Topic Editors

Department of Health and Kinesiology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA
School of Public Health, University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557, USA

Socio-Environmental Determinants of the Disparities in Health Behaviors among Minority Youth

Abstract submission deadline
closed (30 November 2023)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (29 February 2024)
Viewed by
51950

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

The pediatric populations who tend to have poorer health behaviors and a higher level of risk-taking behaviors are racial and ethnic minority youth and youth of a sexual minority or with a trans or non-binary gender identity. These populations also face frequent real or perceived discrimination. Real or perceived discrimination and stigma can preclude access to activities that facilitate health behaviors. Barriers to activities that facilitate health behaviors can include lack of awareness, exclusion, limited availability, and fear of social judgement, amongst others. Facets of both the physical and social environment play a vital role in health behavior engagement. Previous work has shown lower levels of physical activity and sports participation, poor diet, and an inadequate quantity and quality of sleep among minority youth. Minority youth also tend to participate less in organized activities and have a higher prevalence of risk-taking behaviors. However, the major physical and social environmental determinants in the disparities in health behaviors among various pediatric populations worldwide are unclear. This Topic will place emphasis on both observational and experimental studies focusing on the socio-environmental determinants of individual or clustered health behavior disparities within a variety of global pediatric populations.

Dr. Ryan D. Burns
Dr. You Fu
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • adolescents
  • children
  • diet
  • environment
  • physical activity
  • sedentary behavior
  • sleep

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Adolescents
adolescents
- - 2021 37.2 Days CHF 1000
Children
children
2.4 2.0 2014 13.8 Days CHF 2400
Healthcare
healthcare
2.8 2.7 2013 19.5 Days CHF 2700
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
ijerph
- 5.4 2004 29.6 Days CHF 2500
Journal of Clinical Medicine
jcm
3.9 5.4 2012 17.9 Days CHF 2600
Nutrients
nutrients
5.9 9.0 2009 14.5 Days CHF 2900
Behavioral Sciences
behavsci
2.6 3.0 2011 21.5 Days CHF 2200
Social Sciences
socsci
1.7 3.2 2012 27.7 Days CHF 1800

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Published Papers (24 papers)

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17 pages, 318 KiB  
Review
Suicidality and Non-Suicidal Self-Injury: A Narrative Review of Measurement, Risk, and Disparities among Minoritized and System-Involved Youth in the USA
by Melissa L. Villodas
Children 2024, 11(4), 466; https://doi.org/10.3390/children11040466 - 14 Apr 2024
Viewed by 773
Abstract
Suicidality and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) among youth in the United States continue to be a growing and serious public health concern. With alarming rates of suicide trending in the wrong direction, researchers are committed to bending the curve of suicide and reducing rates [...] Read more.
Suicidality and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) among youth in the United States continue to be a growing and serious public health concern. With alarming rates of suicide trending in the wrong direction, researchers are committed to bending the curve of suicide and reducing rates by 2025. Understanding the antecedents and conditions, existing measures, and disparate prevalence rates across minoritized groups is imperative for developing effective strategies for meeting this goal. This study presents a narrative review of the operationalization, measurement, risk factors (e.g., firearms and social media), and disparities across race, ethnicity, age, gender identity, ability, sexual orientation, immigration statuses, and system involvement (e.g., foster care and juvenile justice) of suicidality and non-suicidal self-harm across youth in the United States. Implications for research, practice, and policy approaches that incorporate positive youth development, cultural, and youth participation in interventions are discussed. Full article
18 pages, 1071 KiB  
Article
Health Providers’ Response to Female Adolescent Survivors of Sexual and Gender-Based Violence and Demand Side Barriers in the Utilization of Support Services in Urban Low-Income Communities of Nigeria
by Olutoyin Opeyemi Ikuteyijo, Andrea Kaiser-Grolimund, Michael D. Fetters, Akanni Ibukun Akinyemi and Sonja Merten
Healthcare 2023, 11(19), 2627; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11192627 - 26 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1098
Abstract
Survivors of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) are often hindered in their quest to access quality healthcare. This has a significant effect towards the achievement of Sustainable Development Goal SDG Target 3.7. to ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive healthcare services. This [...] Read more.
Survivors of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) are often hindered in their quest to access quality healthcare. This has a significant effect towards the achievement of Sustainable Development Goal SDG Target 3.7. to ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive healthcare services. This study is focused on identifying some of the demand side barriers in accessing health care services, particularly among young girls who are survivors of SGBV within intimate relationships in poor urban areas in Nigeria. The study used an ethnographic approach to solicit information from health providers, adolescents, and young women (AYW) in 10 low-income communities in two major cities in Nigeria, Ibadan and Lagos. Findings showed that there are structural limitations within the primary health care (PHC) system that posed a great challenge for survivors of SGBV to access services. Some of these include non-existing counseling services, a lack of rehabilitation centers, poor referral, and a lack of training for health providers in handling survivors of SGBV. There is also a lack of skills among health service providers that have negative influence on support services to survivors of SGBV. On the demand side, poor knowledge of possible health seeking pathways, a lack of education, and social support are barriers to accessing appropriate services among adolescent and young SGBV survivors. The study concluded that integrated services at the PHC level should include adequate and timely treatment for survivors of SGBV and targeted intervention to upscale skills and knowledge of health care providers. Full article
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20 pages, 429 KiB  
Article
Community Solutions to Increase the Healthfulness of Grocery Stores: Perspectives of Immigrant Parents
by Hadis Dastgerdizad, Rachael D. Dombrowski, Bree Bode, Kathryn A. G. Knoff, Noel Kulik, James Mallare, Ravneet Kaur and Heather Dillaway
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(15), 6536; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20156536 - 7 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1593
Abstract
Grocery store environments are recognized as one of the most crucial community settings for developing and maintaining healthy nutritional behaviors in children. This is especially true for disadvantaged ethnic minority families, such as immigrants, who reside in the Detroit Metropolitan area and have [...] Read more.
