models presented, in particular, those from Teramoto and from Morales-Cabrera et al. seem the more flexible and general ones for the mobile carrier case, while the formalization made by Noble and coauthors appears the most complete in the case of fixed site carrier membranes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Transport in Glassy Polymers)
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Open AccessEditorial Pd-Based Membranes: Overview and Perspectives
Received: 30 January 2019 / Accepted: 30 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
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Abstract
Palladium (Pd)-based membranes have received a lot of attention from both academia and industry thanks to their ability to selectively separate hydrogen from gas streams. Integration of such membranes with appropriate catalysts in membrane reactors allows for hydrogen production with CO2 capture [...] Read more.
Palladium (Pd)-based membranes have received a lot of attention from both academia and industry thanks to their ability to selectively separate hydrogen from gas streams. Integration of such membranes with appropriate catalysts in membrane reactors allows for hydrogen production with CO2 capture that can be applied in smaller bioenergy or combined heat and power (CHP) plants, as well as in large-scale power plants. Pd-based membranes are, therefore, regarded as a Key Enabling Technology (KET) to facilitate the transition towards a knowledge-based, low carbon and resource-efficient economy. This Special Issue of the journal Membranes on “Pd-based Membranes: Overview and Perspectives” contains nine peer-reviewed articles. Topics include manufacturing techniques, understanding of material phenomena, module and reactor design, novel applications, and demonstration efforts and industrial exploitation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pd-based Membranes: Overview and Perspectives)
Open AccessReview A Brief Review on the Resistance-in-Series Model in Membrane Bioreactors (MBRs)
Received: 14 September 2018 / Revised: 19 December 2018 / Accepted: 20 December 2018 / Published: 1 February 2019
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Abstract
The cake layer deposited on the membrane modules of membrane bioreactors (MBRs), especially under a submerged configuration, represents a relevant and fundamental mechanism deeply influencing the development of membrane fouling. It negatively affects the total resistance to filtration, while exerting a positive effect [...] Read more.
The cake layer deposited on the membrane modules of membrane bioreactors (MBRs), especially under a submerged configuration, represents a relevant and fundamental mechanism deeply influencing the development of membrane fouling. It negatively affects the total resistance to filtration, while exerting a positive effect as a “pre-filter” promoting the “dynamic membrane” that protects the physical membrane from internal fouling. These two opposite phenomena should be properly managed, where the submerged membranes are usually subjected to a periodical cake layer removal through ordinary (permeate backwashing and air scouring) and/or irregular cleaning actions (manual physical cleaning). In this context, the physical removal of the cake layer is needed to maintain the design filtration characteristics. Nevertheless, the proper evaluation of the effect of physical cleaning operations is still contradictory and under discussion, referring in particular to the correct evaluation of fouling mechanisms. The aim of the present work was to summarize the different aspects that influence the fouling investigations, based on simple models for the evaluation of the resistance to filtration due to the cake layer, through physical cleaning operations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) Technology for Wastewater Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle Sorption Thermodynamics of CO2, H2O, and CH3OH in a Glassy Polyetherimide: A Molecular Perspective
Received: 15 November 2018 / Revised: 18 January 2019 / Accepted: 18 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
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Abstract
In this paper, the sorption thermodynamics of low-molecular-weight penetrants in a glassy polyetherimide, endowed with specific interactions, is addressed by combining an experimental approach based on vibrational spectroscopy with thermodynamics modeling. This modeling approach is based on the extension of equilibrium theories to [...] Read more.
