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Behav. Sci., Volume 13, Issue 2 (February 2023) – 115 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Work engagement is a crucial aspect for organizations, as it is strongly linked to increased productivity and a positive work environment. This study, which is based on social identity theory and social exchange theory, aims to understand how social support and organizational identification affect employees’ engagement over time.
An analysis of data from 150 employees demonstrated that employees who receive social support from colleagues and supervisors are more engaged in their work. Moreover, employees who strongly identify with their organization are less critical of the social support received when determining their level of work engagement. Therefore, organizations  should invest in increasing identification, as well as building a high-quality social exchange relationship, especially when levels of organizational identification are low or decreasing. View this paper
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11 pages, 1056 KiB  
Article
Validation of the Perceived Phubbing Scale to the Argentine Context
by Edgardo Etchezahar, Marian Durao, Miguel Ángel Albalá Genol and Mariela Muller
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(2), 192; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13020192 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2076
Abstract
In recent years, the increased use of mobile devices has changed social dynamics. One such change is the rise of phubbing, described as the behavior of ignoring someone in order to pay attention to one’s cell phone. The purpose of this research was [...] Read more.
In recent years, the increased use of mobile devices has changed social dynamics. One such change is the rise of phubbing, described as the behavior of ignoring someone in order to pay attention to one’s cell phone. The purpose of this research was to validate the Perceived Phubbing Scale (PPS) and examine its relationship with other psychological variables. An Argentine sample was composed of 1608 participants aged between 18 and 65 (M = 45.59; SD 14.03), with 51.6% identifying as female. They were provided with a phubbing scale, along with scales to measure emotional disconnection, fear of missing out (FoMO) and social exclusion, and a sociodemographic questionnaire. The results indicated that the PPS showed an adequate fit to the data, based on a structure of one factor (X2 (20) = 259.353, p < 0.001; CFI = 0.958; IFI = 0.958; RMSEA = 0.089) and the internal consistency (α = 0.93), resulting in a nine-item scale. Participants with high or medium levels of phubbing showed a tendency to suffer FoMO or feel socially excluded or socially isolated. We did not find differences in the levels of phubbing related to the participant’s age, gender, or socioeconomic level. It is possible to conclude that PPS can be used as a reliable measure to evaluate perceived phubbing in Argentina. Implications of the variables studied are discussed as possible predictors of phubbing and are to be considered in its approach. Full article
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15 pages, 318 KiB  
Article
Students from a Public School in the South of Chile with Better Physical Fitness Markers Have Higher Performance in Executive Functions Tests—Cross-Sectional Study
by Jesús Alonso-Cabrera, Franco Salazar, Jorge Benavides-Ulloa, María Antonia Parra-Rizo, Rafael Zapata-Lamana, Caterin Diaz-Vargas, Jaime Vásquez-Gómez and Igor Cigarroa
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(2), 191; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13020191 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1151
Abstract
In the past few years, the level of physical fitness in children has decreased globally. According to the SIMCE test carried out in 2015, 45% of 8th year students in Chile were overweight. Moreover, international studies have shown that being overweight is associated [...] Read more.
In the past few years, the level of physical fitness in children has decreased globally. According to the SIMCE test carried out in 2015, 45% of 8th year students in Chile were overweight. Moreover, international studies have shown that being overweight is associated with the development of chronic illnesses, negatively affecting cognitive mechanisms and processes. Nevertheless, there is little to no evidence that analyzes the relationship between physical fitness and executive functions in students, at a national level. The aim was to analyze the relationship between cardiorespiratory, musculoskeletal, and motor fitness, and performance in an executive functions test, in students from a public school in the south of Chile. A qualitative, descriptive –correlational, non-experimental, and cross-sectional approach was used. In total, 100 students between 9 and 12 and 11 months of age from a public school in the south of Chile completed the physical fitness assessments through the ALPHA fitness test, and 81 students completed the executive function assessments through the ENFEN test. It was evidenced that students who achieved a longer duration of time and a later stage in the Course Navette test, more centimeters in the standing broad jump (SBJ) test, and a shorter duration in the 4 × 10 shuttle run obtained a better score in the gray trail test. Additionally, students who presented a stronger dominant handgrip scored higher in the colored trail tests. We conclude that students who show a higher level of physical fitness also present a better development of executive functions such as working memory and inhibitory control. In addition, these results suggest physical condition is a factor to consider for better cognitive and school performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Psychology)
16 pages, 543 KiB  
Article
The Relationships among Chinese University EFL Learners’ Feedback-Seeking Behavior, Achievement Goals, and Mindsets
by Yunmei Sun and Yuting Huang
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(2), 190; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13020190 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1813
Abstract
This study investigated the characteristics of feedback-seeking behavior and the underlying motivational antecedents including the mindsets and achievement goals of Chinese EFL learners. Questionnaire data were collected from 677 learners taking English classes at different levels in China for (1) their beliefs about [...] Read more.
This study investigated the characteristics of feedback-seeking behavior and the underlying motivational antecedents including the mindsets and achievement goals of Chinese EFL learners. Questionnaire data were collected from 677 learners taking English classes at different levels in China for (1) their beliefs about English learning (a fixed or growth mindset), (2) goal orientation in achievement-related situations (development or demonstration goals), and (3) FSB (whether to seek feedback, by what strategies, and from whom). Results indicated that Chinese EFL learners with a growth mindset or demonstration-approach goals proactively seek feedback through variant strategies (i.e., feedback direct inquiry, indirect inquiry, and monitoring) while those with development-approach goals or a fixed mindset seek feedback by monitoring only due to learners’ different perceptions of the cost and value attached to different strategies. Furthermore, a demonstration approach partially mediated the predictive role of a growth mindset on three FSBs, while the relationships between feedback monitoring and the two mindsets were partially or fully mediated by a development approach. Full article
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15 pages, 573 KiB  
Article
The Relationship between a Growth Mindset and Junior High School Students’ Meaning in Life: A Serial Mediation Model
by Hui Zhao, Ming Zhang, Yifei Li and Zhenzhen Wang
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(2), 189; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13020189 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3357
Abstract
A growth mindset is an individual’s belief that human intelligence can be changed through continuous practice and effort. The meaning in life signifies that individuals understand or see the meaning of their own life and are aware of their own goals and the [...] Read more.