Grocery store environments are recognized as one of the most crucial community settings for developing and maintaining healthy nutritional behaviors in children. This is especially true for disadvantaged ethnic minority families, such as immigrants, who reside in the Detroit Metropolitan area and have historically experienced inequities that result in poor health outcomes. Rates of obesity and type II diabetes have affected Detroit 38% more than the rest of the state and nationwide. In 2019, almost 54% of children aged 0–17 in Metro Detroit lived in poverty, and 21.6% experienced food insecurity, compared with the state level of 14.2%. Moreover, nearly 50% of ethnic minority children in Metro Detroit consume sports drinks, and 70% consume soda or pop in an average week. The primary purpose of this study was to explore immigrant parents’ perspectives on (1) how in-store Sugar-Sweetened Beverage (SSB) marketing impacts the purchasing behaviors of parents and the eating behaviors of toddlers, and the secondary objective was to (2) determine strategies to reduce SSB purchases and consumption within grocery environments from the viewpoints of immigrant parents. A qualitative multiple-case study design was used to achieve the aims of this study. Semi-structured individual interviews were completed with 18 immigrant parents of children aged 2 to 5 years old who were consumers in 30 independently owned full-service grocery stores within the immigrant enclaves of Detroit, Dearborn, Hamtramck, and Warren, Michigan. Three key thematic categories emerged from the parents’ narratives. These themes were: (1) non-supportive grocery store environments; (2) acculturation to the American food environment; and (3) strategies to support reduced SSB consumption among young immigrant children. The findings of this study revealed widespread SSB marketing targeting toddlers within the participating independently owned grocery stores. Even if families with young children practiced healthy nutritional behaviors, the prices, placements, and promotion of SSBs were challenges to establishing and sustaining these healthy eating habits. The parents believed that planning and implementing retail-based strategies in collaboration with families and considering families’ actual demands would assist in managing children’s eating patterns and reducing early childhood obesity. Full article
13 pages, 298 KiB  
Article
Determinants of Fertility Intentions of the Women in Bosnia and Herzegovina—An Example from the Semberija Region
by Rada Golub, Andjelija Ivkov-Dzigurski and Vlado Simeunović
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 417; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13050417 - 15 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1700
Abstract
The aim of this paper was to analyze the socio-demographic determinants of fertility in Bosnia and Herzegovina that affect the number of live births in Semberija. The paper focuses on work and educational statuses, economic crisis and unemployment, and other relevant factors that [...] Read more.
The aim of this paper was to analyze the socio-demographic determinants of fertility in Bosnia and Herzegovina that affect the number of live births in Semberija. The paper focuses on work and educational statuses, economic crisis and unemployment, and other relevant factors that affect desired family sizes and lead to negative demographic trends. The relevant data were collected through a survey questionnaire filled by a verified sample of 1000 women in their reproductive period (aged 15–49). In order to evaluate the role of each research variable in predicting fertility intentions, the arithmetic mean, frequency of responses in percentage, Pearson’s coefficient, and a logistic regression model were used to explore the related factors of fertility behaviors among women in this population. The results showed that employment status, poor housing conditions, and financial support from the state statistically significantly impact future birth trends. Those socio-demographic factors affect desired family sizes and have proven essential to future fertile behavior. Full article
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16 pages, 3310 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of a Childhood Obesity Program Serving a High-Need Population in Brooklyn, New York Using Survival Analysis
by Alecia James, Aimee Afable, Nagla Bayoumi and Sarita Dhuper
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(9), 5723; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20095723 - 4 May 2023
Viewed by 1615
Abstract
In this study, we used survival analysis to evaluate whether contact hours intensity was associated with a reduction in time to improvement of various BMI metrics over a 5-year follow-up period at the Live Light Live Right pediatric obesity program in Brooklyn, New [...] Read more.
In this study, we used survival analysis to evaluate whether contact hours intensity was associated with a reduction in time to improvement of various BMI metrics over a 5-year follow-up period at the Live Light Live Right pediatric obesity program in Brooklyn, New York. This was a single-center retrospective longitudinal study of 406 patients during 2010–2016. Participants were categorized based on hours of exposure to Live Light Live Right’s interventions; high contact hours (50 h) vs. low contact hours (<50 h). At baseline, 88% of patients in the high contact hour group had severe obesity and the mean age for this group was 10.0 ± 2.66. High contact hours were independently associated with a shorter time to BMI improvement in the sample. There was also a significant association between high contact hours and a longer duration in the improved state. Survival analysis was successful in evaluating the efficacy of the Live Light Live Right Program and demonstrated a positive association between greater intervention intensity and a healthier metabolic profile. Patients’ active engagement in a robust treatment model exemplified by Live Light Live Right is recommended to address the childhood obesity crisis in central Brooklyn. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Socio-Environmental Determinants of the Disparities in Health Behaviors among Minority Youth)
(This article belongs to the Section Children's Health)
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15 pages, 537 KiB  
Article
Factors Associated with Fertility Intention among Chinese Married Youth during the COVID-19 Pandemic
by Ruicheng Peng, Wei Mou and Peng Xu
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(2), 184; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13020184 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2439
Abstract
Using the childbearing survey data from Hubei Province in March 2022, this article empirically analyzed the status quo of fertility intention and its influencing factors among Chinese married youth during the COVID-19 pandemic. In our analysis, fertility intention was operationalized as the ideal [...] Read more.
