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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Effects of a Novel Adsorbent on Membrane Fouling by Natural Organic Matter in Drinking Water Treatment
Membranes 2019, 9(11), 151; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes9110151 - 12 Nov 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Irreversible fouling of water filtration membranes reduces filter longevity and results in higher costs associated with membrane maintenance and premature replacement. The search for effective pretreatment methods to remove foulants that tend to irreversibly foul membranes is ongoing. In this study, a novel [...] Read more.
Irreversible fouling of water filtration membranes reduces filter longevity and results in higher costs associated with membrane maintenance and premature replacement. The search for effective pretreatment methods to remove foulants that tend to irreversibly foul membranes is ongoing. In this study, a novel adsorbent (Heated Aluminum Oxide Particles (HAOPs)) was deployed in a fully automated pilot system to remove natural organic matter (NOM) from the surface water source used at the UniVann water treatment plant (WTP) in Ullensaker County, Norway. The pilot plant treatment process consists of passing the water through a thin layer of HAOPs that has been deposited on a mesh support. The HAOPs layer acts as an active packed bed which removes NOM from the water. Fluxes around 120 L/m2/h (LMH) at transmembrane pressure (TMP) below 10.7 psi (0.7 bar) were achieved over production cycles excessing 12 h. Treatment achieved always >85% colour removal and effluent colour <5 mg Pt/L (the target of treatment), and always <0.01 NTU turbidity and non-detectable suspended solids in the permeate. The HAOPs mixture after saturated with NOM is easy to remove by disruption of the HAOPs by rinsing the mesh surface, and the sludge is easily dewatered to higher of dry solids content. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue EWM 2019: Membranes for a Sustainable Future)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Synthesis, Transfer, and Gas Separation Characteristics of MOF-Templated Polymer Membranes
Membranes 2019, 9(10), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes9100124 - 20 Sep 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
This paper discusses the potential of polymer networks, templated by crystalline metal–organic framework (MOF), as novel selective layer material in thin film composite membranes. The ability to create mechanically stable membranes with an ultra-thin selective layer of advanced polymer materials is highly desirable [...] Read more.
This paper discusses the potential of polymer networks, templated by crystalline metal–organic framework (MOF), as novel selective layer material in thin film composite membranes. The ability to create mechanically stable membranes with an ultra-thin selective layer of advanced polymer materials is highly desirable in membrane technology. Here, we describe a novel polymeric membrane, which is synthesized via the conversion of a surface anchored metal–organic framework (SURMOF) into a surface anchored gel (SURGEL). The SURGEL membranes combine the high variability in the building blocks and the possibility to control the network topology and membrane thickness of the SURMOF synthesis with high mechanical and chemical stability of polymers. Next to the material design, the transfer of membranes to suitable supports is also usually a challenging task, due to the fragile nature of the ultra-thin films. To overcome this issue, we utilized a porous support on top of the membrane, which is mechanically stable enough to allow for the easy membrane transfer from the synthesis substrate to the final membrane support. To demonstrate the potential for gas separation of the synthesized SURGEL membranes, as well as the suitability of the transfer method, we determined the permeance for eight gases with different kinetic diameters. Full article
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
A Facile Synthesis of (PIM-Polyimide)-(6FDA-Durene-Polyimide) Copolymer as Novel Polymer Membranes for CO2 Separation
Membranes 2019, 9(9), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes9090113 - 31 Aug 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Random copolymers made of both (PIM-polyimide) and (6FDA-durene-PI) were prepared for the first time by a facile one-step polycondensation reaction. By combining the highly porous and contorted structure of PIM (polymers with intrinsic microporosity) and high thermomechanical properties of PI (polyimide), the membranes [...] Read more.