A growth mindset is an individual’s belief that human intelligence can be changed through continuous practice and effort. The meaning in life signifies that individuals understand or see the meaning of their own life and are aware of their own goals and the values of their own life. Previous studies have shown that a growth mindset positively promotes individual emotional health and life happiness, but its relationship with meaning in life needs to be clarified. In this study, taking the self-determination theory and the broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions as a basis, we constructed a serial mediation effect model to test the mechanism of psychological capital and core self-evaluation in the relationship between a growth mindset and the meaning in life. A total of 565 students from Chinese junior middle schools participated in this study. The growth mindset, meaning in life, psychological capital, and core self-evaluation scales were used to collect the data for the study. The results indicated the following: (1) meaning in life was significantly predicted by growth mindset (β = 0.181, p < 0.001); (2) psychological capital and core self-evaluations played a mediating role in the influence of growth mindset on junior high school students’ meaning in life. The mediating role includes three mediating paths: the individual mediating effects of psychological capital, the individual mediating effects of core self-evaluations, the serial mediating effects of psychological capital and core self-evaluations. The results of this study confirm the benefits of a growth mindset, as well as the potential mechanism by which they impact meaning in life, which positively impacts junior high school students meaning in life. Full article
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15 pages, 895 KiB  
Article
Age-Related Associations of Altruism with Attitudes towards COVID-19 and Vaccination: A Representative Survey in the North of Italy
by Verena Barbieri, Christian J. Wiedermann, Stefano Lombardo, Barbara Plagg, Giuliano Piccoliori, Timon Gärtner and Adolf Engl
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(2), 188; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13020188 - 19 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1648
Abstract
Background: During the coronavirus pandemic, altruism has been linked to personal protective behavior, vaccine development, and vaccination intention. Studies of the moderating effects of age on altruism in pandemic preparedness have not yet been conducted. Methods: A representative cross-sectional survey of residents of [...] Read more.
Background: During the coronavirus pandemic, altruism has been linked to personal protective behavior, vaccine development, and vaccination intention. Studies of the moderating effects of age on altruism in pandemic preparedness have not yet been conducted. Methods: A representative cross-sectional survey of residents of South Tyrol, Italy, was conducted in March 2021. Among the participants, 1169 were aged 18–69 years, and 257 were aged ≥ 70 years. The questionnaire collected information on sociodemographic and individual characteristics, including comorbidities, COVID-19-related experiences, trust in information, the likelihood of accepting the national vaccination plan, and altruism. A linear regression analysis was performed. Results: Among 1426 participants, the median altruism sum score was 24 (interquartile range, 20–26). In the participant group aged ≥ 70 years, the median altruism score was significantly higher than that in the younger group. Participants living in a single household were significantly less altruistic than other participants, while participants working in the health sector, living in a household at risk from coronavirus disease 2019, or suffering from a chronic disease were found to be more altruistic. Altruism showed significant positive correlations with age and agreement with the national vaccination plan and was negatively correlated with well-being. Trust in institutions was positively correlated with altruism only in the younger age group but not in the elderly. Linear regression models confirmed female gender and identified trust in institutions as a positive predictor of altruism. In the younger age group, increased well-being and restricted individual sports activities were associated with reduced altruism, whereas support of compulsory self-isolation after contact with a SARS-CoV-2-positive person and handwashing as a personal protective measure were positively associated. Conclusion: Altruism is associated with various predictors of pandemic behavior and traits. The strengths of the identified positive and negative correlations support the modifying role of age in the effects of altruism on pandemic attitudes. Interventions that are likely to enhance altruism to improve pandemic preparedness in certain age groups require further study. Full article
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13 pages, 945 KiB  
Article
The Relationship between Exercise Re-Participation Intention Based on the Sports-Socialization Process: YouTube Sports Content Intervention
by Youngtaek Oh
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(2), 187; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13020187 - 18 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1700
Abstract
Few studies have used a quantitative research methodology to examine the socialization process model, and such studies were conducted to verify a new model by intervening in the variables of YouTube sports content. To understand this process, we tested the moderated mediating effect [...] Read more.
Few studies have used a quantitative research methodology to examine the socialization process model, and such studies were conducted to verify a new model by intervening in the variables of YouTube sports content. To understand this process, we tested the moderated mediating effect by intervening in YouTube sports content based on the sports socialization process model. We recruited 274 participants from the Jeju Residents’ Jeju Sports Festival, Korea. The PROCESS Macro program was performed to test the research hypotheses. The findings indicate that social support had a significant effect on re-participation intention. Social support had a significant mediation effect on exercise interruption intention, re-participation intention, and exercise performance satisfaction. Furthermore, through the relationship between social support and exercise interruption intention, YouTube sports content showed a significant interaction of re-participation intention in exercise. These results extend sports socialization theory by discovering a new model that explains the relationship between the sports socialization process and YouTube sports content. In addition, it will provide a basis for delivering educational information to the public so that they can recognize the importance of physical activity and exercise skills. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Health: Social Psychology Perspective)
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13 pages, 294 KiB  
Concept Paper
Untying the Text: Organizational Prosociality and Kindness
by Rona Hart and Dan Hart
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(2), 186; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13020186 - 18 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1974
Abstract
The scholarly field of organizational prosociality is experiencing a renewed interest, yet despite its long track record, researchers still disagree on the definitions of primary concepts. Two umbrella terms, prosocial behaviors and kindness, are particularly baffling, as they are defined similarly, at times [...] Read more.