Using the childbearing survey data from Hubei Province in March 2022, this article empirically analyzed the status quo of fertility intention and its influencing factors among Chinese married youth during the COVID-19 pandemic. In our analysis, fertility intention was operationalized as the ideal number of children and short-term fertility plan. Statistical results showed that the average ideal number of children stood at 1.652, which was lower than the population replacement level, whilst only 16.4% of married youth had a short-term fertility plan. By utilizing a binary logit regression model and the sheaf coefficient technique, we found that COVID-19-induced factors (i.e., change in the marital relationship during the epidemic, delayed pregnancy preparation due to vaccination) had a more stable effect on fertility intention, especially on short-term fertility planning. Parenting perception characteristics exerted a great impact on the ideal number of children but a relatively small impact on short-term fertility planning. Meanwhile, married youth with stable jobs and a high family income did not necessarily show stronger fertility intentions than those with fewer socioeconomic resources. In addition, the findings also reveal that the relative importance of fertility-influencing factors could vary at different fertile stages, which have valuable implications for population policy in Chinese contexts. Full article
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10 pages, 243 KiB  
Article
Association between School Achievement and Tobacco Susceptibility among US Adolescents: Ethnic Differences
by Edward Adinkrah, Babak Najand, Angela Young-Brinn and Samrand Salimi
Children 2023, 10(2), 327; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10020327 - 9 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1792
Abstract
Background: Although risky behaviors such as educational problems and tobacco use tend to co-occur, these associations may vary across diverse ethnic groups, in part because ethnic minorities tend to reside in worse neighborhoods and tend to attend worse schools than Non-Latino White adolescents. [...] Read more.
Background: Although risky behaviors such as educational problems and tobacco use tend to co-occur, these associations may vary across diverse ethnic groups, in part because ethnic minorities tend to reside in worse neighborhoods and tend to attend worse schools than Non-Latino White adolescents. Aim: To compare the association between baseline school achievement (student grades) and subsequent tobacco use susceptibility (openness to smoke in future) by ethnicity, we compared African American, Latino, and Non-Latino White adolescents in the US over a four-year period. Methods: This longitudinal study followed 3636 adolescents who were never smokers at baseline for a period of four years. Baseline and four-year data of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) study were used for this analysis. All participants were 12 to 17 years old at baseline and were either Non-Latino White (Majority), African American (Minority), or Latino (Minority). The outcome was a tobacco use susceptibility score at wave 4 which was defined as openness to use tobacco in the future, measured at year four. The predictor was school achievement at wave 1, measured as grades from F to A+. The moderator was ethnicity (African American, Latino, Non-Latino White), and covariates were age, gender, parental education, and family structure. Results: Our linear regressions in the pooled sample showed an inverse association between baseline school achievement and subsequent tobacco use susceptibility four years later. However, this inverse association was weaker for ethnic minorities than for Non-Latino White adolescents, as documented by interaction effects between ethnic minority status and baseline school grades. Conclusion: Higher educational success better correlates with lower tobacco use susceptibility of non-Latino White than African American and Latino adolescents, which may reflect some tobacco use susceptibility of Latino and African American adolescents with highly educated parents. Future research should investigate how social context such as high-risk school environment, neighborhood risk, peer risk, and other mechanisms increase behavioral risk of educationally successful African American and Latino adolescents. Full article
6 pages, 246 KiB  
Commentary
Calling on All Child and Family Practitioners to Help Mitigate the Impacts of the Poor Behavioural Health of Children with Psychiatric Illness
by Michèle Preyde, Shrenik Parekh, Nicole Karki-Niejadlik, Lynn Vanderbrug, Graham Ashbourne, Karen MacLeod and John Heintzman
Adolescents 2022, 2(4), 508-513; https://doi.org/10.3390/adolescents2040040 - 16 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1781
Abstract
Adolescents and children (aged 6 to 17+ years) admitted to inpatient psychiatry or intensive out-of-home mental health programs (formerly called residential mental health treatment centres) are among those with the most severe psychiatric illnesses. Moreover, these children also have very poor behavioural and [...] Read more.
