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Behav. Sci., Volume 10, Issue 4 (April 2020) – 12 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Neuromarketing techniques are now widely used to measure the effectiveness of dynamic marketing [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Preventive and Proactive Coping with Bad Weather in Outdoor Sports: A Measurement Proposal
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(4), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10040080 - 24 Apr 2020
Viewed by 602
Abstract
This article presents the Proactive and Preventive Coping with Bad Weather in Outdoor Sports Scale, a tool for diagnosing future oriented coping with bad weather in outdoor sports. A study of the psychometric properties of the Proactive and Preventive Coping with Bad Weather [...] Read more.
This article presents the Proactive and Preventive Coping with Bad Weather in Outdoor Sports Scale, a tool for diagnosing future oriented coping with bad weather in outdoor sports. A study of the psychometric properties of the Proactive and Preventive Coping with Bad Weather in Outdoor Sports Scale was conducted, with an exploratory and a confirmatory factor analysis being carried out. The first set of data (N = 326) was analysed by exploratory factor analysis, and the second set of data (N = 183) was analysed by confirmatory factor analysis. The results of factor analyses verified the two-factor structure. The Proactive and Preventive Coping with Bad Weather in Outdoor Sports Scale showed satisfactory internal consistency. The coefficient alpha reliabilities were 0.81 for the Preventive scale, and 0.80 for the Proactive scale. The divergent and convergent validity of the Preventive and Proactive Coping in Outdoor Sports Scale was indicated by correlations with scales of coping, general self-efficacy, sensation seeking and the personality NEO-FFI. The results indicate that the Proactive and Preventive Coping with Bad Weather in Outdoor Sports Scale is a valid and reliable instrument. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Individual Features in the Typology of the Nervous System and the Brain Activity Dynamics of Freestyle Wrestlers Exposed to a Strong Physical Activity (a Pilot Study)
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(4), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10040079 - 20 Apr 2020
Viewed by 655
Abstract
Nowadays, knowledge of psychophysiological features, particularly on the nervous system’s characteristics, is essential in the sporting context, particularly for freestyle wrestling. The study aimed to investigate the peculiarities of the wrestlers’ nervous system—on the individual and electrophysiological levels in two functional states—in calm [...] Read more.
Nowadays, knowledge of psychophysiological features, particularly on the nervous system’s characteristics, is essential in the sporting context, particularly for freestyle wrestling. The study aimed to investigate the peculiarities of the wrestlers’ nervous system—on the individual and electrophysiological levels in two functional states—in calm wakefulness and during intense physical fatigue. Psychological (Well-being, Activity, Mood; Spielberger–Hanin; Leonhard’s questionnaires), as well as electrophysiological techniques (dynamics of the dominant and average frequencies of the main electroencephalogram (EEG) spectra—theta, alpha, low and high-frequency beta rhythms), were used in the study. It was shown that athletes were mainly characterized by the hyperthymic type of character accentuation and a low frequency of theta rhythm in a calm wakefulness state. After the acute physical load, wrestlers with high hyperthymia showed a moderate increase in theta, whereas other athletes showed a decrease in this parameter. Regardless of the level of hyperthymic accentuation, all wrestlers were characterized by an increase in the frequency of alpha rhythm after exercises in the left hemisphere. These results suggest the existence of a particular functional system in freestyle wrestlers, which allows the body’s regulatory systems to be adapted for the effective implementation of sports activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Open AccessArticle
Smoking Status and Well-Being of Underserved African American Older Adults
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(4), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10040078 - 15 Apr 2020
Viewed by 707
Abstract
Purpose: This study investigated the association between current and past cigarette smoking, with four domains of well-being, namely, physical quality of life, mental quality of life, depressive symptoms, and self-rated health status (SRH), among older African American adults who lived in economically [...] Read more.