The scholarly field of organizational prosociality is experiencing a renewed interest, yet despite its long track record, researchers still disagree on the definitions of primary concepts. Two umbrella terms, prosocial behaviors and kindness, are particularly baffling, as they are defined similarly, at times used synonymously, yet the differences between them are unclear. Consequently, the field suffers from conceptual ambiguity, which hampers its development. In this brief critical paper, we provide a review of the definitions of prosocial behavior and kindness, in an attempt to semantically untie the text, unpack the context, and discuss the subtext that underlies these concepts. Our analysis suggests that the two concepts overlap in their emphasis on dispositions and actions that aim to promote the welfare of others. However, acts of kindness and prosocial behaviors differ in actors, their target recipients and scale. Acts of kindness are performed by an individual and directed at a person or a small group, while prosocial behaviors can be performed by a person or an organization, and can be directed at a person or a group, but may also be directed at a much larger entity: an organization, community, nation, or society at large. Full article
12 pages, 854 KiB  
Article
Does Relationship-Contingent Self-Esteem Play a Role in the Stress to Impaired Control Pathway to Alcohol-Related Problems in a College Student Sample?
by Elena Kalina, Krystina Boyd-Frenkel, Julie A. Patock-Peckham, Lauren Schneidewent, Matthew L. Broussard and Robert F. Leeman
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(2), 185; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13020185 - 17 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1634
Abstract
The Appraisal-Disruption Model (ADM) suggests that individuals use alcohol as a means of dampening negative self-talk. Relationship-contingent self-esteem (RCSE) emerges from validating one’s self-esteem depending on one’s romantic relationship(s) and is known to predict alcohol-related problems. We hypothesized that RCSE indirectly predicts drinking [...] Read more.
The Appraisal-Disruption Model (ADM) suggests that individuals use alcohol as a means of dampening negative self-talk. Relationship-contingent self-esteem (RCSE) emerges from validating one’s self-esteem depending on one’s romantic relationship(s) and is known to predict alcohol-related problems. We hypothesized that RCSE indirectly predicts drinking outcomes through the mediating mechanism(s) of stress and impaired control over alcohol (IC; drinking to excess beyond one’s own intentions). We fit a multiple-group structural equation model with self-report survey data from 479 college students. We used a 20,000 bootstrap technique to examine possible mediated pathways. Consistent with evolutionary theory, our model was moderated by sex: more variance in alcohol-related problems was explained for women (R2 = 0.479) than for men (R2 = 0.280). RCSE was directly linked to more stress. Furthermore, higher levels of RCSE were indirectly linked to more IC through increased stress, and in turn, more heavy episodic drinking and alcohol-related problems for both men and women. Consistent with the ADM, those with higher levels of RCSE experienced more stress and, in turn, more IC and subsequent adverse alcohol outcomes. Thus, therapists targeting alcohol use disorders (AUDs) may wish to determine if their client’s self-esteem changes dramatically based on their moment-to-moment appraisal of their intimate relationships. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stress and Drinking)
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15 pages, 537 KiB  
Article
Factors Associated with Fertility Intention among Chinese Married Youth during the COVID-19 Pandemic
by Ruicheng Peng, Wei Mou and Peng Xu
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(2), 184; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13020184 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2288
Abstract
Using the childbearing survey data from Hubei Province in March 2022, this article empirically analyzed the status quo of fertility intention and its influencing factors among Chinese married youth during the COVID-19 pandemic. In our analysis, fertility intention was operationalized as the ideal [...] Read more.
Using the childbearing survey data from Hubei Province in March 2022, this article empirically analyzed the status quo of fertility intention and its influencing factors among Chinese married youth during the COVID-19 pandemic. In our analysis, fertility intention was operationalized as the ideal number of children and short-term fertility plan. Statistical results showed that the average ideal number of children stood at 1.652, which was lower than the population replacement level, whilst only 16.4% of married youth had a short-term fertility plan. By utilizing a binary logit regression model and the sheaf coefficient technique, we found that COVID-19-induced factors (i.e., change in the marital relationship during the epidemic, delayed pregnancy preparation due to vaccination) had a more stable effect on fertility intention, especially on short-term fertility planning. Parenting perception characteristics exerted a great impact on the ideal number of children but a relatively small impact on short-term fertility planning. Meanwhile, married youth with stable jobs and a high family income did not necessarily show stronger fertility intentions than those with fewer socioeconomic resources. In addition, the findings also reveal that the relative importance of fertility-influencing factors could vary at different fertile stages, which have valuable implications for population policy in Chinese contexts. Full article
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18 pages, 303 KiB  
Article
Interest and Confidence in Death Education and Palliative Psychology in Italian and Indian University Students of Psychology: Similarities and Differences
by Gianmarco Biancalani, Rekha Wagani, Lucia Ronconi, Matteo Cornacchini and Ines Testoni
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(2), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13020183 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1273
Abstract
Teaching death education and palliative psychology in universities has proven to be of great importance, especially in the health professions. The present study aims to evaluate the similarities and differences in interest and confidence in death education and palliative psychology between university psychology [...] Read more.
Teaching death education and palliative psychology in universities has proven to be of great importance, especially in the health professions. The present study aims to evaluate the similarities and differences in interest and confidence in death education and palliative psychology between university psychology students from two culturally different countries: Italy and India. For this study, 63 Italian and 35 Indian psychology students were recruited to take part in a course on death education and palliative psychology. The results showed the positive impact of a death education and palliative psychology course on the training of professionals. In particular, this course was useful in helping students become familiar with and learn how to manage future professional situations related to death and dying. Specific differences between the two countries also emerged, particularly with regard to their approach to the end-of-life field, due to different cultural contexts. There is still much to be done by institutions to improve the dissemination and academic teaching of this area, which in turn can promote job opportunities for young people and encourage them to work in this field. Full article
15 pages, 298 KiB  
Article
Death Education for Palliative Psychology: The Impact of a Death Education Course for Italian University Students
by Lucia Ronconi, Gianmarco Biancalani, Georgiana Alexandra Medesi, Hod Orkibi and Ines Testoni
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(2), 182; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13020182 - 16 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2697
Abstract
The present study investigated the effects of a hybrid online course on a group of Italian Master’s degree students involved in a European Erasmus+ project. The course was composed of nine modules about death education, palliative psychology and the use of creative arts [...] Read more.