Adolescents and children (aged 6 to 17+ years) admitted to inpatient psychiatry or intensive out-of-home mental health programs (formerly called residential mental health treatment centres) are among those with the most severe psychiatric illnesses. Moreover, these children also have very poor behavioural and biopsychosocial health including sleep deprivation, difficult relationships, problematic use of electronic devices, academic difficulty, poor school engagement, insufficient exercise and poor diets; all of these were noted before the pandemic. The pandemic has only increased the social isolation, poor health behaviours and mental health challenges for many children and adolescents. The poor behavioural and psychosocial health of those in their youth with psychiatric illnesses can exacerbate symptoms and can interfere with academic performance, development and good decision making; these biopsychosocial health behaviours are modifiable. All child and family practitioners including pediatricians, family physicians, nurses, social workers, psychologists and psychotherapists have an important role in fostering the behavioural and biopsychosocial health (i.e., sleep, positive relationships, electronic device use, exercise and diet) of all family members and especially children with psychiatric illness. Enacting biopsychosocial lifestyle interventions before or during childhood and adolescence may reduce the burden of mental illness. Full article
10 pages, 261 KiB  
Article
Opinions of Prospective Dentists and Prospective Teachers on Antibiotic Use
by Seyda Gul and Pinar Gul
Healthcare 2022, 10(12), 2527; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10122527 - 14 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1218
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to examine the opinions of prospective dentists and prospective teachers on antibiotic use. In this study, a survey method based on a quantitative research paradigm was utilized. A 19-item instrument was applied to the sample group including [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to examine the opinions of prospective dentists and prospective teachers on antibiotic use. In this study, a survey method based on a quantitative research paradigm was utilized. A 19-item instrument was applied to the sample group including 414 university students attending to the Faculty of Dentistry and Faculty of Education. The instrument was composed of three main subscales in addition to demographic characteristics. The first part focused on attitudes, the second part focused on subjective norms, and the third part focused on the prospective dentists and prospective teachers’ intentions regarding the phenomenon of antibiotics use. While the dependent variables of the study were the participants’ levels of agreement in the subscales of the instrument, the independent variable was faculty studied. The data were analyzed through descriptive statistics, and the Mann–Whitney U test was used to compare the participants’ views on antibiotic use. The findings in terms of the faculties showed that dentistry and education faculties in our country prepare well in expanding their reasonable consumption of antibiotics. Yet, antibiotics are used more incorrectly by some prospective teachers than by prospective dentists. According to the findings in terms of subscales, the participants have positive attitudes toward the reasonable use of antibiotics in terms of the attitude subscale. However, the results from the subjective norm indicated that participants are influenced by their environment in their antibiotic use. Finally, the results from the intention indicated that participants avoid using antibiotics irregularly or frequently. Full article
10 pages, 604 KiB  
Article
Parental Perceived Discrimination and Youth Participation in Out-Of-School Sports
by Ryan D. Burns and You Fu
Children 2022, 9(12), 1808; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9121808 - 24 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1695
Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the associations between perceived parental discrimination and youth participation in out-of-school sports. We analyzed a representative sample of US children and adolescents from the 2020 National Survey of Children’s Health (N = 30,656; 6–17 [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to determine the associations between perceived parental discrimination and youth participation in out-of-school sports. We analyzed a representative sample of US children and adolescents from the 2020 National Survey of Children’s Health (N = 30,656; 6–17 years old; 49.0% female). The dependent variable was a (No/Yes) response item asking parents about their child’s participation in out-of-school sports. Two binary response items asked parents if they perceived that their child was ever treated or judged unfairly because of their race/ethnicity and because of their sexual orientation/gender identity. Weighted multiple logistic regressions examined correlations between the discrimination variables and out-of-school sports controlling for demographics covariates including family income. After covariate adjustment, perceived parental discrimination because of race/ethnicity associated with 1.57 times higher odds of child participation in sports (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 1.57, 95%CI: 1.17–2.03, p = 0.002). Conversely, discrimination because of sexual orientation/gender identity correlated with 57% lower odds of child participation in sports (AOR (Adjusted Odds Ratio) = 0.43, 95%CI: 0.27–0.69, p < 0.001). After family income and other covariates were considered, perceived discrimination by parents because of their child’s race/ethnicity associated with higher probability of sports participation. Perceived discrimination by parents because of their child’s sexual orientation/gender identity associated with a lower probability of participating in sports. Full article
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13 pages, 267 KiB  
Article
Primary Healthcare Nurse’s Barriers and Facilitators to Providing Sexual and Reproductive Healthcare Services of LGBTQI Individuals: A Qualitative Study
by Raikane James Seretlo and Mathildah Mpata Mokgatle
Healthcare 2022, 10(11), 2208; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10112208 - 3 Nov 2022
Viewed by 2242
Abstract
In most cases, we only hear Lesbians, Gays, Bisexuals, Transgender, Queer, and Intersex (LGBTQI) patients complaining about nurses being the reason for not accessing and utilizing healthcare services; for example, studies reports on the different attitudes of healthcare providers including nurses against LGBTQI [...] Read more.
In most cases, we only hear Lesbians, Gays, Bisexuals, Transgender, Queer, and Intersex (LGBTQI) patients complaining about nurses being the reason for not accessing and utilizing healthcare services; for example, studies reports on the different attitudes of healthcare providers including nurses against LGBTQI patients. However, factors influencing the behavior of South African Primary Healthcare (PHC) Nurses toward LGBTQI patients are rarely reported. The study aimed to explore how PHC nurses experienced and perceived sexual and reproductive health services for LGBTQI individuals in Tshwane, Gauteng Province, South Africa. The study followed qualitative research using an exploratory design approach. The sample included 27 PHC nurses from Tshwane, Gauteng Province, South Africa. In-depth face-to-face interviews were coded and analyzed using Thematic Content Analysis (TCA) which included five interrelated steps. The results revealed three main themes: barriers to the provision of LGBTQI-related SRHS, facilitators for the provision of SRHS to LGBTQI individuals, and strategies to improve LGBTQI individuals’ SRHS accessibility and availability. Common barriers were related to the institutions, PHC nurses, the general public, and LGBTQI patients themselves. Regardless of the challenges faced by PHC nurses, there were some enabling factors that pushed them to continue rendering SHRS to LGBTQI patients who came to their clinics. Almost all PHC nurses suggested the importance of awareness, transparency, collaboration, and the need for training related to LGBTQI healthcare issues. Full article
14 pages, 918 KiB  
Article
Promoting Effective Self-Management of the Gluten-Free Diet: Children’s and Adolescents’ Self-Generated Do’s and Don’ts
by Sonya Meyer
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(21), 14051; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192114051 - 28 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2045
Abstract
Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic health condition treated by managing a lifelong, strict, and demanding gluten-free diet. Managing the diet entails effective use of self-management skills. This study aimed to explore self-generated procedures children and adolescents with CD in Israel perform when [...] Read more.
Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic health condition treated by managing a lifelong, strict, and demanding gluten-free diet. Managing the diet entails effective use of self-management skills. This study aimed to explore self-generated procedures children and adolescents with CD in Israel perform when participating in food-related activities considering their self-management skills and health requirements. Participants included children and adolescents with CD, aged 8 to 18 years, that had been diagnosed more than 6 months prior to the study. Parents completed a demographic questionnaire and reported their child’s constancy in adherence to the diet. Children and adolescents were asked to share the things they do themselves to prepare for participating in the various activities. Responses were qualitatively analyzed, and common themes were identified and categorized using directed analysis. Participants were 126 children and adolescents (Mage = 12.33 yr, SD = 2.85), 67.5% of whom had been diagnosed more than 3 yr prior to the study. Based on parents’ reports, almost all (97.6%) participants “always adhered” to the diet. A total of 10 categories were defined from the qualitative responses describing 125 do and don’t actions used by the children and adolescents to self-manage their diet. The do and don’t actions encompass cognitive planning far beyond the mere act of avoiding gluten. These actions can serve as an initial database of suggested strategies to support acquiring independent self-management. Understanding the cognitive complexity of routinely carrying out the diet while actively participating in everyday activities can assist health professionals in building support and intervention programs, promoting effective self-management, and facilitating optimal adherence to the diet. Full article
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16 pages, 271 KiB  
Article
Attitudes to Three Weight Maintenance Strategies: A Qualitative Study
by Frances Bird, Aidan Searle, Peter J. Rogers and Clare England
Nutrients 2022, 14(21), 4441; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14214441 - 22 Oct 2022
Viewed by 2327
Abstract
Weight loss maintenance can be difficult and ultimately unsuccessful, due to psychological, behavioural, social, and physiological influences. The present study investigated three strategies with the potential to improve weight maintenance success: daily weighing, missing an occasional meal, habitually changing high energy foods. The [...] Read more.
Weight loss maintenance can be difficult and ultimately unsuccessful, due to psychological, behavioural, social, and physiological influences. The present study investigated three strategies with the potential to improve weight maintenance success: daily weighing, missing an occasional meal, habitually changing high energy foods. The principal aim was to gain an understanding of attitudes to these strategies in participants who had recent experience of weight loss attempts, with or without maintenance. This was a qualitative study involving semi-structured interviews, with 20 participants aged 18–67 (twelve females), analysed using thematic analysis. Most participants disliked daily weighing and missing an occasional meal for long-term maintenance and were concerned about potential negative effects on mental health. All participants had experience of habitual changes to high energy foods and regarded this strategy as obvious and straightforward. Replacement of high energy foods was favoured over elimination. Participants preferred strategies that felt flexible, “normal” and intuitive and disliked those that were thought to have a negative impact on mental health. Further investigation is needed on whether concerns regarding mental health are well founded and, if not, how the strategies can be made more acceptable and useful. Full article
10 pages, 543 KiB  
Article
A Long-Term National Survey of Compliance with the Ban on Selling Tobacco Products to Adolescents of Taiwan’s Tobacco Hazards Prevention Act
by Shan-Ru Li, Yu-Lung Chiu, Ching-Huang Lai, Ya-Mei Tzeng, Yi-Yin Lai, Wan-Lu Liao, Kuei-Chia Chang, Rong-Dar Wu, Li-Fen Lei, I-Teng Huang and Senyeong Kao
Healthcare 2022, 10(10), 2077; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10102077 - 19 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1676
Abstract
The data on long-term trends and factors of tobacco retailers’ compliance in Taiwan are limited. The new regulations of the Tobacco Hazards Prevention Act were established in 2009. Now, the government is planning to raise the minimum legal age (MLA) for purchasing tobacco [...] Read more.
The data on long-term trends and factors of tobacco retailers’ compliance in Taiwan are limited. The new regulations of the Tobacco Hazards Prevention Act were established in 2009. Now, the government is planning to raise the minimum legal age (MLA) for purchasing tobacco products from 18 to 20, so the results of this study will be an important reference to promote new regulations in the future. We carried out an observational mystery shopping study design and data were collected from 2009 to 2019. In total, 6320 undercover tests were conducted to investigate selling by tobacco retailers to persons aged less than 18 years by an impartial third party annually. Logistic regression was used to analyze the factors influencing compliance by adjusting test variables and independent variables. The compliance rate increased by 8.4% annually and was better among tests conducted during summer vacation (AOR = 1.324), chain convenience stores (AOR = 3.651), supermarkets or hypermarkets (AOR = 1.973), and verifications with age (AOR = 15.345). It is the first study to explore long-term and national tobacco retailers’ enforcement effects by an impartial third party in Asia. The findings suggest that local health agencies should enhance enforcement on those stores which were tested during non-summer holidays and weekends, betel nut stands, and grocery stores. Full article
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11 pages, 559 KiB  
Article
Environmental Factors in Northern Italy and Sickle Cell Disease Acute Complications: A Multicentric Study
by Maria Elena Guerzoni, Stefano Marchesi, Giovanni Palazzi, Mariachiara Lodi, Margherita Pinelli, Donatella Venturelli, Elena Bigi, Nadia Quaglia, Paola Corti, Roberta Serra, Raffaella Colombatti, Laura Sainati, Nicoletta Masera, Francesca Colombo, Angelica Barone and Lorenzo Iughetti
Children 2022, 9(10), 1478; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9101478 - 27 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1589
Abstract
Background: Environmental factors seem to influence clinical manifestations of sickle cell disease (SCD), but few studies have shown consistent findings. We conducted a retrospective multicentric observational study to investigate the influence of environmental parameters on hospitalization for vaso-occlusive crises (VOC) or acute chest [...] Read more.
