Special Issue "Application of Membrane Filtration in Industrial Processes, and in the Treatment of Water and Industrial Wastewater"

A special issue of Membranes (ISSN 2077-0375). This special issue belongs to the section "Membrane Applications in Water Treatment".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Marco Stoller

Department of Chemical Engineering, University Sapienza of Rome, Via Eudossiana 18, Rome, Italy
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Interests: photocatalysis; process intensification; wastewater treatment; membrane fouling
Guest Editor
Prof. Javier Miguel Ochando Pulido

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Granada, Avenida de la Fuente Nueva S/N, Granada, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Interests: membrane processes; photocatalysis (Fenton assisted); wastewater treatment
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Christakis Paraskeva

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, Rion, Patras, GR 26504, Greece
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +30 2610 997252
Interests: membrane technologies; wastewater treatment; ultrafiltration; nanofiltration; reverse osmosis; isolation of phenolics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Membrane filtration has been successfully implemented in many industrial processes and has been also effectively employed in the treatment of potable water and municipal, industrial, and/or agroindustrial wastewaters. This technology is mature enough to compete with other well established separation techniques (selective adsorption, distillation, crystallization, extraction, conventional sand filtation, etc.), and it excels where there is a need for simultaneous isolation, condensation, and enrichment of substances.

Many industrial sectors (chemical, petrochemical, mineral and metalurgical, food, biotechnology, pharmaceutical, electronics, papers, etc.) have adopted membrane schemes for their production processes thanks to the improvement and advances in membrane technology that have reduced considerabley the fixed and opeational costs. Production processes in food industries (dairy, beverage, winery, tomato and olive oil, brewery, food, juice, etc.) rely on the use of membrane technology to guarantee the quality and reproducibility of their final products.

Current trends and developments indicate that membrane technology can substitude convectional technologies (coagulation/flocculation/sedimentattion, together with sand bed fitering) in potable water production due to its better performance, potential for less chemical use and sludge production, and potential to fulfill hygienic barrier requirements. In the process of producing potable water, new sources such as desalination and wastewater reuse are encountered to replace the extinct groundwater, thanks to nanofiltration and reverse osmosis.

The high demand of membranes in the 2000s and their widespread use in many industrial applications has led researchers and technicians to develop membrane modules for the treatment of liquid industrial wastes. The direct profit for industry was the recycling of a large proportion of used industrial water. Of particular interest is the utilization of membrane filtration in membrane arrays (UF, NF, and RO) for the treatment of agricultural wastewaters, where concentrates are utilized to isolate and enrich substances with particular added economic value.

This Special Issue therefore focuses on recent membrane applications in industrial processes (chemical, biochemical, pharmaceutical, food industry, etc.) and in the treatment for municipal, industrial, and agro-industrial wastewaters, etc.). Comparisons of membrane technologies with other separation processes are welcome. Mini-review papers are also welcome.

Prof. Dr. Marco Stoller
Prof. Dr. Javier Miguel Ochando-Pulido
Prof. Dr. Christakis Paraskeva
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Membranes is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • industrial applications
  • water treatment
  • wastewater treatment
  • drinking water
  • membrane processes
  • fractionation of organic compounds
  • isolation of compounds with high added value
  • contaminant removal
  • membrane fouling
  • membrane process modeling
  • membrane process control and safety