The present study investigated the effects of a hybrid online course on a group of Italian Master’s degree students involved in a European Erasmus+ project. The course was composed of nine modules about death education, palliative psychology and the use of creative arts therapies—such as psychodrama, intermodal psychodrama and photovoice—in the end-of-life-field. The project involved 64 students in the experimental group (who attended the course) and 56 students as the control group. Both groups completed an online questionnaire before and after the delivery of the course and 10 students from the experimental group participated in a focus group at the end of the course. The quantitative analysis revealed that the experimental group students showed lesser levels of perception of death as annihilation, fear of the death and death avoidance, while they increased their levels of death acceptance, creative self-efficacy and attitude toward the care of the dying. Qualitative analysis identified three main themes: the positive impact of the course on death education and end-of-life care; the role of art therapies on death and end-of-life care; and the unhelpful facets of the course. Overall, this intervention changed the perception and the feelings of the students regarding the themes of death and palliative psychology and increased their creative self-efficacy and their interest in working in an end-of-life field. Full article
14 pages, 1140 KiB  
Article
Moral Judgments of Human vs. AI Agents in Moral Dilemmas
by Yuyan Zhang, Jiahua Wu, Feng Yu and Liying Xu
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(2), 181; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13020181 - 16 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3912
Abstract
Artificial intelligence has quickly integrated into human society and its moral decision-making has also begun to slowly seep into our lives. The significance of moral judgment research on artificial intelligence behavior is becoming increasingly prominent. The present research aims at examining how people [...] Read more.
Artificial intelligence has quickly integrated into human society and its moral decision-making has also begun to slowly seep into our lives. The significance of moral judgment research on artificial intelligence behavior is becoming increasingly prominent. The present research aims at examining how people make moral judgments about the behavior of artificial intelligence agents in a trolley dilemma where people are usually driven by controlled cognitive processes, and in a footbridge dilemma where people are usually driven by automatic emotional responses. Through three experiments (n = 626), we found that in the trolley dilemma (Experiment 1), the agent type rather than the actual action influenced people’s moral judgments. Specifically, participants rated AI agents’ behavior as more immoral and deserving of more blame than humans’ behavior. Conversely, in the footbridge dilemma (Experiment 2), the actual action rather than the agent type influenced people’s moral judgments. Specifically, participants rated action (a utilitarian act) as less moral and permissible and more morally wrong and blameworthy than inaction (a deontological act). A mixed-design experiment provided a pattern of results consistent with Experiment 1 and Experiment 2 (Experiment 3). This suggests that in different types of moral dilemmas, people adapt different modes of moral judgment to artificial intelligence, this may be explained by that when people make moral judgments in different types of moral dilemmas, they are engaging different processing systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Picturing Morality from Multidisciplinary Perspectives)
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17 pages, 2743 KiB  
Article
The Double-Sided Effect of Empowering Leadership on Constructive Voice Behavior: Focusing on the Mediating Effects of Task Significance and Task Overload
by Xueqin Tian and Heesun Chae
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(2), 180; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13020180 - 16 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2087
Abstract
Focusing on job characteristics, this study examined the double-sided effect of empowering leadership on constructive voice behavior. We obtained and analyzed a total of 294 questionnaire responses from pairs of subordinates and supervisors in various industries in Korea. The results supported our hypotheses [...] Read more.
Focusing on job characteristics, this study examined the double-sided effect of empowering leadership on constructive voice behavior. We obtained and analyzed a total of 294 questionnaire responses from pairs of subordinates and supervisors in various industries in Korea. The results supported our hypotheses that task significance and task overload partially mediate the relationship between empowering leadership and constructive voice behavior. Specifically, we found that empowering leadership can promote constructive voice behavior by inducing a recognition of task significance and can suppress constructive voice behavior by causing task overload. These results confirm that empowering leadership indirectly influences constructive voice behavior through job characteristics. These findings have important theoretical and practical implications and highlight directions for future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organizational Behaviors)
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11 pages, 639 KiB  
Article
Humor Coping Reduces the Positive Relationship between Avoidance Coping Strategies and Perceived Stress: A Moderation Analysis
by Luca Simione and Camilla Gnagnarella
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(2), 179; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13020179 - 16 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4544
Abstract
Humor is considered an adaptive coping strategy as it could reduce the burden of perceived stress and increase positive emotional states when dealing with stressful situations. Humor has been reported in several models as a rather independent strategy that can be correlated with [...] Read more.
Humor is considered an adaptive coping strategy as it could reduce the burden of perceived stress and increase positive emotional states when dealing with stressful situations. Humor has been reported in several models as a rather independent strategy that can be correlated with both approach-based coping strategies and avoidance-based coping strategies. Humor can be defined as a hedonistic escapism strategy that would work better in the presence of unpredictable or uncontrollable stressors, such as the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic and its related confinement measures. Therefore, during such a stressful event, humor would have increased the positive effect of the approach coping style on mental health and reduced the negative effect of the avoidance coping style. Based on this hypothesis, we conducted a cross-sectional study with a moderation analysis in which we assessed the interaction of humor with both approach-based and avoidance-based coping styles on perceived stress in a large sample of Italian participants collected in April and May 2021. Despite some limitations related to sampling and study design, the results obtained partially support our hypothesis, as we observed that humor had a significant moderating effect on the relationship between avoidance coping and psychological distress, with a reduction of perceived stress while using such a coping style in the presence of a medium to high level of humor. On the other hand, we did not observe a significant moderating effect of humor on the relationship between the approach coping style and perceived stress. In general, our results support the beneficial effect of humor on mental health and highlight a special role for humor as a moderator of other coping strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Positive Humor: New Insights and Perspectives)
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13 pages, 959 KiB  
Article
The Effect of the Motivational Climate on Satisfaction with Physical Education in Secondary School Education: Mediation of Teacher Strategies in Maintaining Discipline
by Clara Marina Bracho-Amador, Antonio Granero-Gallegos, Antonio Baena-Extremera and Ginés David López-García
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(2), 178; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13020178 - 15 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1607
Abstract
The objective of this study was to analyze the mediating role of strategies to maintain classroom discipline between the motivational climate generated by the teacher and the students’ satisfaction with physical education classes. The research design was observational, descriptive, cross-sectional, and non-randomized. In [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to analyze the mediating role of strategies to maintain classroom discipline between the motivational climate generated by the teacher and the students’ satisfaction with physical education classes. The research design was observational, descriptive, cross-sectional, and non-randomized. In total, 2147 secondary school physical education students participated (Mage = 15.05; SD = 1.45) (male = 1050; female = 1097). A structural equation model was calculated with latent variables controlled by the teacher’s sex and time of service and using the scales of the motivational climate, the teacher’s strategies for maintaining classroom discipline, and the students’ satisfaction with physical education classes. The results from the model highlight the importance of intrinsic strategies in maintaining discipline; these act as a mediator between the motivational climate towards learning and the students’ satisfaction with physical education classes. In addition, the findings reveal the influence of a performance-oriented climate in predicting boredom in a class when the teacher shows an indifference towards maintaining discipline. Full article
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19 pages, 1433 KiB  
Article
Internet Use and Better-Informed Divorce in China
by Jindian Liu, Ning Neil Yu, Mingwang Cheng and Chunyan Wu
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(2), 177; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13020177 - 15 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1731
Abstract
China has witnessed a rapid expansion in Internet penetration in recent years, with profound impacts on people’s family life and marital relationships. This paper aims to examine the causal effects and functionary of information access through Internet on marital stability. This paper identifies [...] Read more.