Background: Environmental factors seem to influence clinical manifestations of sickle cell disease (SCD), but few studies have shown consistent findings. We conducted a retrospective multicentric observational study to investigate the influence of environmental parameters on hospitalization for vaso-occlusive crises (VOC) or acute chest syndrome (ACS) in children with SCD. Methods: Hospital admissions were correlated with daily meteorological and air-quality data obtained from Environmental Regional Agencies in the period 2011–2015. The effect of different parameters was assessed on the day preceding the crisis up to ten days before. Statistical analysis was performed using a quasi-likelihood Poisson regression in a generalized linear model. Results: The risk of hospitalization was increased for low maximum temperature, low minimum relative humidity, and low atmospheric pressure and weakly for mean wind speed. The diurnal temperature range and temperature difference between two consecutive days were determined to be important causes of hospitalization. For air quality parameters, we found a correlation only for high levels of ozone and for low values at the tail corresponding to the lowest concentration of this pollutant. Conclusions: Temperature, atmospheric pressure, humidity and ozone levels influence acute complications of SCD. Patients’ education and the knowledge of the modes of actions of these factors could reduce hospitalizations. Full article
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12 pages, 683 KiB  
Article
Head and Neck Cutaneous Soft-Tissue Sarcoma Demonstrate Sex and Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Incidence and Socioeconomic Disparities in Survival
by Muhammad Umar Jawad, Lauren N. Zeitlinger, Arnaud F. Bewley, Edmond F. O’Donnell III, Sophia A. Traven, Janai R. Carr-Ascher, Arta M. Monjazeb, Robert J. Canter, Steven W. Thorpe and R. Lor Randall
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(18), 5475; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11185475 - 17 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1637
Abstract
Background: Cutaneous soft-tissue sarcoma (CSTS) of the head and neck are rare and are known to have aggressive clinical course. The current study utilizes a population-based registry in the U.S. to characterize these malignancies and explore disparities. Methods: National Cancer Institute’s (NCI) Surveillance, [...] Read more.
Background: Cutaneous soft-tissue sarcoma (CSTS) of the head and neck are rare and are known to have aggressive clinical course. The current study utilizes a population-based registry in the U.S. to characterize these malignancies and explore disparities. Methods: National Cancer Institute’s (NCI) Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Result (SEER) database from 2000 to 2018 was queried to report incidence and survival data in 4253 cases in the U.S. Results: Males were 5.37 times more likely and Non-Hispanic-White people (NHW) were 4.62 times more likely than females and Non-Hispanic-Black people (NHB) to develop CSTS of the head and neck. The overall incidence was 0.27 per 100,000 persons in 2018, with a significant increase since 2000. Advanced age and stage, histologic group other than ‘fibromatous sarcoma’ and lower SES groups were independent factors for worse overall survival. Conclusions: CSTS of the head and neck demonstrate sex and racial/ethnic disparities in incidence and socioeconomic disparities in overall survival. Level of evidence: II. Full article
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18 pages, 489 KiB  
Article
Qualitative Focus Groups with Professionals of Special Education and Parents of Young Females with Intellectual Disability Exploring Experiences with Menstrual Hygiene Management and the Trigger for the Non-Therapeutic Hysterectomy in Mexico
by Maria del Rosario Flores-Medina, Edith Valdez-Martinez and Horacio Márquez-González
Healthcare 2022, 10(9), 1690; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10091690 - 4 Sep 2022
Viewed by 2904
Abstract
How primary carers, physicians, health education professionals, and others see or understand the subject of menstruation in women with intellectual disability (ID) is rooted in the socio-cultural context and in the socio-economic structures in which all of them live. The aim of this [...] Read more.
How primary carers, physicians, health education professionals, and others see or understand the subject of menstruation in women with intellectual disability (ID) is rooted in the socio-cultural context and in the socio-economic structures in which all of them live. The aim of this study was to explore how parents of young females with ID and special education professionals perceive and experience menstrual hygiene management, which coping strategies are applied; and what triggers the performance of a hysterectomy. A qualitative focus group study design was conducted with 69 parents and 11 special education professionals, in 14 schools and one Down syndrome clinic, in Mexico City. Data were analysed using the method of thematic analysis. The main concern of parents was how to cope with the underlying disease. They perceived menstrual bleeding positively. Their psychological distress had to do with the reproductive health of their daughters, with their wish to avoid pregnancy, and with their fear of death and leaving their daughters alone and helpless without them. None of them favoured hysterectomy. Medical indication of hysterectomy was identified as the trigger for its performance. There is an urgent need of policy development/review on best practices for hysterectomy in the females in question. Full article
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12 pages, 629 KiB  
Article
The Relationship between School Infrastructure and School Nutrition Program Participation and Policies in New York City
by Melissa Pflugh Prescott, Judith A. Gilbride, Sean P. Corcoran, Brian Elbel, Kathleen Woolf, Roland O. Ofori and Amy Ellen Schwartz
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(15), 9649; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19159649 - 5 Aug 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2137
Abstract
School nutrition programs (SNP) provide much needed access to fruits, vegetables, and other healthy foods at low or no cost. Yet, the infrastructure of school kitchens and cafeteria vary across schools, potentially contributing to systematic barriers for SNP operation and equity. The purpose [...] Read more.