Random copolymers made of both (PIM-polyimide) and (6FDA-durene-PI) were prepared for the first time by a facile one-step polycondensation reaction. By combining the highly porous and contorted structure of PIM (polymers with intrinsic microporosity) and high thermomechanical properties of PI (polyimide), the membranes obtained from these random copolymers [(PIM-PI)-(6FDA-durene-PI)] showed high CO2 permeability (>1047 Barrer) with moderate CO2/N2 (> 16.5) and CO2/CH4 (> 18) selectivity, together with excellent thermal and mechanical properties. The membranes prepared from three different compositions of two comonomers (1:4, 1:6 and 1:10 of x:y), all showed similar morphological and physical properties, and gas separating performance, indicating ease of synthesis and practicability for production in large scale. The gas separation performance of these membranes at various pressure ranges (100–1500 torr) was also investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Membrane Preparation and Characterization)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Synthesis and Performance of 6FDA-Based Polyimide-Ionenes and Composites with Ionic Liquids as Gas Separation Membranes
Membranes 2019, 9(7), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes9070079 - 03 Jul 2019
Cited by 9
Abstract
Three new isomeric 6FDA-based polyimide-ionenes, with imidazolium moieties and varying regiochemistry (para-, meta-, and ortho- connectivity), and composites with three different ionic liquids (ILs) have been developed as gas separation membranes. The structural-property relationships and gas separation behaviors of the newly developed [...] Read more.
Three new isomeric 6FDA-based polyimide-ionenes, with imidazolium moieties and varying regiochemistry (para-, meta-, and ortho- connectivity), and composites with three different ionic liquids (ILs) have been developed as gas separation membranes. The structural-property relationships and gas separation behaviors of the newly developed 6FDA polyimide-ionene + IL composites have been extensively studied. All the 6FDA-based polyimide-ionenes exhibited good compatibility with the ILs and produced homogeneous hybrid membranes with the high thermal stability of ~380 °C. Particularly, [6FDA I4A pXy][Tf2N] ionene + IL hybrids having [C4mim][Tf2N] and [Bnmim][Tf2N] ILs offered mechanically stable matrixes with high CO2 affinity. The permeability of CO2 was increased by factors of 2 and 3 for C4mim and Bnmim hybrids (2.15 to 6.32 barrers), respectively, compared to the neat [6FDA I4A pXy][Tf2N] without sacrificing their permselectivity for CO2/CH4 and CO2/N2 gas pairs. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Hybrid Forward Osmosis–Nanofiltration for Wastewater Reuse: System Design
Membranes 2019, 9(5), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes9050061 - 06 May 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
The design of a hybrid forward osmosis–nanofiltration (FO–NF) system for the extraction of high-quality water from wastewater is presented here. Simulations were performed based on experimental results obtained in a previous study using real wastewater as the feed solution. A sensitivity analysis, conducted [...] Read more.
The design of a hybrid forward osmosis–nanofiltration (FO–NF) system for the extraction of high-quality water from wastewater is presented here. Simulations were performed based on experimental results obtained in a previous study using real wastewater as the feed solution. A sensitivity analysis, conducted to evaluate the influence of different process parameters, showed that an optimum configuration can be designed with (i) an influent draw solution osmotic pressure equal to 15 bar and (ii) a ratio of influent draw solution to feed solution flow rate equal to 1.5:1. With this configuration, the simulations suggested that the overall FO–NF system can achieve up to 85% water recovery using Na2SO4 or MgCl2 as the draw solute. The modular configuration and the size of the NF stage, accommodating approximately 7000 m2 of active membrane area, was a function of the properties of the membranes selected to separate the draw solutes and water, while detailed simulations indicated that the size of the FO unit might be reduced by adopting a counter-current configuration. Experimental tests with samples of the relevant wastewater showed that Cl- and Mg2+-based draw solutes would be associated with larger membrane fouling, possibly due to their interaction with the other substances present in the feed solution. However, the results suggest that fouling would not significantly decrease the performance of the designed system. This study contributes to the further evaluation and potential implementation of FO in water reuse systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forward Osmosis: Modelling and Applications)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Concentrating of Sugar Syrup in Bioethanol Production Using Sweeping Gas Membrane Distillation
Membranes 2019, 9(5), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes9050059 - 01 May 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Membrane distillation (MD) is a relatively new and underdeveloped separation process which can be classified as a green technology. However, in order to investigate its dark points, sensitivity analysis and optimization studies are critical. In this work, a number of MD experiments were [...] Read more.