China has witnessed a rapid expansion in Internet penetration in recent years, with profound impacts on people’s family life and marital relationships. This paper aims to examine the causal effects and functionary of information access through Internet on marital stability. This paper identifies a robust association between Internet use and increasing divorce rates in China by using nationally representative, individual-level survey data and province-level aggregate data. Various regression techniques and specifications demonstrated the statistical and economic significance of the association. Given the ever-expanding role of the Internet and the serious consequences of divorce on families and society, it is imperative that we study the underlying mechanisms as the first step toward socially responsible policymaking. Our analysis revealed a significant mediating effect of the self-reported importance of Internet information acquisition, the frequency of chatting with online friends, the frequency of meeting with online friends, and the intensity of Internet use. These findings are consistent with the theory that the increase in divorce decisions is due to better information access and is, therefore, rational and that policies such as a mandatory cooling-off period for divorce may lower societal welfare. We also conducted a series of heterogeneity analyses that showed, among other findings, that the Internet effect is stronger for women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Psychology)
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15 pages, 1527 KiB  
Article
Negative Life Events and Procrastination among Adolescents: The Roles of Negative Emotions and Rumination, as Well as the Potential Gender Differences
by Lizhong Liu, Tianyi Zhang and Xiaochun Xie
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(2), 176; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13020176 - 15 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2858
Abstract
Procrastination (the intentional delay of action despite knowing that one will be worse off due to the delay) is a widespread phenomenon with various negative consequences, especially among adolescents. Based on relevant evidence, this study examined the relation between negative life events and [...] Read more.
Procrastination (the intentional delay of action despite knowing that one will be worse off due to the delay) is a widespread phenomenon with various negative consequences, especially among adolescents. Based on relevant evidence, this study examined the relation between negative life events and adolescents’ procrastination, as well as the underlying mechanisms—specifically, the effects of negative emotions and rumination, as well as the potential gender differences. A total of 780 adolescents (Mage = 12.92 years old; 52.2% females) were recruited to complete a set of questionnaires assessing negative life events, procrastination, depression-anxiety-stress symptoms and rumination. Results showed that negative life events were positively associated with procrastination, and negative emotions significantly mediated the relation; rumination played a moderating role in this mediation model, specifically, both the direct and indirect effects in this mediation model were stronger for adolescents with higher rumination. Besides this, gender differences in this moderated mediation model were also found—the indirect effect of negative emotions was stronger for girls, and this mediating effect could be moderated by rumination only for boys. These results expanded our understanding of how negative life events influence procrastination and when (or for whom) negative life events influence procrastination the most. The findings also have significant implications for the prevention and intervention of adolescents’ procrastination. Full article
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10 pages, 254 KiB  
Article
An Exploratory Study of Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication in Saudi Arabian Families
by Lowai G. Abed, Mohaned G. Abed and Todd K. Shackelford
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(2), 175; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13020175 - 15 Feb 2023
Viewed by 2736
Abstract
This exploratory study investigated whether factors such as gender, age, level of education, monthly income, and the number of family members are associated with verbal and non-verbal communication in Saudi Arabian families. A convenience sampling procedure was used to recruit 182 Saudi Arabian [...] Read more.
This exploratory study investigated whether factors such as gender, age, level of education, monthly income, and the number of family members are associated with verbal and non-verbal communication in Saudi Arabian families. A convenience sampling procedure was used to recruit 182 Saudi Arabian adults who responded to a self-report survey. Verbal and non-verbal communication was categorized into positive and negative communication. Descriptive and ordinal regression analyses were conducted to assess the relationships of familial variables with communication. Female gender status had a small negative association with positive communication, whereas the number of family members, level of education, monthly income, and age did not correlate with positive communication or negative communication. The Discussion section addresses the limitations of the current study and identifies several directions for future research, with special attention to the Saudi Arabian family context. Full article
11 pages, 266 KiB  
Article
Gestural Embodiment of Intensifiers in Iconic, Metaphoric, and Beat Gestures
by Omid Khatin-Zadeh, Danyal Farsani, Jiehui Hu, Zahra Eskandari and Hassan Banaruee
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(2), 174; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13020174 - 15 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1308
Abstract
This study aimed to examine the gestural embodiment of intensifiers in iconic and metaphoric gestures when these words are used with literal and metaphoric statements. We asked a group of Persian native speakers to listen to and then retell a set of Persian [...] Read more.
