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Open AccessArticle

Workers with Active Implantable Medical Devices Exposed to EMF: In Vitro Test for the Risk Assessment

Department of Cardiovascular, Endocrine-Metabolic Diseases and Aging, National Institute of Health, 00199 Rome, Italy
Physical Agents Sector, Regional Public Health Laboratory, 53100 Siena, Italy
National Institute for Insurance against Accidents at Work INAIL, Department of Medicine, Epidemiology, Workplace and Environmental Hygiene, 00078 Rome, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Environments 2019, 6(11), 119;
Received: 11 October 2019 / Revised: 7 November 2019 / Accepted: 11 November 2019 / Published: 15 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Agents: Measurement Methods, Modelling and Mitigations)
The occupational health and safety framework identifies workers with an active implantable medical device (AIMD), such as a pacemaker (PM) or an implantable defibrillator (ICD), as a particularly sensitive risk group that must be protected against the dangers caused by the interference of electromagnetic field (EMF). In this paper, we describe the results of in vitro testing/measurements performed according to the EN50527-2-1:2016 standard, for the risk assessment of employees with a PM exposed to three EMF sources: (1) An electrosurgical unit (ESU); (2) a transcranial stimulator (TMS); and (3) an arc welder. The ESU did not affect the PM behavior in any of the configurations tested. For the TMS and the arc welder, interference phenomena were observed in limited experimental configurations, corresponding to the maximum magnetic field coupling between the EMF source and the implant. The in vitro measurements presented can be considered an example of how the specific risk assessment for a worker with a PM can be performed, according to one of the methodologies proposed in the EN50527-2-1:2016, and can be used as scientific evidence and literature data for future risk assessments on the same EMF sources. View Full-Text
Keywords: occupational safety; electromagnetic field; pacemaker occupational safety; electromagnetic field; pacemaker
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Mattei, E.; Calcagnini, G.; Censi, F.; Pinto, I.; Bogi, A.; Falsaperla, R. Workers with Active Implantable Medical Devices Exposed to EMF: In Vitro Test for the Risk Assessment. Environments 2019, 6, 119.

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