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Simple Theoretical Results on Reversible Fouling in Cross-Flow Membrane Filtration
Received: 22 December 2018 / Revised: 22 March 2019 / Accepted: 26 March 2019 / Published: 3 April 2019
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Abstract
In cross-flow membrane filtration, fouling results from material deposit which clogs the membrane inner surface. This hinders filtration, which experiences the so-called limiting flux. Among the models proposed by the literature, we retain a simple one: a steady-state reversible fouling is modelled with [...] Read more.
In cross-flow membrane filtration, fouling results from material deposit which clogs the membrane inner surface. This hinders filtration, which experiences the so-called limiting flux. Among the models proposed by the literature, we retain a simple one: a steady-state reversible fouling is modelled with the use of a single additional parameter, i.e., N d , the ratio of the critical concentration for deposition to the feed concentration at inlet. To focus on fouling, viscous pressure drop and osmotic (counter-)pressure have been chosen low. It results in a minimal model of fouling. Solved thoroughly with the numerical means appropriate to enforce the nonlinear coupling between permeation and concentration polarization, the model delivers novel information. It first shows that permeation is utterly governed by solute transfer, the relevant non-dimensional quantities being hence limited to N d and P e i n , the transverse Péclet number. Furthermore, when the role played by N d and moderate P e i n (say P e i n < 40 ) is investigated, all results can be interpreted with the use of a single non-dimensional parameter, F l , the so-called fouling number, which simply reads F l P e i n N d 1 . Now rendered possible, the overall fit of the numerical data allows us to put forward analytical final expressions, which involve all the physical parameters and allow us to retrieve the experimental trends. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Silicon Carbide-Coated Ceramic Membrane Bioreactor for Sustainable Water Purification
Received: 24 January 2019 / Revised: 25 February 2019 / Accepted: 1 March 2019 / Published: 2 April 2019
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Abstract
In the present study, a submerged ceramic membrane bioreactor was used to effectively treat industrial wastewater. The outcome of membrane coatings on the efficacy of the membrane was investigated using a silicon carbide (SiC) coating. The flux data obtained from the study were [...] Read more.
In the present study, a submerged ceramic membrane bioreactor was used to effectively treat industrial wastewater. The outcome of membrane coatings on the efficacy of the membrane was investigated using a silicon carbide (SiC) coating. The flux data obtained from the study were fitted into two mathematical models, namely, the standard pore blocking model (SPBM) and the complete pore plugging model (CPPM) in order to determine the fouling mechanism. It was observed that the SPBM fit with a minimum coefficient of regression of 0.95, suggesting that particles retained on the pore walls were smaller than the average size of membrane pores. An increase in dissolved oxygen (DO) of up to 225% was noted. The significant improvement of the water quality in terms of DO, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and turbidity of coated membrane emphasizes the fact that the membrane coating increases the efficacy of water treatment in membrane bioreactors. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Antibiofouling Performance by Polyethersulfone Membranes Cast with Oxidized Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes and Arabic Gum
Received: 20 January 2019 / Revised: 15 February 2019 / Accepted: 17 February 2019 / Published: 22 February 2019
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Abstract
Despite extensive research efforts focusing on tackling membrane biofouling, one of the biggest problems associated with membrane technology, there has been little headway in this area. This study presents novel polyethersulfone (PES) membranes synthesized via a phase inversion method at incremental loadings of [...] Read more.
Despite extensive research efforts focusing on tackling membrane biofouling, one of the biggest problems associated with membrane technology, there has been little headway in this area. This study presents novel polyethersulfone (PES) membranes synthesized via a phase inversion method at incremental loadings of functionalized oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (OMWCNT) along with 1 wt. % arabic gum (AG). The synthesized OMWCNT were examined using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy for morphological changes compared to the commercially obtained carbon nanotubes. Additionally energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy was carried out on the raw and OMWCNT materials, indicating an almost 2-fold increase in oxygen content in the latter sample. The cast PES/OMWCNT membranes were extensively characterized, and underwent a series of performance testing using bovine serum albumin solution for fouling tests and model Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacterial species for anti-biofouling experiments. Results indicated that the composite PES membranes, which incorporated the OMWCNT and AG, possessed significantly stronger hydrophilicity and negative surface charge as evidenced by water contact angle and zeta potential data, respectively, when compared to plain PES membranes. Furthermore atomic force microscopy analysis showed that the PES/OMWCNT membranes exhibited significantly lower surface roughness values. Together, these membrane surface features were held responsible for the anti-adhesive nature of the hybrid membranes seen during biofouling tests. Importantly, the prepared membranes were able to inhibit bacterial colonization upon incubation with both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial suspensions. The PES/OMWCNT membranes also presented more resilient normalized flux values when compared to neat PES and commercial membrane samples during filtration of both bacterial suspensions and real treated sewage effluents. Taken together, the results of this study allude to OMWCNT and AG as promising additives, for incorporation into polymeric membranes to enhance biofouling resistance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Treatment of Two-Phase Olive Mill Wastewater and Recovery of Phenolic Compounds Using Membrane Technology