This study aimed to examine the gestural embodiment of intensifiers in iconic and metaphoric gestures when these words are used with literal and metaphoric statements. We asked a group of Persian native speakers to listen to and then retell a set of Persian stories. In these stories, a number of intensifiers were used with literal and metaphoric sentences. The results showed that when an intensifier was used with a literal sentence, there was a higher probability of using an iconic or beat gesture than when there was no intensifier in the sentence. Also, when an intensifier was used with a metaphoric sentence, there was a higher probability of using a metaphoric or beat gesture than when the sentence contained no intensifier. These results suggested that an intensifier in a literal or metaphoric sentence can strengthen the mental simulation and the embodiment of objects, ideas, or situations. When an intensifier is used with a literal or metaphoric sentence, the strength of activation in the premotor areas may be amplified and spread to motor areas. In contrast, when no such intensifier is used in a literal or metaphoric sentence, there is a higher probability of simulation in premotor areas without spreading to the primary motor areas. The production of an internal force and expressing emphasis are two other possibilities that may explain the higher use of gestures with intensifiers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cognition)
12 pages, 1341 KiB  
Article
Neuropsychological Evidence Underlying Counterclockwise Bias in Running: Electroencephalography and Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Studies of Motor Imagery
by Teri Kim, Jingu Kim and Sechang Kwon
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(2), 173; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13020173 - 15 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1389
Abstract
We aimed to answer the question “why do people run the track counterclockwise (CCW)?” by investigating the neurophysiological differences in clockwise (CW) versus CCW direction using motor imagery. Three experiments were conducted with healthy adults. Electroencephalography (EEG) was used to examine hemispheric asymmetries [...] Read more.
We aimed to answer the question “why do people run the track counterclockwise (CCW)?” by investigating the neurophysiological differences in clockwise (CW) versus CCW direction using motor imagery. Three experiments were conducted with healthy adults. Electroencephalography (EEG) was used to examine hemispheric asymmetries in the prefrontal, frontal, and central regions during CW and CCW running imagery (n = 40). We also evaluated event-related potential (ERP) N200 and P300 amplitudes and latencies (n = 66) and conducted another experiment using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) (n = 30). EEG data indicated greater left frontal cortical activation during CCW imagery, whereas right frontal activation was more dominant during CW imagery. The prefrontal and central asymmetries demonstrated greater left prefrontal activation during both CW and CCW imagery, with CCW rotation exhibiting higher, though statistically insignificant, asymmetry scores than CW rotation. As a result of the fMRI experiment, greater activation was found during CW than during CCW running imagery in the brain regions of the left insula, Brodmann area 18, right caudate nucleus, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, left superior parietal cortex, and supplementary motor area. In the ERP experiment, no significant differences were found depending on direction. These findings suggest that CCW rotation might be associated with the motivational approach system, behavioral activation, or positive affect. However, CW rotation reflects withdrawal motivation, behavioral inhibition, or negative affect. Furthermore, CW rotation is understood to be associated with neural inefficiency, increased task difficulty, or unfamiliarity. Full article
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19 pages, 1342 KiB  
Article
The Contagion of Unethical Behavior and Social Learning: An Experimental Study
by Yefeng Chen, Yiwen Pan, Haohan Cui and Xiaolan Yang
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(2), 172; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13020172 - 14 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1512
Abstract
Unethical behavior is discovered that is more contagious than ethical behavior. This article attempts to propose one of the possible underlying mechanisms—people may have underconfidence bias in information updating due to motivated reasoning, and such bias exhibits in a different direction compared to [...] Read more.
Unethical behavior is discovered that is more contagious than ethical behavior. This article attempts to propose one of the possible underlying mechanisms—people may have underconfidence bias in information updating due to motivated reasoning, and such bias exhibits in a different direction compared to the overconfident bias documented in the literature on ethical environment, which generate the asymmetric pattern in contagion. This study designs an experiment which relates the unethical behavior to social learning, where a series of subjects with private information about penalty decide sequentially whether to conduct unethical behavior publicly. This study adopts a quantal response equilibrium to construct a structural model for estimation of the bias. In total, 162 university students participated in our experiment and the results confirm the asymmetric patterns that people rely more on others’ precedent decisions rather than their private signal; therefore, the bias facilitates the contagion. This study also tests two punishment systems in the experiment and the results suggest a policy: slightly increasing penalties for the “followers” in the early stages would effectively suppress the contagion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Preferences in Economic Behavior)
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17 pages, 1052 KiB  
Article
Intention to Purchase Eco-Friendly Handcrafted Fashion Products for Gifting and Personal Use: A Comparison of National and Foreign Consumers
by Dindin Saepudin, Alireza Shabani Shojaei, Belem Barbosa and Isabel Pedrosa
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(2), 171; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13020171 - 14 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3679
Abstract
This study aims to examine consumer intention to purchase eco-friendly, handcrafted fashion products made from upcycled clothing and traditional Indonesian batik fabric. Data were collected via an online questionnaire with 289 participants, including both Indonesian and non-Indonesian consumers. The hypotheses were tested using [...] Read more.
This study aims to examine consumer intention to purchase eco-friendly, handcrafted fashion products made from upcycled clothing and traditional Indonesian batik fabric. Data were collected via an online questionnaire with 289 participants, including both Indonesian and non-Indonesian consumers. The hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling in SmartPLS 3. The results showed that fashion motivation and perceived value positively impacted the intention to purchase this type of product for personal use and for gifting. The perceived price had a positive effect on purchase intention for gifting. Altruistic motivations affected attitudes but not purchase intentions. Differences were identified between national and foreign consumers regarding the impact of price perception on attitudes and personal purchase intentions. The study provides practical implications for small businesses, artisan crafts, and entrepreneurs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consumption, Identity, Demographics and Self-Concept)
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13 pages, 692 KiB  
Review
Traumatised Children’s Perspectives on Their Lived Experience: A Review
by Wai Tong Chien and Chi Tung Lau
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(2), 170; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13020170 - 14 Feb 2023
Viewed by 5108
Abstract
Introduction: Most children have exposure of traumatic events during their life, such as natural disasters, accidents, and abuses. A review of traumatised children’s perspective on traumatic events plays an important role in enhancing our understanding and promoting appropriate tailor-made intervention and support to [...] Read more.