Purpose: This study investigated the association between current and past cigarette smoking, with four domains of well-being, namely, physical quality of life, mental quality of life, depressive symptoms, and self-rated health status (SRH), among older African American adults who lived in economically impoverished areas of South Los Angles. Methods: This community-based cross-sectional study included a convenience sample of economically-disadvantaged African Americans adults (n = 740) who were 55 years old and older residing in South Los Angeles. We conducted in-depth face-to-face interviews to collect data on the socioeconomic status (level of education and fiscal pressures), demographic factors (age and gender), physical health (number of chronic medical conditions), smoking (never smokers (reference group), past smokers, and current smokers), and well-being (quality of life, depressive symptoms, and self-rated health). Linear regressions were used to analyze the data. Results: Over 21% reported that they are current smokers, compared with 31% who identified as former smokers. Almost 40% perceived the quality of their health status to be fair or poor. Compared with non-smokers, current cigarette smokers reported a worse physical quality of life, depressive symptoms, and self-rated health. Current smokers also reported a marginally worse mental quality of life. Past smoker status was inconsistently associated with worse well-being in some, but not all, indicators. The association between smoking status and worse well-being was independent of gender, socioeconomic status, and physical health status. Conclusion: Current smoking is associated with worse well-being of older African American adults in economically constrained urban settings. As the same pattern could not be found for former smokers, quitting smoking may be a strategy for economically-disadvantaged African American individuals to enhance their well-being. This provides additional support for programs that help African American individuals who are smokers to quit smoking, particularly in economically-disadvantaged urban areas. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Personal Values Associated with Prosocial Decisions
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(4), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10040077 - 15 Apr 2020
Viewed by 604
Abstract
Social situations require people to make complex decisions, sometimes involving different outcomes for the self and others. Considering the long-lasting interest scholars are showing in the topic of social decisions, the aim of the current article is to add to this research line [...] Read more.
Social situations require people to make complex decisions, sometimes involving different outcomes for the self and others. Considering the long-lasting interest scholars are showing in the topic of social decisions, the aim of the current article is to add to this research line by looking at personal values as possible factors associated with a preference for more self-maximizing or cooperative choices. In a general adult sample (N = 63), we used the Social Value Orientation (SVO) slider measure to investigate participants’ tendency towards prosocial or proself outcomes. We also administered a personal values questionnaire, measuring 19 basic values, organized in 4 higher-order values. Building on the theory of basic individual values, we expected self-transcendence to be positively associated with more prosocial orientations. Our main result confirmed that self-transcendence was positively correlated with SVO whereas no other higher-order values were associated with SVO. Our data also revealed that inequality aversion was the primary motivation of prosocials, and this result was unrelated to gender effects or the personal values under investigation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Speed of Processing and Personality: The Influence of Personality and Extrinsic Feedback on the Performance of Cognitive Tasks
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(4), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10040076 - 08 Apr 2020
Viewed by 814
Abstract
Background: Feedback is considered as an effective means of motivating, guiding, and reinforcing desired behaviours. However, the ways to interpret external feedback may be different among individuals with different personality traits; therefore, this would influence the effects of feedback on performance. Accordingly, the [...] Read more.
Background: Feedback is considered as an effective means of motivating, guiding, and reinforcing desired behaviours. However, the ways to interpret external feedback may be different among individuals with different personality traits; therefore, this would influence the effects of feedback on performance. Accordingly, the influencing effects of personality towards different styles of feedback on cognitive task performance were examined. Methods: Participants (N = 71) were given three Stroop tasks as a dependent variable, whereas the Trail Making Task was an independent variable; additionally, a personality test was used to record the personality traits of each participant. The relationship between personality and feedback-induced changes in Stroop performance was computed by means of Pearson correlation, followed by a mixed-effect model to demonstrate the effect of personality on the overall performance with feedback. Results: The statistical analysis indicated that performance from those with higher levels of extraversion generally profitted from feedback, irrespective of whether it was negative feedback (r = 0.201) or positive feedback (r = 0.205). Additionally, the moderating effect of personality on feedback and performance was demonstrated. Conclusions: The limitations of the sample size and other external influences may have reduced the representativeness of the research. Nonetheless, more potential influencing factors need to be included and explored in future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
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Open AccessArticle
Inflammation and Trauma-Related Psychopathology in Syrian and Iraqi Refugees
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(4), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10040075 - 07 Apr 2020
Viewed by 845
Abstract
Refugees experience high rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and depression due to exposure to civilian war trauma and forced migration. Inflammatory products may offer viable biological indicators of trauma-related psychopathology in this cohort, promoting rapid and objective assessment of psychopathology. Incoming [...] Read more.