In this paper, the sorption thermodynamics of low-molecular-weight penetrants in a glassy polyetherimide, endowed with specific interactions, is addressed by combining an experimental approach based on vibrational spectroscopy with thermodynamics modeling. This modeling approach is based on the extension of equilibrium theories to the out-of-equilibrium glassy state. Specific interactions are accounted for in the framework of a compressible lattice fluid theory. In particular, the sorption of carbon dioxide, water, and methanol is illustrated, exploiting the wealth of information gathered at a molecular level from Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to tailor thermodynamics modeling. The investigated penetrants display a different interacting characteristic with respect to the polymer substrate, which reflects itself in the sorption thermodynamics. For the specific case of water, the outcomes from molecular dynamics simulations are compared with the results of the present analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Transport in Glassy Polymers)
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Open AccessArticle Characteristics of Gas Permeation Behaviour in Multilayer Thin Film Composite Membranes for CO2 Separation
Received: 23 November 2018 / Revised: 16 January 2019 / Accepted: 17 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
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Abstract
Porous, porous/gutter layer and porous/gutter layer/selective layer types of membranes were investigated for their gas transport properties in order to derive an improved description of the transport performance of thin film composite membranes (TFCM). A model describing the individual contributions of the different [...] Read more.
Porous, porous/gutter layer and porous/gutter layer/selective layer types of membranes were investigated for their gas transport properties in order to derive an improved description of the transport performance of thin film composite membranes (TFCM). A model describing the individual contributions of the different layers’ mass transfer resistances was developed. The proposed method allows for the prediction of permeation behaviour with standard deviations (SD) up to 10%. The porous support structures were described using the Dusty Gas Model (based on the Maxwell–Stefan multicomponent mass transfer approach) whilst the permeation in the dense gutter and separation layers was described by applicable models such as the Free-Volume model, using parameters derived from single gas time lag measurements. The model also accounts for the thermal expansion of the dense layers at pressure differences below 100 kPa. Using the model, the thickness of a silicone-based gutter layer was calculated from permeation measurements. The resulting value differed by a maximum of 30 nm to the thickness determined by scanning electron microscopy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Membrane Fouling Due to Protein—Polysaccharide Mixtures in Dead-End Ultrafiltration; the Effect of Permeation Flux on Fouling Resistance
Received: 28 November 2018 / Revised: 14 January 2019 / Accepted: 16 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
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Abstract
Significant gaps exist in our knowledge of ultrafiltration (UF) membrane fouling, due to mixtures of poly-saccharides and proteins, despite a fair amount of related research. To get new insights into fouling layer characteristics, experiments were performed under constant-flux, within the range of practical [...] Read more.
Significant gaps exist in our knowledge of ultrafiltration (UF) membrane fouling, due to mixtures of poly-saccharides and proteins, despite a fair amount of related research. To get new insights into fouling layer characteristics, experiments were performed under constant-flux, within the range of practical interest (15–90 L/m2h), with typical polysaccharides (sodium alginate, SA), proteins (bovine serum albumin, BSA) as well as their mixtures in various proportions (1:3, 1:1, 3:1), and total organic matter concentration of 30 mg/L. The feed-water salinity and calcium ion concentration were 2000 mg/L NaCl and 2 mM, respectively. The temporal evolution of such fouling layers on flat-sheet membranes was monitored by recording the trans-membrane pressure variation. The results show that the specific fouling resistance α is strongly affected by flux, and the fouling propensity of polysaccharide-protein mixtures is significantly enhanced compared to single foulants, i.e., when BSA and SA are alone. The fouling layers are compressible and their resistance α tends to increase with the mass ratio of alginate in the mixture, particularly at high fluxes. To quantify these effects, correlations are presented of the initial fouling resistance αi with permeate flux J and of the evolution of α. R&D priorities are suggested on this topic of mixed foulants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fouling and Cleaning in Membrane Processes)
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Open AccessArticle Preparation of Layer-by-Layer Nanofiltration Membranes by Dynamic Deposition and Crosslinking
Received: 17 December 2018 / Revised: 9 January 2019 / Accepted: 11 January 2019 / Published: 24 January 2019
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In recent decades, the advancements in layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly technology have provoked increasing interest in the preparation of multilayer polyelectrolyte membranes with excellent performance. In the current study, a novel nanofiltration (NF) membrane was prepared by pressure-driven layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly of polyethylenimine (PEI) [...] Read more.