Introduction: Most children have exposure of traumatic events during their life, such as natural disasters, accidents, and abuses. A review of traumatised children’s perspective on traumatic events plays an important role in enhancing our understanding and promoting appropriate tailor-made intervention and support to these children. Methods: Four main health-related electronic databases were searched for all English full-text qualitative research articles over the past 11 years to uncover the recent best available perspective/evidence from traumatised children. The PRISMA checklist was adopted to guide the review process. Results: Five themes about children’s experiences and perspectives towards the traumatic events encountered were summarised and integrated from 19 qualitative studies identified. They included daily life problems related to trauma, negative responses to trauma, perceived health needs, coping strategies related to trauma and stress, and growth from traumatic experience. Conclusions: This systematic review provides evidence about responses/impacts and perceived health needs of traumatised children and informs the direction caregivers’ training can take, helping these children by early identification and timely intervention. More research is needed to examine/compare traumatised children’s responses and coping between diverse traumatic experiences, time from exposure, and the sociodemographic characteristics of these children. Full article
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14 pages, 1070 KiB  
Article
Individualism, Collectivism, and Allocation Behavior: Evidence from the Ultimatum Game and Dictator Game
by Jingjing Jiao and Jun Zhao
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(2), 169; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13020169 - 14 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2456
Abstract
Studies have demonstrated the influence of the cultural values of individualism and collectivism on individuals’ economic behavior (e.g., competition and trade). By using individualistic and collectivistic texts to prime participants’ minds in a lab experiment, we investigated the impact of the cultural values [...] Read more.
Studies have demonstrated the influence of the cultural values of individualism and collectivism on individuals’ economic behavior (e.g., competition and trade). By using individualistic and collectivistic texts to prime participants’ minds in a lab experiment, we investigated the impact of the cultural values of individualism and collectivism on allocation behavior in an ultimatum game (UG) and dictator game (DG). In the dictator game, we found that participants in the collectivism-priming condition reported a slightly higher mean offer than in the individualism-priming condition, and participants had an average higher acceptance rate of the proposers’ offer in the collectivism-priming (vs. individualism-priming) condition in the ultimatum game. Our findings suggest that participants exhibit more altruistic allocation behavior and are more tolerant of unfair allocation behavior after being primed by the collectivistic (vs. individualistic) texts. In comparison with participants who did not undergo initiation, we also found that Chinese participants who had been influenced by collectivist values for a long time remained unaffected after the initiation of collectivism, but shifted their allocation behavior (i.e., showed decreased altruistic allocation behavior and reduced tolerance of unfair allocation behavior) when individualism was primed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Behavioral Economics)
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20 pages, 1438 KiB  
Article
Flexible Work Arrangements and Employees’ Knowledge Sharing in Post-Pandemic Era: The Roles of Workplace Loneliness and Task Interdependence
by Jin Cheng, Xin Sun, Yana Zhong and Kunlin Li
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(2), 168; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13020168 - 14 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3354
Abstract
Flexible work arrangements (FWAs) have become prevalent working norms in the post-pandemic era, but are they beneficial to employees’ work? From the theoretical perspective of social exchange, previous studies have viewed FWAs as supportive practices that facilitate employees’ functional intrapersonal outcomes. However, little [...] Read more.
Flexible work arrangements (FWAs) have become prevalent working norms in the post-pandemic era, but are they beneficial to employees’ work? From the theoretical perspective of social exchange, previous studies have viewed FWAs as supportive practices that facilitate employees’ functional intrapersonal outcomes. However, little is known about the interpersonal effects of FWAs. Based on the affective events theory, this study aims to elucidate why and when FWAs are associated with employees’ knowledge sharing. A web-based survey of 314 respondents (Study 1) and a three-wave field research study of 343 employees (Study 2) provided valid questionnaires to examine the hypothesized theoretical relationships. Our findings reveal that employees who frequently adopt FWAs would produce a persistently negative affective experience—workplace loneliness—further discouraging their intentions to share knowledge with coworkers. The specific work-characteristic conditions in this relationship–task interdependence would mitigate the dysfunctional effect of FWAs on employees’ knowledge sharing via workplace loneliness. Our study advances the understanding of FWAs’ dysfunctional impacts on employees’ knowledge sharing from the theoretical perspective of affective reactions. Our findings remind managers to avoid the interpersonal pitfalls of FWAs by increasing task interdependence among employees. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organizational Behaviors)
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34 pages, 503 KiB  
Article
The Entrepreneur’s Multiple Identities Dynamic Interaction and Strategic Entrepreneurial Behavior: A Case Study Based on Grounded Theory
by Qing Yin and Gang Liu
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(2), 167; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13020167 - 14 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1746
Abstract
Family firms face many uncertainties in a dynamic entrepreneurial context. Previous studies have shown strategic entrepreneurship can help firms effectively cope with uncertainties. There are few studies on how family-firm entrepreneurs make strategic decisions and engage in strategic entrepreneurial behavior. This may prevent [...] Read more.
Family firms face many uncertainties in a dynamic entrepreneurial context. Previous studies have shown strategic entrepreneurship can help firms effectively cope with uncertainties. There are few studies on how family-firm entrepreneurs make strategic decisions and engage in strategic entrepreneurial behavior. This may prevent managers lacking the necessary action guidelines from effectively implementing entrepreneurial behavior. we aim to explore the micro-behavioral mechanisms of strategic entrepreneurship in family firms. A longitudinal single case study based on grounded theory was conducted to explore these issues. Results show that (i) the entrepreneur’s identity will constantly evolve to adapt to the entrepreneurial context during the life cycle of the corporation; (ii) entrepreneurs influence strategic entrepreneurial activities through the dynamic evolution and interaction of their identities; (iii) different entrepreneurial emotional states affect the strategic entrepreneurial behavior mechanisms. As a result, dynamic interactions between entrepreneurial identities have a significant impact on emotional states such as entrepreneurial well-being, which may significantly affect the implementation pattern of strategic entrepreneurial behaviors and the sustainable development of the firm. This paper provides a novel theoretical perspective on the path and behavioral choices of strategic entrepreneurship in firms, and also provides action guidelines and theoretical references for family business managers to implement strategic entrepreneurial behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organizational Behaviors)
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20 pages, 358 KiB  
Article
Subject Specific Mastery Motivation in Moldovan Middle School Students
by Marcela Calchei, Tun Zaw Oo and Krisztián Józsa
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(2), 166; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13020166 - 14 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1568
Abstract
Given the crucial role of mastery motivation in the cognitive development of children, the present study investigates subject-specific mastery motivation in the multilingual educational system of the Republic of Moldova. We applied cross-sectional data from fifth, seventh, and ninth graders studying either in [...] Read more.