Membrane distillation (MD) is a relatively new and underdeveloped separation process which can be classified as a green technology. However, in order to investigate its dark points, sensitivity analysis and optimization studies are critical. In this work, a number of MD experiments were performed for concentrating glucose syrup using a sweeping gas membrane distillation (SGMD) process as a critical step in bioethanol production. The experimental design method was the Taguchi orthogonal array (an L9 orthogonal one) methodology. The experimental results showed the effects of various operating variables, including temperature (45, 55, and 65 °C), flow rate (200, 400, and 600 ml/min) and glucose concentration (10, 30, and 50 g/l) of the feed stream, as well as sweeping gas flow rate (4, 10, and 16 standard cubic feet per hour (SCFH)) on the permeate flux. The main effects of the operating variables were reported. An ANOVA analysis showed that the most and the least influenced variables were feed temperature and feed flow rate, each one with 62.1% and 6.1% contributions, respectively. The glucose rejection was measured at 99% for all experiments. Results indicated that the SGMD process could be considered as a versatile and clean process in the sugar concentration step of the bioethanol production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane Distillation Process)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Performance Evaluation of a Thermophilic Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor for Palm Oil Wastewater Treatment
Membranes 2019, 9(4), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes9040055 - 18 Apr 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
Anaerobic treatment processes have achieved popularity in treating palm oil mill effluent due to its high treatability and biogas generation. The use of externally submerged membranes with anaerobic reactors promotes the retention of the biomass in the reactor. This study was conducted in [...] Read more.
Anaerobic treatment processes have achieved popularity in treating palm oil mill effluent due to its high treatability and biogas generation. The use of externally submerged membranes with anaerobic reactors promotes the retention of the biomass in the reactor. This study was conducted in thermophilic conditions with the Polytetrafluoroethylene hollow fiber (PTFE-HF) membrane which was operated at 55 °C. The reactor was operated at Organic Loading Rates (OLR) of 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, and 10 kg Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)/m3·d to investigate the treatment performance and the membrane operation. The efficiency of the COD removal achieved by the system was between 93–98%. The highest methane yield achieved was 0.56 m3 CH4/kg CODr. The reactor mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS) was maintained between 11.1 g/L to 20.9 g/L. A dead-end mode PTFE hollow fiber microfiltration was operated with the constant flux of 3 LMH (L/m2·h) in permeate recirculation mode to separate the clear final effluent and retain the biomass in the reactor. Membrane fouling was one of the limiting factors in the membrane bioreactor application. In this study, organic fouling was observed to be 93% of the total membrane fouling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CESE-2018: Membrane Technologies for Water Sustainability)
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Open AccessFeature PaperEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Performances of Anion-Exchange Blend Membranes on Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries
Membranes 2019, 9(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes9020031 - 17 Feb 2019
Cited by 7
Abstract
Anion exchange blend membranes (AEBMs) were prepared for use in Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries (VRFBs). These AEBMs consisted of 3 polymer components. Firstly, PBI-OO (nonfluorinated PBI) or F6-PBI (partially fluorinated PBI) were used as a matrix polymer. The second polymer, a bromomethylated PPO, [...] Read more.
Anion exchange blend membranes (AEBMs) were prepared for use in Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries (VRFBs). These AEBMs consisted of 3 polymer components. Firstly, PBI-OO (nonfluorinated PBI) or F6-PBI (partially fluorinated PBI) were used as a matrix polymer. The second polymer, a bromomethylated PPO, was quaternized with 1,2,4,5-tetramethylimidazole (TMIm) which provided the anion exchange sites. Thirdly, a partially fluorinated polyether or a non-fluorinated poly (ether sulfone) was used as an ionical cross-linker. While the AEBMs were prepared with different combinations of the blend polymers, the same weight ratios of the three components were used. The AEBMs showed similar membrane properties such as ion exchange capacity, dimensional stability and thermal stability. For the VRFB application, comparable or better energy efficiencies were obtained when using the AEBMs compared to the commercial membranes included in this study, that is, Nafion (cation exchange membrane) and FAP 450 (anion exchange membrane). One of the blend membranes showed no capacity decay during a charge-discharge cycles test for 550 cycles run at 40 mA/cm2 indicating superior performance compared to the commercial membranes tested. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membranes for Electrolysis, Fuel Cells and Batteries)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Experimental Mixed-Gas Permeability, Sorption and Diffusion of CO2-CH4 Mixtures in 6FDA-mPDA Polyimide Membrane: Unveiling the Effect of Competitive Sorption on Permeability Selectivity
Membranes 2019, 9(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes9010010 - 08 Jan 2019
Cited by 10
Abstract
The nonideal behavior of polymeric membranes during separation of gas mixtures can be quantified via the solution-diffusion theory from experimental mixed-gas solubility and permeability coefficients. In this study, CO2-CH4 mixtures were sorbed at 35 °C in 4,4′-(hexafluoroisopropylidene)diphthalic dianhydride (6FDA)-m-phenylenediamine (mPDA)—a [...] Read more.
