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Environments, Volume 6, Issue 11 (November 2019)

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Open AccessArticle
Rainfall Variability across the Agro-Climatic Zones of a Tropical Highland: The Case of the Jema Watershed, Northwestern Ethiopia
Environments 2019, 6(11), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments6110118 - 12 Nov 2019
Abstract
The objective of the study was to analyze the variability of various climate indicators across the agro-climatic zones (ACZs) of the Jema watershed. The variability was analyzed considering mean annual rainfall (MARF, mm), mean daily minimum temperature (MDMinT, °C), and mean daily maximum [...] Read more.
The objective of the study was to analyze the variability of various climate indicators across the agro-climatic zones (ACZs) of the Jema watershed. The variability was analyzed considering mean annual rainfall (MARF, mm), mean daily minimum temperature (MDMinT, °C), and mean daily maximum temperature (MDMaxT, °C). A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed to test whether group mean differences exist in the values of the indicated climatic indicators among the ACZs of the watershed. The coefficient of variation was computed to analyze the degree of climate variability among the ACZs. Rainfall and temperature data sets from 1983 to 2017 were obtained from nearby meteorological stations. The effect of climate variability in the farming system was assessed with reference to local farmers’ experience. Ultimately, the values of the stated indicators of exposure to climate variability were indexed (standardized) in order to run arithmetic functions. The MARF decreases towards sub-alpine ACZs. Based on the result of the ANOVA, the two-tailed p-value (≤ 0.04) was less than 0.05; that is, there was a significant variation in MARF, MDMaxT (°C), and MDMinT (°C) among the ACZs. The coefficient of variation showed the presence of variations of 0.18–0.88 for MARF, 0.18 to 0.85 for MDMaxT, and 0.02–0.95 for MDMinT across the ACZs. In all of the indicators of exposure to climate variability, the lowest and highest indexed values of coefficient of variation were observed in the moist–cool and sub-alpine ACZs, respectively. Overall, the aggregate indexed values of exposure to various climate indicators ranged from 0.13–0.89 across the ACZs. The level of exposure to climate variability increased when moving from moist–cool to sub-alpine ACZs. The overall crop diversity declined across the ACZs of the watershed. Nevertheless, mainly because of the rise in temperature, the climate became suitable for cultivating maize and tef even at higher elevations. In order to adapt to the inter-annual variability of the rainy season, the process of adapting early-maturing crops and the use of improved seeds needs to be enhanced in the watershed, especially in the higher-elevation zones. It is also essential to revise traditional crop calendars and crop zones across the ACSz. Full article
Open AccessEditorial
Preface: New Solutions Mitigating Environmental Noise Pollution
Environments 2019, 6(11), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments6110117 - 06 Nov 2019
Abstract
The increasing attention of the public towards the effects of noise pollution on health pushed the EU to issue the Environmental Noise 49/2002/CE Directive [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Solutions Mitigating Environmental Noise Pollution)
Open AccessArticle
Groundwater Vulnerability and Risk Assessment in A Karst Aquifer of Greece Using EPIK Method
Environments 2019, 6(11), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments6110116 - 31 Oct 2019
Abstract
The aim of this study was the assessment of groundwater vulnerability and pollution risk of the Perivleptos karst aquifer in the northwestern part of Greece. Hence, the EPIK method has been applied within the study area. Additionally, a detailed literature overview has been [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was the assessment of groundwater vulnerability and pollution risk of the Perivleptos karst aquifer in the northwestern part of Greece. Hence, the EPIK method has been applied within the study area. Additionally, a detailed literature overview has been obtained, including the worldwide application of the EPIK method. The hazard map has been developed for the implementation of risk assessment. The resulting vulnerability map was divided into four classes and showed especially high to very high vulnerability. The subsequent hazard assessment has shown mostly low to moderate endangerment for the northern part of the study area, which is mainly covered by forest, while the areas covered by urban and industrial, as well as agricultural land, use primarily show high to very high endangerment. Concluding in the risk map, the study area consists of 13% of very high, 48% of high, 36% of moderate and 4% of low risk of contamination. According to the literature overview, the EPIK method was mostly used in combination with other vulnerability assessment methods, and results have been validated through tracer tests, sensitivity analysis or comparing to other methods. In this study, an additional single parameter sensitivity analysis was obtained for validation of the EPIK parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Quality and Groundwater Vulnerability Assessment)
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Open AccessEditorial
Uncertainty Propagation in Crop Adaptation Responses to Climate Change: A Modelling Perspective
Environments 2019, 6(11), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments6110115 - 28 Oct 2019
Abstract
The human population is exponentially increasing and is projected to reach or exceed 9 billion by 2050 [...] Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Development and Deployment of Green Technologies for Sustainable Environment
Environments 2019, 6(11), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments6110114 - 24 Oct 2019
Abstract
The definition of green technologies should be any process, product or service that reduces negative environmental impacts while protecting human health and ecosystem quality [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deployment of Green Technologies for Sustainable Environment)
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