Refugees experience high rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and depression due to exposure to civilian war trauma and forced migration. Inflammatory products may offer viable biological indicators of trauma-related psychopathology in this cohort, promoting rapid and objective assessment of psychopathology. Incoming Syrian and Iraqi refugees (n = 36) ages 18–65 completed self-report measures of PTSD, anxiety, and depression and provided saliva samples during an assessment at a primary care clinic within the first month of resettlement in the United States. Interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and C-reactive protein (CRP) differentially correlated with symptom severity by domain, and there was a non-significant trend for sex moderating the relation between inflammation and PTSD symptoms. Our findings show unique relations between trauma-related psychopathology and inflammation. There is a need for further research in diverse ethnic cohorts with differential trauma exposures for inflammation to be considered a biological indicator of psychopathology. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Developmental Changes in the Locus of Control in Students Attending Integrated and Non-integrated Classes during Early Adolescence in Poland
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(4), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10040074 - 07 Apr 2020
Viewed by 845
Abstract
This article reports the results of a longitudinal study on the development of context-specific locus of control related to situations of success and failure in Polish adolescents. The participants were 90 primary school students, including 30 who learned in integrated classrooms and 60 [...] Read more.
This article reports the results of a longitudinal study on the development of context-specific locus of control related to situations of success and failure in Polish adolescents. The participants were 90 primary school students, including 30 who learned in integrated classrooms and 60 who went to non-integrated classes in schools with and without an inclusive curriculum, located in Lublin, Poland. The students were surveyed during a three-year schooling period (when they were in the sixth, seventh, and eighth grade). The research was carried out in the years 2016–2019. The Locus of Control Questionnaire (LOQ and LOQ-R) by Krasowicz-Kupis and Kurzyp-Wojnarska measured locus of control. These instruments measure generalized locus of control and allow the assessment of context-specific locus of control related to situations of success and failure, as well as school, parent, and peer settings. At the first stage of this study, students in non-integrated classrooms in schools without an inclusive curriculum were characterized by a more internal locus of control, both generalized and in situations of failure, compared to students of non-integrated classrooms in schools with an inclusive curriculum. At seventh grade, students of integrated classes were more external in situations related to their school activity, compared to their peers from non-integrated classrooms. Moreover, we observed developmental changes in locus of control of students from non-integrated classes but only those who attended schools with an integrated curriculum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foundational Approaches to Learning Behaviors)
Open AccessArticle
IMPULSE Moment-by-Moment Test: An Implicit Measure of Affective Responses to Audiovisual Televised or Digital Advertisements
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(4), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10040073 - 05 Apr 2020
Viewed by 926
Abstract
IMPULSE is a novel method for detecting affective responses to dynamic audiovisual content. It is an implicit reaction time test that is carried out while an audiovisual clip (e.g., a television commercial) plays in the background and measures feelings that are congruent or [...] Read more.
IMPULSE is a novel method for detecting affective responses to dynamic audiovisual content. It is an implicit reaction time test that is carried out while an audiovisual clip (e.g., a television commercial) plays in the background and measures feelings that are congruent or incongruent with the content of the clip. The results of three experiments illustrate the following four advantages of IMPULSE over self-reported and biometric methods: (1) being less susceptible to typical confounds associated with explicit measures, (2) being easier to measure deep-seated and often nonconscious emotions, (3) being better able to detect a broad range of emotions and feelings, and (4) being more efficient to implement as an online method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consumption, Identity, Demographics and Self-Concept)
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Open AccessArticle
Brief Exposure to Infants Activates Social and Intergroup Vigilance
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(4), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10040072 - 03 Apr 2020
Viewed by 716
Abstract
Among humans, simply looking at infants can activate affiliative and nurturant behaviors. However, it remains unknown whether mere exposure to infants also activates other aspects of the caregiving motivational system, such as generalized defensiveness in the absence of immediate threats. Here, we demonstrate [...] Read more.
Among humans, simply looking at infants can activate affiliative and nurturant behaviors. However, it remains unknown whether mere exposure to infants also activates other aspects of the caregiving motivational system, such as generalized defensiveness in the absence of immediate threats. Here, we demonstrate that simply viewing faces of infants (especially from the ingroup) may heighten vigilance against social threats and support for institutions that purportedly maintain security. Across two studies, participants viewed and rated one among several image types (between-subjects design): Infants, adult males, adult females, and puppies in Study 1, and infants of varying racial/ethnic groups (including one’s ingroup) and puppies in Study 2. Following exposure to one of these image types, participants completed measures of intergroup bias from a range of outgroups that differed in perceived threat, belief in a dangerous world, right-wing authoritarianism and social-political conservatism (relative to liberalism). In Study 1 (United States), stronger affiliative reactions to images of infants (but not adults or puppies) predicted stronger perceptions of a dangerous world, endorsement of right-wing authoritarianism, and support for social-political conservatism (relative to liberalism). Study 2 (Italy) revealed that exposure to images of ingroup infants (compared to outgroup infants) increased intergroup bias against outgroups that are characterized as threatening (immigrants and Arabs) and increased conservatism. These findings suggest a predisposed preparedness for social vigilance in the mere suggested presence of infants (e.g., viewing images) even in the absence of salient external threats. Full article
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Open AccessReview
The Role of Family Relationships in Eating Disorders in Adolescents: A Narrative Review
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(4), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10040071 - 02 Apr 2020
Viewed by 918
Abstract
Background: Adolescents’ eating disorders have been explored through various conceptual and empirical models. Only recently, scientific literature in this area has more specifically investigated the role of relationships, with particular attention to family functioning. Objective: This paper reviews family relationships aspects of eating [...] Read more.