The nonideal behavior of polymeric membranes during separation of gas mixtures can be quantified via the solution-diffusion theory from experimental mixed-gas solubility and permeability coefficients. In this study, CO2-CH4 mixtures were sorbed at 35 °C in 4,4′-(hexafluoroisopropylidene)diphthalic dianhydride (6FDA)-m-phenylenediamine (mPDA)—a polyimide of remarkable performance. The existence of a linear trend for all data of mixed-gas CO2 versus CH4 solubility coefficients—regardless of mixture concentration—was observed for 6FDA-mPDA and other polymeric films; the slope of this trend was identified as the ratio of gas solubilities at infinite dilution. The CO2/CH4 mixed-gas solubility selectivity of 6FDA-mPDA and previously reported polymers was higher than the equimolar pure-gas value and increased with pressure from the infinite dilution value. The analysis of CO2-CH4 mixed-gas concentration-averaged effective diffusion coefficients of equimolar feeds showed that CO2 diffusivity was not affected by CH4. Our data indicate that the decrease of CO2/CH4 mixed-gas diffusion, and permeability selectivity from the pure-gas values, resulted from an increase in the methane diffusion coefficient in mixtures. This effect was the result of an alteration of the size sieving properties of 6FDA-mPDA as a consequence of CO2 presence in the 6FDA-mPDA film matrix. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Transport in Glassy Polymers)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Acidic Gases Separation from Gas Mixtures on the Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes Providing the Facilitated and Solution-Diffusion Transport Mechanisms
Membranes 2019, 9(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes9010009 - 05 Jan 2019
Cited by 8
Abstract
Nowadays, the imidazolium-based ionic liquids containing acetate counter-ions are attracting much attention as both highly selective absorbents of the acidic gases and CO2 carriers in the supported ionic liquid membranes. In this regard, the investigation of the gas transport properties of such [...] Read more.
Nowadays, the imidazolium-based ionic liquids containing acetate counter-ions are attracting much attention as both highly selective absorbents of the acidic gases and CO2 carriers in the supported ionic liquid membranes. In this regard, the investigation of the gas transport properties of such membranes may be appropriate for better understanding of various factors affecting the separation performance and the selection of the optimal operating conditions. In this work, we have tested CH4, CO2 and H2S permeability across the supported ionic liquid membranes impregnated by 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (bmim[OAc]) with the following determination of the ideal selectivity in order to compare the facilitated transport membrane performance with the supported ionic liquid membrane (SILM) that provides solution-diffusion mechanism, namely, containing 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (bmim[BF4]). Both SILMs have showed modest individual gases permeability and ideal selectivity of CO2/CH4 and H2S/CH4 separation that achieves values up to 15 and 32, respectively. The effect of the feed gas mixture composition on the permeability of acidic gases and permeselectivity of the gas pair was investigated. It turned out that the permeation behavior for the bmim[OAc]-based SILM toward the binary CO2/CH4, H2S/CH4 and ternary CO2/H2S/CH4 mixtures was featured with high acidic gases selectivity due to the relatively low methane penetration through the liquid phase saturated by acidic gases. Full article
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Modelling Mixed-Gas Sorption in Glassy Polymers for CO2 Removal: A Sensitivity Analysis of the Dual Mode Sorption Model
Membranes 2019, 9(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes9010008 - 04 Jan 2019
Cited by 10
Abstract
In an effort to reduce the experimental tests required to characterize the mixed-gas solubility and solubility-selectivity of materials for membrane separation processes, there is a need for reliable models which involve a minimum number of adjustable parameters. In this work, the ability of [...] Read more.