School nutrition programs (SNP) provide much needed access to fruits, vegetables, and other healthy foods at low or no cost. Yet, the infrastructure of school kitchens and cafeteria vary across schools, potentially contributing to systematic barriers for SNP operation and equity. The purpose of this paper is to examine the association between school infrastructure and outcomes including meal participation, untraditional lunch periods, and having an open campus. Regression analyses were conducted using administrative data for 1804 schools and school nutrition manager survey data (n = 821) in New York City (NYC). Co-location was significantly associated with open campus status (OR = 2.84, CI: 1.11, 7.26) and high school breakfast participation (β = −0.056, p = 0.003). Overcrowding was associated with breakfast (elementary: β = −0.046, p = 0.03; middle: β = 0.051, p = 0.04; high: β = 0.042, p = 0.04) and lunch participation (elementary: β = −0.031, p = 0.01) and untraditional lunchtimes (elementary: OR = 2.47, CI: 1.05, 5.83). Higher enrollment to cafeteria capacity ratios was associated with breakfast (elementary: β = −0.025, p = 0.02) and lunch (elementary: β = −0.015, p = 0.001; high: β = 0.014, p = 0.02) participation and untraditional lunchtimes (middle: OR = 1.66, CI: 1.03, 2.68). Infrastructure characteristics are an important source of variation across NYC schools that may hinder the equity of school nutrition programs across the city. Full article
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7 pages, 307 KiB  
Article
Association of Academic Stress, Acne Symptoms and Other Physical Symptoms in Medical Students of King Khalid University
by Farah Aziz and Mohammad Fareed Khan
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(14), 8725; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19148725 - 18 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2727
Abstract
Academic stress has varied effects on medical student life due to multiple factors, like study load, competition, frequent assessment, social pressure, etc. The authors of this paper conducted research to find the academic stress level and its sequel over acne and other physical [...] Read more.
Academic stress has varied effects on medical student life due to multiple factors, like study load, competition, frequent assessment, social pressure, etc. The authors of this paper conducted research to find the academic stress level and its sequel over acne and other physical symptoms on the medical students of King Khalid University (KKU), Saudi Arabia. A total of 168 participant responses were analyzed. Data collection was performed using a self-administered online questionnaire through the university website portal. The study tool was comprised of four sections: demographic characteristics, academic stress, acne symptoms, and other physical symptoms. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software. A high proportion of females (88.7%) participated in the study. Upon categorization of overall academic stress, it was found that a majority of the medical students were moderately stressed (58.34%). The response on the academic stress scale revealed that exams are the major cause of stress among students. The Mean ± SD of academic stress, acne symptoms, and physical symptoms differ significantly at <0.01 level of significance. Overall academic stress showed a significant positive association with acne (<0.01) and physical symptoms (<0.01). The strength of this study is the fact that its categorization of stress caused by academics has not been done elsewhere. In addition, the impact of acne and physical symptoms has not been found in recent literature. Keeping the outcome of the present study in mind, it is suggested to arrange timely counselling sessions in medical colleges which can alert medical students to remain conscious about the consequences of stress. Full article
16 pages, 3261 KiB  
Article
Organized Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening: Attendance and Determinants in Rural China
by Huinan Han, Xiaoyu Wang, Yimei Zhu and Yuan Liang
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(14), 8237; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19148237 - 6 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1888
Abstract
To evaluate the attendance and determinants of organized cervical and breast cancer (two-cancer) screening, especially higher-level factors, we conducted a cross-sectional survey in central China from June 2018 to November 2019 among 1949 women (age ≥ 35 years). We examined organizer-level factors, provider-level [...] Read more.
To evaluate the attendance and determinants of organized cervical and breast cancer (two-cancer) screening, especially higher-level factors, we conducted a cross-sectional survey in central China from June 2018 to November 2019 among 1949 women (age ≥ 35 years). We examined organizer-level factors, provider-level factors, receiver-lever factors and attendance and participation willingness of screening. The results indicate that the attendance and participation willingness of organized two-cancer screening was 61.19% and 77.15%, respectively. After adjustment for potential confounders, women who received screening notification were more likely to have greater participation willingness and higher attendance than those who received no notification (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.59, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.27–1.99; aOR = 98.03, 95% CI: 51.44–186.82, respectively). Compared with being notified about screening by GPs, being notified by community women’s leaders and other community leaders were more likely to lead to greater willingness to participate again (aOR = 2.86, 95% CI: 1.13–7.24; aOR = 3.27, 95% CI: 1.26–8.48, respectively) and recommending screening to others (aOR = 2.18, 95% CI: 1.02–4.65; aOR = 4.14, 95% CI: 1.84–9.30, respectively). The results suggest that notification of women about screening by community leaders is an important organizer-level factor. As a part of public health services, the design and implementation of optimal cancer screening strategies may require public-sector involvement at the organizer level instead of a one-man show by the health sector. Full article
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12 pages, 655 KiB  
Article
Parenting Practice Profiling and Its Associated Factors among Secondary Vocational School Students in China
by Yujia Zheng, Yuhang Fang, Yan Jin, Xiayun Zuo, Qiguo Lian, Chaohua Lou, Chunyan Yu, Xiaowen Tu, Lihe Li and Ping Hong
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(12), 7497; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19127497 - 18 Jun 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2727
Abstract
Background: Parenting styles have a tremendous influence on a child’s development and behavior. Studies on parenting styles using latent profile analysis have been increasing in recent years. However, there are few such studies conducted in China, especially concerning joint parenting styles (that simultaneously [...] Read more.