Given the crucial role of mastery motivation in the cognitive development of children, the present study investigates subject-specific mastery motivation in the multilingual educational system of the Republic of Moldova. We applied cross-sectional data from fifth, seventh, and ninth graders studying either in the Romanian (n = 583) or Russian (n = 353) language using the Subject Specific Mastery Motivation Questionnaire (SSMMQ). To ensure the validity of the comparison of latent mean differences, the Romanian and Russian versions of SSMMQ were validated and measurement invariance of the constructs across language, grade, and gender was assessed. The full scalar invariance across grades and gender and the partial scalar invariance across language held. Thus, a comparison of latent mean differences across these three groups is plausible. The findings proved that there was no difference between the Romanian and Russian samples, but we found girls self-rated themselves significantly higher than boys in the Reading, Art, and Music mastery motivation scales. Results with respect to the comparison of latent mean differences between the grade levels demonstrated that the Reading mastery motivation of the Moldovan students stayed stable from fifth to ninth grades, whereas Art had a constant declining path. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Educational Psychology)
9 pages, 288 KiB  
Article
Boosting Student’s Motivation through Gamification in Physical Education
by Víctor Javier Sotos-Martínez, Juan Tortosa-Martínez, Salvador Baena-Morales and Alberto Ferriz-Valero
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(2), 165; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13020165 - 14 Feb 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2843
Abstract
Students are becoming less motivated towards current education. For this reason, teachers are investigating several innovative methodologies to learn how they affect student motivation, such as gamification. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of gamification on the motivation of [...] Read more.
Students are becoming less motivated towards current education. For this reason, teachers are investigating several innovative methodologies to learn how they affect student motivation, such as gamification. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of gamification on the motivation of elementary physical education students. A total of 72 elementary school students from two different Spanish elementary schools participated (38 boys and 34 girls), separated into a gamified group (n = 35) and a control group (n = 37). Ten gamification sessions were performed using a technological app called ClassDojo. The gamified proposal was based on both a PBL model and an MDA model. A questionnaire, “Motivation Questionnaire in Physical Education” (CMEF-EP) was used to measure the motivation of the students before and after the intervention. An increase was observed in all the variables for the gamified group: intrinsic motivation (p < 0.001), identified regulation (p < 0.001), introjected regulation (p = 0.001), and external regulation (p = 0.002), except for the amotivation (p = 0.120). No changes were observed in the control group. A significant interaction effect over time was seen only for intrinsic motivation for the gamified group versus the control group (F(1) = 5.263; p = 0.025; η2 = 0.070). The results show the efficacy of gamification to increase the motivation of elementary physical education students. However, it does not decrease amotivation. This will enable the subject to contribute to achieving the United Nations’ proposed Sustainable Development Goal 4, which is to ‘Improve Quality Education’. Full article
20 pages, 1223 KiB  
Article
An Examination of the Relationships between Psychological Resilience, Organizational Ostracism, and Burnout in K–12 Teachers through Structural Equation Modelling
by Hakan Polat, Turgut Karakose, Tuncay Yavuz Ozdemir, Tijen Tülübaş, Ramazan Yirci and Murat Demirkol
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(2), 164; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13020164 - 14 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2565
Abstract
Psychological resilience, burnout, and ostracism are significant variables that may affect teachers’ performance and well-being. While psychological resilience is the ability of individuals to cope with the challenges of life/work and could support teachers in performing their profession, burnout (i.e., high levels of [...] Read more.
Psychological resilience, burnout, and ostracism are significant variables that may affect teachers’ performance and well-being. While psychological resilience is the ability of individuals to cope with the challenges of life/work and could support teachers in performing their profession, burnout (i.e., high levels of emotional exhaustion and desensitization) and ostracism (i.e., being ignored by others in the workplace) could lead to serious negative outcomes for both teachers and the educational system. Despite their significance, studies addressing the relationships between these variables are rare. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the relationships between teachers’ psychological resilience, burnout, and organizational ostracism. The study used structural equation modeling (SEM) to test the hypothetical relationships between these variables. The participants were selected using a simple random sampling method among K–12 teachers working in Elazig, Turkey. The data were collected using Psychological Resilience Scale—Short Form, Organizational Ostracism Scale, and Burnout Syndrome Inventory—Short Form. Data obtained from 309 K–12 teachers were analyzed using path analysis. The findings showed that teachers’ psychological resilience was quite low, whilst they experienced high levels of burnout and organizational ostracism. The results also showed a negative relationship between their psychological resilience and organizational ostracism and burnout while determining a positive relationship between ostracism and burnout. Psychological resilience was determined to have a moderating role in the relationship between organizational ostracism and burnout. Implications were suggested for both research and practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Educational Psychology)
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14 pages, 1334 KiB  
Article
Examining the Impact of Pro-Environmental Factors on Sustainable Consumption Behavior and Pollution Control
by Sania Khan and George Thomas
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(2), 163; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13020163 - 14 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1932
Abstract
Saudi Arabia is one of the most oil-rich countries in the world, and oil production is the country’s primary source of income. The aspects of greenhouse gas emissions and the harm they cause to the environment and residents have been overlooked because of [...] Read more.
Saudi Arabia is one of the most oil-rich countries in the world, and oil production is the country’s primary source of income. The aspects of greenhouse gas emissions and the harm they cause to the environment and residents have been overlooked because of the continuous emphasis on economic growth and a high reliance on oil resources. Consequently, environmental issues have become challenging for residents and questionable for industries. Despite various environmental awareness and pollution control studies around the world, Saudi Arabia’s pollution rate appears to be increasing. This study attempted to understand the impact of pro-environmental factors on pollution control and sustainable gasoline consumption in order to fill a research gap in the literature. Environmental awareness, self-efficacy and self-identity, ecological attitude, contextual factors, and social norms were considered as factors to investigate local residents’ sustainable consumption and pollution control behaviors. Primary data were collected from 416 local residents and analyzed using multiple regression. The results demonstrate the positive significant impact of pro-environmental variables on sustainable consumption and efforts toward pollution control. This study further presents practical implications for the Saudi government and environmentalists. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Psychology)
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