Background: Adolescents’ eating disorders have been explored through various conceptual and empirical models. Only recently, scientific literature in this area has more specifically investigated the role of relationships, with particular attention to family functioning. Objective: This paper reviews family relationships aspects of eating disorders in adolescence. Methods: A narrative literature review of relational issues in adolescents’ eating disorders was performed. Results: Empirical evidence of family relationships in adolescents’ eating disorders confirms the relevance of relational aspects in the development and maintenance of the pathology. In particular, the contribution of the relational-systemic approach is wide, suggesting the need to refer to the family context for a better understanding of adolescents’ sufferance. Additionally, the empirical contributions from the conceptual model of Developmental Psychopathology, highlighting the importance of risk and protection factors in family relationships, provides knowledge about the phenomenon of adolescents’ eating disorders in terms of complexity. Conclusions: An integrated relational model aimed to explore adolescents’ eating disorders is worthy of investigation to accomplish specific program of intervention. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Alexithymia as a Predictor of Arousal and Affect Dysregulations when Batterers with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Cope with Acute Stress
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(4), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10040070 - 01 Apr 2020
Viewed by 882
Abstract
Empirical research has stated that Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) might underlie intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW) perpetration. Even though there is a clear relationship between these two variables, it is still unknown how ADHD facilitates violence proneness. In this regard, psychophysiological [...] Read more.
Empirical research has stated that Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) might underlie intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW) perpetration. Even though there is a clear relationship between these two variables, it is still unknown how ADHD facilitates violence proneness. In this regard, psychophysiological variables such as skin conductance levels (SCL) might offer information about emotional regulation when individuals cope with stress. Furthermore, alexithymia traits might be a strong candidate in explaining the above-mentioned emotional dysregulations. Hence, we compared the SCL response to acute cognitive stress in IPVAW perpetrators with and without ADHD symptoms to that of controls (non-violent and unaffected), and we also assessed the presence of alexithymia traits and their role in emotional regulation. Our data point out that ADHD IPVAW perpetrators presented higher SCL and negative affect than controls, particularly during the recovery period. Moreover, ADHD IPVAW perpetrators showed higher self-reported alexithymia, and this variable was a good predictor of autonomic and psychological state dysregulations, even after controlling for the effects of alcohol and drug misuse. Therefore, our study reinforces the need to consider psychophysiological measurements when screening the therapeutic needs of IPVAW perpetrators, due to their relatively low cost and the significant contents of their results. Finally, we also highlight the key role of alexithymia in this violent population, which should be considered when designing cognitive intervention training coadjutant to current psychotherapies for IPVAW perpetrators. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Intersectionality of Race and Trajectories of African Women into the Nursing Career in the United States
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(4), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10040069 - 25 Mar 2020
Viewed by 1211
Abstract
This paper uses narratives of Malawian-born registered nurses working in the United States to capture pathways through which African women are entering the nursing profession. The paper highlights how race, immigrant status and language acts as potential sources of discrimination within the nursing [...] Read more.
This paper uses narratives of Malawian-born registered nurses working in the United States to capture pathways through which African women are entering the nursing profession. The paper highlights how race, immigrant status and language acts as potential sources of discrimination within the nursing profession. The paper utilizes intersectionality as a feminist framework that places black women’s experiences at the center of analysis to capture the multidimensionality of their experiences. The qualitative study highlights the multiple pathways through which African immigrant women enter the nursing profession and how being African, immigrant female nurses predisposes them to discrimination in their interactions with employment institutions and patients. Focusing on African women’s experiences as recent immigrants enriches the global migration narrative and helps contextualize the intersectionality of race, gender and discrimination within particular contexts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Migration, Globalization and Health in Africa and the Diaspora)
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