In an effort to reduce the experimental tests required to characterize the mixed-gas solubility and solubility-selectivity of materials for membrane separation processes, there is a need for reliable models which involve a minimum number of adjustable parameters. In this work, the ability of the Dual Mode Sorption (DMS) model to represent the sorption of CO2/CH4 mixtures in three high free volume glassy polymers, poly(trimethylsilyl propyne) (PTMSP), the first reported polymer of intrinsic microporosity (PIM-1) and tetrazole-modified PIM-1 (TZ-PIM), was tested. The sorption of gas mixtures in these materials suitable for CO2 separation has been characterized experimentally in previous works, which showed that these systems exhibit rather marked deviations from the ideal pure-gas behavior, especially due to competitive effects. The accuracy of the DMS model in representing the non-idealities that arise during mixed-gas sorption was assessed in a wide range of temperatures, pressures and compositions, by comparing with the experimental results available. Using the parameters obtained from the best fit of pure-gas sorption isotherms, the agreement between the mixed-gas calculations and the experimental data varied greatly in the different cases inspected, especially in the case of CH4 absorbed in mixed-gas conditions. A sensitivity analysis revealed that pure-gas data can be represented with the same accuracy by several different parameter sets, which, however, yield markedly different mixed-gas predictions, that, in some cases, agree with the experimental data only qualitatively. However, the multicomponent calculations with the DMS model yield more reliable results than the use of pure-gas data in the estimation of the solubility-selectivity of the material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Transport in Glassy Polymers)
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Review

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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceReview
Materials and Applications for Low-Cost Ceramic Membranes
Membranes 2019, 9(9), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes9090105 - 21 Aug 2019
Cited by 9
Abstract
In water treatment applications, the use of ceramic membranes is associated with numerous advantages relative to polymer-based filtration systems. High-temperature stability, fouling resistance, and low maintenance requirements contribute to lower lifecycle costs in such systems. However, the high production costs of most commercially [...] Read more.
In water treatment applications, the use of ceramic membranes is associated with numerous advantages relative to polymer-based filtration systems. High-temperature stability, fouling resistance, and low maintenance requirements contribute to lower lifecycle costs in such systems. However, the high production costs of most commercially available ceramic membranes, stemming from raw materials and processing, are uneconomical for such systems in most water treatment applications. For this reason, there is a growing demand for new ceramic membranes based on low-cost raw materials and processes. The use of unrefined mineral feedstocks, clays, cement, sands, and ash as the basis for the fabrication of ceramic membranes offers a promising pathway towards the obtainment of effective filtration systems that can be economically implemented in large volumes. The design of effective ceramic filtration membranes based on low-cost raw materials and energy-efficient processes requires a balance of pore structure, mass flow, and robustness, all of which are highly dependent on the composition of materials used, the inclusion of various pore-forming and binding additives, and the thermal treatments to which membranes are subjected. In this review, we present recent developments in materials and processes for the fabrication of low-cost membranes from unrefined raw materials, including clays, zeolites, apatite, waste products, including fly ash and rice husk ash, and cement. We examine multiple aspects of materials design and address the challenges relating to their further development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membranes for Water Filtration and Treatment )
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceReview
Composite Membranes for High Temperature PEM Fuel Cells and Electrolysers: A Critical Review
Membranes 2019, 9(7), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes9070083 - 11 Jul 2019
Cited by 12
Abstract
Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells and electrolysers offer efficient use and production of hydrogen for emission-free transport and sustainable energy systems. Perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) membranes like Nafion® and Aquivion® are the state-of-the-art PEMs, but there is a need to increase [...] Read more.
Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells and electrolysers offer efficient use and production of hydrogen for emission-free transport and sustainable energy systems. Perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) membranes like Nafion® and Aquivion® are the state-of-the-art PEMs, but there is a need to increase the operating temperature to improve mass transport, avoid catalyst poisoning and electrode flooding, increase efficiency, and reduce the cost and complexity of the system. However, PSFAs-based membranes exhibit lower mechanical and chemical stability, as well as proton conductivity at lower relative humidities and temperatures above 80 °C. One approach to sustain performance is to introduce inorganic fillers and improve water retention due to their hydrophilicity. Alternatively, polymers where protons are not conducted as hydrated H3O+ ions through liquid-like water channels as in the PSFAs, but as free protons (H+) via Brønsted acid sites on the polymer backbone, can be developed. Polybenzimidazole (PBI) and sulfonated polyetheretherketone (SPEEK) are such materials, but need considerable acid doping. Different composites are being investigated to solve some of the accompanying problems and reach sufficient conductivities. Herein, we critically discuss a few representative investigations of composite PEMs and evaluate their significance. Moreover, we present advances in introducing electronic conductivity in the polymer binder in the catalyst layers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane Materials for Next-Generation Fuel Cells)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceReview
Structures, Properties, and Performances—Relationships of Polymeric Membranes for Pervaporative Desalination
Membranes 2019, 9(5), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes9050058 - 01 May 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
For the fulfilment of increasing global demand and associated challenges related to the supply of clean-and-safe water, PV has been considered as one of the most attractive and promising areas in desalinating salty-water of varied salinities. In pervaporative desalination, the sustainability, endurance, and [...] Read more.
For the fulfilment of increasing global demand and associated challenges related to the supply of clean-and-safe water, PV has been considered as one of the most attractive and promising areas in desalinating salty-water of varied salinities. In pervaporative desalination, the sustainability, endurance, and structural features of membrane, along with operating parameters, play the dominant roles and impart paramount impact in governing the overall PV efficiency. Indeed, polymeric- and organic-membranes suffer from several drawbacks, including inferior structural stability and durability, whereas the fabrication of purely inorganic membranes is complicated and costly. Therefore, recent development on the high-performance and cost-friendly PV membrane is mostly concentrated on synthesizing composite- and NCP-membranes possessing the advantages of both organic- and inorganic-membranes. This review reflects the insights into the physicochemical properties and fabrication approaches of different classes of PV membranes, especially composite- and NCP-membranes. The mass transport mechanisms interrelated to the specialized structural features have been discussed. Additionally, the performance potential and application prospects of these membranes in a wide spectrum of desalination and wastewater treatment have been elaborated. Finally, the challenges and future perspectives have been identified in developing and scaling up different high-performance membranes suitable for broader commercial applications. Full article
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceReview
Models for Facilitated Transport Membranes: A Review
Membranes 2019, 9(2), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes9020026 - 02 Feb 2019
Cited by 10
Abstract
Facilitated transport membranes are particularly promising in different separations, as they are potentially able to overcome the trade-off behavior usually encountered in solution-diffusion membranes. The reaction activated transport is a process in which several mechanisms take place simultaneously, and requires a rigorous theoretical [...] Read more.
Facilitated transport membranes are particularly promising in different separations, as they are potentially able to overcome the trade-off behavior usually encountered in solution-diffusion membranes. The reaction activated transport is a process in which several mechanisms take place simultaneously, and requires a rigorous theoretical analysis, which unfortunately is often neglected in current studies more focused on material development. In this work, we selected and reviewed the main mathematical models introduced to describe mobile and fixed facilitated transport systems in steady state conditions, in order to provide the reader with an overview of the existing mathematical tools. An analytical solution to the mass transport problem cannot be achieved, even when considering simple reaction schemes such as that between oxygen (solute) and hemoglobin (carrier) ( A + C A C ), that was thoroughly studied by the first works dealing with this type of biological facilitated transport. Therefore, modeling studies provided approximate analytical solutions and comparison against experimental observations and exact numerical calculations. The derivation, the main assumptions, and approximations of such modeling approaches is briefly presented to assess their applicability, precision, and flexibility in describing and understanding mobile and fixed site carriers facilitated transport membranes. The goal is to establish which mathematical tools are more suitable to support and guide the development and design of new facilitated transport systems and materials. Among the models presented, in particular, those from Teramoto and from Morales-Cabrera et al. seem the more flexible and general ones for the mobile carrier case, while the formalization made by Noble and coauthors appears the most complete in the case of fixed site carrier membranes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Transport in Glassy Polymers)
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