Received: 13 December 2018 / Revised: 10 January 2019 / Accepted: 26 January 2019 / Published: 5 February 2019
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Abstract
The semi-solid wastes (pomace or alperujo) produced in the two-phase olive oil extraction process contains extremely high organic load and phenolic substances. Efficient treatment of such kinds of wastes using membrane filtration, should be sought to reduce the hazardous effects to the environment. [...] Read more.
The semi-solid wastes (pomace or alperujo) produced in the two-phase olive oil extraction process contains extremely high organic load and phenolic substances. Efficient treatment of such kinds of wastes using membrane filtration, should be sought to reduce the hazardous effects to the environment. On the other hand, phenolic compounds can be isolated and purified up to a level of commercial exploitation using the membrane technology. Firstly, the extraction process with mixtures of water and ethanol was optimized by testing extraction parameters (e.g., solvent’s mixture, duration, and temperature) at laboratory scale. Next, extraction was conducted using larger volumes and the treatment was continued in a pilot membrane filtration system, consisted of ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes. The extracted solution from the olive oil pomace was fed to the pilot membrane filtration system, where all fat, lipids, and solids were removed while the phenolic compounds were concentrated in the retentate streams of NF and/or RO. Total phenolic content (TPC) at the RO’s concentrate stream was 225 mg/L and at the final effluent was lower than 10 mg/lt. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) value at the final effluent was much lower (~280 mg/L) than in the feed stream (>32,000 mg/L). Full article
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Open AccessArticle Concentration and Temperature Effects on Water and Salt Permeabilities in Osmosis and Implications in Pressure-Retarded Osmosis
Received: 12 June 2018 / Revised: 29 June 2018 / Accepted: 3 July 2018 / Published: 8 July 2018
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Abstract
Osmotic power extracted from the mixing of freshwater with seawater is a renewable energy resource that has gained increasing attention during recent years. The estimated energy can significantly contribute to the production of power worldwide. However, this power production will be subject to [...] Read more.
Osmotic power extracted from the mixing of freshwater with seawater is a renewable energy resource that has gained increasing attention during recent years. The estimated energy can significantly contribute to the production of power worldwide. However, this power production will be subject to variation due to both local conditions and seasonal variation. The present paper explores the effect of concentration and temperature on water and salt fluxes in osmosis at zero transmembrane pressure for five different membranes. Further, the measured fluxes have been utilized to model water and salt permeabilities (A and B), and the structure parameter (S). The observed flux variations at different combinations of concentration and temperature have been ascribed to skin properties, i.e., changes in A and B of each membrane, whereas S was assumed constant within the range of concentrations and temperatures that were tested. Simplified equations for the variation in A and B with temperature and concentration have been developed, which enable A and B to be calculated at any concentration and temperature based on permeabilities determined from osmotic experiments at standard test conditions. The equations can be used to predict fluxes and specific power production with respect to geographical and seasonal variations in concentration and temperature for river water/seawater pressure-retarded osmosis. The obtained results are also useful for forward osmosis processes using seawater as draw solution. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview Forward Osmosis Application in Manufacturing Industries: A Short Review
Received: 11 June 2018 / Revised: 10 July 2018 / Accepted: 10 July 2018 / Published: 23 July 2018
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Abstract
Forward osmosis (FO) is a membrane technology that uses the osmotic pressure difference to treat two fluids at a time giving the opportunity for an energy-efficient water and wastewater treatment. Various applications are possible; one of them is the application in industrial water [...] Read more.
Forward osmosis (FO) is a membrane technology that uses the osmotic pressure difference to treat two fluids at a time giving the opportunity for an energy-efficient water and wastewater treatment. Various applications are possible; one of them is the application in industrial water management. In this review paper, the basic principle of FO is explained and the state-of-the-art regarding FO application in manufacturing industries is described. Examples of FO application were found for food and beverage industry, chemical industry, pharmaceutical industry, coal processing, micro algae cultivation, textile industry, pulp and paper industry, electronic industry, and car manufacturing. FO publications were also found about heavy metal elimination and cooling water treatment. However, so far FO was applied in lab-scale experiments only. The up-scaling on pilot- or full-scale will be the essential next step. Long-term fouling behavior, membrane cleaning methods, and operation procedures are essential points that need to be further investigated. Moreover, energetic and economic evaluations need to be performed before full-scale FO can be implemented in industries. Full article
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