Next Article in Journal
Analytical Calculation of Photovoltaic Systems Maximum Power Point (MPP) Based on the Operation Point
Previous Article in Journal
Survey on Modelling and Techniques for Friction Estimation in Automotive Brakes
Article Menu
Issue 9 (September) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(9), 872;

Modified Adversarial Hierarchical Task Network Planning in Real-Time Strategy Games

College of Information System and Management, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 July 2017 / Revised: 18 August 2017 / Accepted: 20 August 2017 / Published: 25 August 2017
Full-Text   |   PDF [3703 KB, uploaded 29 August 2017]   |  


The application of artificial intelligence (AI) to real-time strategy (RTS) games includes considerable challenges due to the very large state spaces and branching factors, limited decision times, and dynamic adversarial environments involved. To address these challenges, hierarchical task network (HTN) planning has been extended to develop a method denoted as adversarial HTN (AHTN), and this method has achieved favorable performance. However, the HTN description employed cannot express complex relationships among tasks and accommodate the impacts of the environment on tasks. Moreover, AHTN cannot address task failures during plan execution. Therefore, this paper proposes a modified AHTN planning algorithm with failed task repair functionality denoted as AHTN-R. The algorithm extends the HTN description by introducing three additional elements: essential task, phase, and exit condition. If any task fails during plan execution, the AHTN-R algorithm identifies and terminates all affected tasks according to the extended HTN description, and applies a novel task repair strategy based on a prioritized listing of alternative plans to maintain the validity of the previous plan. In the planning process, AHTN-R generates the priorities of alternative plans by sorting all nodes of the game search tree according to their primary features. Finally, empirical results are presented based on a µRTS game, and the performance of AHTN-R is compared to that of AHTN and to the performances of other state-of-the-art search algorithms developed for RTS games. View Full-Text
Keywords: HTN planning; real-time strategy game; task repair HTN planning; real-time strategy game; task repair

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Sun, L.; Jiao, P.; Xu, K.; Yin, Q.; Zha, Y. Modified Adversarial Hierarchical Task Network Planning in Real-Time Strategy Games. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 872.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Appl. Sci. EISSN 2076-3417 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top