Background: Parenting styles have a tremendous influence on a child’s development and behavior. Studies on parenting styles using latent profile analysis have been increasing in recent years. However, there are few such studies conducted in China, especially concerning joint parenting styles (that simultaneously characterize maternal and paternal practices), which are held over the age group of secondary vocational school students. This study aimed to identify the profiles of parenting styles and their associated factors among the parents of secondary vocational school students in China, based on natural samples and not a predetermined model. Method: Data were drawn from a cross-sectional study conducted among 3180 students from six secondary vocational schools in Shanghai Municipality and Shaanxi Province. A total of 2392 students who have lived with their parents for most of their lifetime were included in the study. Latent profile analysis was used to identify the profiles of parenting styles of the respondent’s parents. Multinominal logistic regression models were used to examine the association between parenting style and demographic characteristics and family background and adolescent outcomes. Results: We identified five latent profiles: “free-range parenting” (27.05%), “behavioral monitoring parenting” (33.65%), “authoritative parenting” (11.75%), “psychological control parenting” (14.38%) and “tiger parenting” (13.17%). The associations between these profiles and adolescent outcomes indicated that these profiles were rational. Participants’ gender, grade, residential area, family economic level, parental marital relationship, and parental educational level were predictive factors for parenting styles. Conclusions: The parenting styles held over secondary vocational school students were somewhat different from Baumrind’s parenting style model. A considerable number of students received a parenting style that might predispose them to behavioral and mental health outcomes and merit a tailored intervention using the predictive factors of parenting styles. Full article
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9 pages, 892 KiB  
Article
Alcohol Abuse Associated with Accumulated Periods of Precarious Employment: A Four-Year Follow-Up Study of a Young Population in Korea
by Sungjin Park, June-Hee Lee and Jongin Lee
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(12), 7380; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19127380 - 16 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1732
Abstract
This study aims to explore how precarious employment among young age groups affects alcohol-use disorders. Using samples from Youth Panel 2007, a longitudinal and annual follow-up survey, the association between alcohol-use disorder assessed with CAGE and the accumulated years of precarious employment was [...] Read more.
This study aims to explore how precarious employment among young age groups affects alcohol-use disorders. Using samples from Youth Panel 2007, a longitudinal and annual follow-up survey, the association between alcohol-use disorder assessed with CAGE and the accumulated years of precarious employment was assessed with logistic regression analysis. During the 4-year follow-up period, precarious employment for 2–4 years (OR 2.08, 95% CI 1.02–4.24) showed a significantly increased risk of alcohol-use disorder compared with the full-time permanent sustained group. Among young male adults, precarious employment for 2–4 years (OR 2.57, 95% CI 1.07–6.14) also showed a significantly increased risk of alcohol-use disorder, while it was not significant in women (OR 1.51, 95% CI 0.43–5.31). Although the prevalence of alcohol-use disorders was highest in groups with precarious employment for 2–4 years among female young adults, no significant association between alcohol-use disorders and precarious employment was found. This study suggests that the longer the precarious employment, the higher the risk of alcohol-dependence disorder, and showed that the tendency was stronger in males. In addition, because people engaged in precarious employment are vulnerable to alcohol-use disorders, policy programs focusing on them are needed. Full article
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10 pages, 428 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Parent–Child Attachment on School Adjustment in Left-behind Children Due to Transnational Parenting: The Mediating Role of Peer Relationships
by Huilan Zhang and Chunkao Deng
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(12), 6989; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19126989 - 7 Jun 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2729
Abstract
In China’s eastern coastal areas, the transnational parenting of left-behind children creates a distinct form of left-behind child. Previous research has indicated that children who have been left behind have a low degree of school adjustment. The major purpose of this research was [...] Read more.
In China’s eastern coastal areas, the transnational parenting of left-behind children creates a distinct form of left-behind child. Previous research has indicated that children who have been left behind have a low degree of school adjustment. The major purpose of this research was to investigate the impact of parent–child attachment on school adjustment in children left behind by migrant parents, as well as the mediating role of peer relationships in this process. The parent–child attachment section of the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA), the Adaptation subscale of the Adolescent Mental Health Quality Questionnaire—Chinese Version (AMHQQ-C), and the Student Peer Relationship Scale (SPRC) were used to survey 405 left-behind children in grades 3–6 of seven elementary schools in the hometowns of overseas Chinese parents from Zhejiang Province. It was discovered that, compared to non-left-behind children, left-behind children showed lower levels of parent–child attachment and school adjustment, while peer relationships appeared polarized. In addition, parent–child attachment and peer relationships considerably predicted the level of school adjustment in children left behind due to transnational parenting. More importantly, the mediation analysis revealed a partial mediating effect of peer relationships on the linkages between parent–child attachment and school adjustment among children who were left behind in transnational foster care. Full article
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19 pages, 416 KiB  
Article
Fruit and Vegetable Consumption Patterns and Risk of Chronic Diseases of Lifestyle among University Students in Kenya
by Moriasi Abednego Nyanchoka, Martha Elizabeth van Stuijvenberg, Ayuk Betrand Tambe, Mthokozisi Kwazi Zuma and Xikombiso Gertrude Mbhenyane
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(12), 6965; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19126965 - 7 Jun 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3248
Abstract
This study assesses the fruit and vegetable consumption patterns and risk factors for chronic diseases of lifestyle (CDL) among young adults attending Kenyatta University, Kenya. Four hundred and twenty-three young adults aged 19–30 years participated in the cross-sectional study. Males were 75.0% less [...] Read more.
This study assesses the fruit and vegetable consumption patterns and risk factors for chronic diseases of lifestyle (CDL) among young adults attending Kenyatta University, Kenya. Four hundred and twenty-three young adults aged 19–30 years participated in the cross-sectional study. Males were 75.0% less likely to be overweight than females (OR = 0.25; 0.13–0.47). The mean overall consumption of fruit and/or vegetables amounted to 3.6 servings in a typical day. Eight in ten participants consumed lower amounts of fruits and vegetables than recommended by the WHO. At least one combined risk factor of CDL was observed among 91.3% of the young adults. About 8.7% of the participants were classified as low risk for CDL (having none of the five risk factors), 48.9% had one risk factor, 32.9% had two risk factors, 8.5% had three risk factors, while 0.9% had four risk factors. A significant relationship between daily fruit consumption and waist circumference was observed. These findings show the dire need to develop public health nutrition activities aimed at increasing the intake of fruit and vegetables and sensitizing young adults, and the general population, to the risk factors of CDL. Full article
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