In recent decades, the advancements in layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly technology have provoked increasing interest in the preparation of multilayer polyelectrolyte membranes with excellent performance. In the current study, a novel nanofiltration (NF) membrane was prepared by pressure-driven layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly of polyethylenimine (PEI) and polyacrylicacid (PAA) on a porous substrate with chemical crosslinking. The effect of deposition pressure on separation performance of the prepared membranes was studied. The surface morphology, hydrophilicity and the charge property of the dynamically-deposited membranes were compared with those prepared by static adsorption. The characterization results showed that dynamic deposition process resulted in a smoother membrane surface with improved hydrophilicity. The mechanism of water-path formation was proposed to interpret the effect of pressure on the membrane performance. Glutaraldehyde (GA) was used as a crosslinker to reduce the number of polyelectrolyte bilayers for obtaining good separation performance. The rejections of different inorganic salts of the dynamically-deposited NF membrane were also investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mass Transfer in Membranes)
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Open AccessReview Perfluoropolymer/Molecular Sieve Mixed-Matrix Membranes
Received: 30 December 2018 / Revised: 19 January 2019 / Accepted: 21 January 2019 / Published: 23 January 2019
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Despite the outstanding chemical, thermal and transport properties of amorphous and glassy perfluorinated polymers, only few works exist on the preparation and transport properties of perfluoropolymer/molecular sieves mixed-matrix membranes (MMMs), probably because of their poor compatibility. In this review, the compatibilization of ceramic [...] Read more.
Despite the outstanding chemical, thermal and transport properties of amorphous and glassy perfluorinated polymers, only few works exist on the preparation and transport properties of perfluoropolymer/molecular sieves mixed-matrix membranes (MMMs), probably because of their poor compatibility. In this review, the compatibilization of ceramic molecular sieves with perfluorinated matrices is considered first, examining the effect of the surface treatment on the gas transport properties of the filler. Then the preparation of the defect-free hybrid membranes and their gas separation capabilities are described. Finally, recent modelling of the gas transport properties of the perfluoropolymer MMMs is reviewed. The systematic use of molecular sieves of different size and shape, either permeable or impermeable, and the calculation of the bulk transport properties of the molecular sieves—i.e., the unrestricted diffusion and permeability—allow to understand the nature of the physical phenomena at work in the MMMs, that is the larger the perfluoropolymer fractional free volume at the interface, and restricted diffusion at the molecular sieves. This knowledge led to the formulation of a new four-phase approach for the modelling of gas transport. The four-phase approach was implemented in the frame of the Maxwell model and also for the finite element simulation. The four-phase approach is a convenient representation of the transport in MMMs when more than one single interfacial effect is present. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Transport in Glassy Polymers)
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Open AccessArticle From “Black Box” to a Real Description of Overall Mass Transport through Membrane and Boundary Layers
Received: 31 December 2018 / Revised: 15 January 2019 / Accepted: 16 January 2019 / Published: 23 January 2019
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Abstract
The “black box” model defines the enhancement, E the polarization modulus, C/Co and the intrinsic enhancement, Eo without knowing the transport mechanism in the membrane. This study expresses the above-mentioned characteristic parameters, simultaneously taking into account the mass [...] Read more.
The “black box” model defines the enhancement, E the polarization modulus, C / C o and the intrinsic enhancement, E o without knowing the transport mechanism in the membrane. This study expresses the above-mentioned characteristic parameters, simultaneously taking into account the mass transport expressions developed for both the polarization and the membrane layers. Two membrane models are studied here, namely a solution-diffusion model characterizing solute transport through a dense membrane and a solution-diffusion plus convection model characterizing transport through a porous membrane due to transmembrane pressure difference. It is shown that the characteristic parameters of the “black box” model (E, E o or C / C o ) can be expressed as a function of the transport parameters and independently from each other using two-layer models. Thus, membrane performance could be predicted by means of the transport parameters. Several figures show how enhancement and the polarization modulus varied as a function of the membrane Peclet number and the solubility coefficient. Enhancement strongly increased up to its maximum value when H > 1, in the case of transport through a porous membrane, whereas its change remained before unity in the case of a dense membrane. When the value of H < 1, the value of E gradually decreased with increasing values of the membrane Peclet number. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymeric Porous Membranes)
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