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Behav. Sci., Volume 10, Issue 5 (May 2020) – 12 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Sincere patient–healthcare professional communication (truth-telling) is still far from being a [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Eye Movements in Response to Pain-Related Feelings in the Presence of Low and High Cognitive Loads
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(5), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10050092 - 20 May 2020
Viewed by 741
Abstract
The affective dimension of pain contributes to pain perception. Cognitive load may influence pain-related feelings. Eye tracking has proven useful for detecting cognitive load effects objectively by using relevant eye movement characteristics. In this study, we investigated whether eye movement characteristics differ in [...] Read more.
The affective dimension of pain contributes to pain perception. Cognitive load may influence pain-related feelings. Eye tracking has proven useful for detecting cognitive load effects objectively by using relevant eye movement characteristics. In this study, we investigated whether eye movement characteristics differ in response to pain-related feelings in the presence of low and high cognitive loads. A set of validated, control, and pain-related sounds were applied to provoke pain-related feelings. Twelve healthy young participants (six females) performed a cognitive task at two load levels, once with the control and once with pain-related sounds in a randomized order. During the tasks, eye movements and task performance were recorded. Afterwards, the participants were asked to fill out questionnaires on their pain perception in response to the applied cognitive loads. Our findings indicate that an increased cognitive load was associated with a decreased saccade peak velocity, saccade frequency, and fixation frequency, as well as an increased fixation duration and pupil dilation range. Among the oculometrics, pain-related feelings were reflected only in the pupillary responses to a low cognitive load. The performance and perceived cognitive load decreased and increased, respectively, with the task load level and were not influenced by the pain-related sounds. Pain-related feelings were lower when performing the task compared with when no task was being performed in an independent group of participants. This might be due to the cognitive engagement during the task. This study demonstrated that cognitive processing could moderate the feelings associated with pain perception. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Instability of Personality Traits of Teachers in Risk Conditions due to Work-Related Stress
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(5), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10050091 - 13 May 2020
Viewed by 985
Abstract
The following study aims to verify whether psychosocial risk conditions determine a variation in personality traits. The sample consisted of 301 teachers, comprising 84 men (27.1%) and 217 women (72.9%). The Big Five Questionnaire (BFQ) was used to measure personality traits, while the [...] Read more.
The following study aims to verify whether psychosocial risk conditions determine a variation in personality traits. The sample consisted of 301 teachers, comprising 84 men (27.1%) and 217 women (72.9%). The Big Five Questionnaire (BFQ) was used to measure personality traits, while the Organizational and Psychosocial Risk Assessment (OPRA) questionnaire was used to measure psychosocial risk. The ANOVA results notice the change of BFQ traits. These are significant (Extraversion = 0.000; Agreeableness = 0.001; Neuroticism = 0.000; Openness = 0.017), with the exception of the Conscientiousness trait (Conscientiousness = 0.213). The research supports the approach of seeing personality as the result of the interaction between the individual and the environment; this position is also recognized by work-related stress literature. Stress conditions can lead to a change in the state of health and possibly determine the onset of work-related stress diseases. In the future, it would be useful to start a series of longitudinal studies to understand in greater detail the variability of personality traits due to changes in the Risk Index. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Orientations to Happiness between the Dark Triad Traits and Subjective Well-Being
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(5), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10050090 - 12 May 2020
Viewed by 862
Abstract
Previous research investigated the linkage between the Dark Triad traits and subjective well-being, but the factors explaining individual differences in terms of cognitive strategies for achieving happiness remained poorly understood. This study (N = 460) examined the indirect effects of orientations to happiness [...] Read more.
Previous research investigated the linkage between the Dark Triad traits and subjective well-being, but the factors explaining individual differences in terms of cognitive strategies for achieving happiness remained poorly understood. This study (N = 460) examined the indirect effects of orientations to happiness in the link between dark personality traits and subjective well-being in terms of life satisfaction and positive emotion. Participants completed a questionnaire comprising the Dark Triad Questionnaire, the Orientations to Happiness scale, the Satisfaction with Life scale, and the PANAS. Descriptive statistics, bivariate and partial correlations, and structural equation model were applied to the data. Zero-order and partial correlations showed no significant associations of Machiavellianism and psychopathy with subjective well-being measures, and positive associations of narcissism with the three orientations to happiness and the two dimensions of subjective well-being. Indirect effects indicated that the bright side of narcissism sought the pursuit of the emotional component of SWB by adopting engaging activities. Further studies should replicate our findings. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Survey for Assessment of a Person’s Legal Consciousness: Development and Preliminary Validation
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(5), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10050089 - 12 May 2020
Viewed by 852
Abstract
The results of the development and preliminary assessment of the psychometric properties of the questionnaire of legal consciousness of a person are presented. Theoretical justification is given for the structure of the questionnaire containing six subscales. One scale relates to the individual’s awareness [...] Read more.
The results of the development and preliminary assessment of the psychometric properties of the questionnaire of legal consciousness of a person are presented. Theoretical justification is given for the structure of the questionnaire containing six subscales. One scale relates to the individual’s awareness of constitutional rights and freedoms, enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the Constitution of the Russian Federation (personal, economic, political, cultural and social rights). The other five scales relate to the importance of constitutional rights and freedoms for the subject. The content validity of the tool was confirmed by expert assessments of professional lawyers—specialists in constitutional law—and the results obtained with semi-structured interviews (n = 30). The construct validity of the tool was established using exploratory factor analysis and tested by confirmatory factor analysis for student sample (n = 100). Cronbach’s alpha indicated high degree of internal consistency of the subscales. Currently, we continue improving the psychometric characteristics of the measure. The questionnaire obtained as a result of this work can be used to assess the level of a person’s legal consciousness development, and in particular, during the professional personnel selection for the state and civil service. The results of large-scale studies carried out with the help of this tool can be implemented in the activities of public authorities in order to improve the legislative process, taken into account by public organizations and authorities involved in the spread of legal education and legal culture in the framework of state policy on the development of legal consciousness and legal culture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
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Open AccessArticle
Lack of Truth-Telling in Palliative Care and Its Effects among Nurses and Nursing Students
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(5), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10050088 - 11 May 2020
Viewed by 1056
Abstract
Unclear communication of inauspicious prognoses may disorientate both patients and their relatives, drastically jeopardizing the planning of palliative care. This paper considers the issue of truth-telling in the communicative problems of nurses and students of nursing with terminally ill patients. The fundamental objective [...] Read more.
Unclear communication of inauspicious prognoses may disorientate both patients and their relatives, drastically jeopardizing the planning of palliative care. This paper considers the issue of truth-telling in the communicative problems of nurses and students of nursing with terminally ill patients. The fundamental objective is the analysis of the difficulties related to the lack of truth-telling and how it might impact their professional and personal lives. A qualitative study was realized, involving 47 participants, both nurses (25) and nursing students (22), working in palliative care units or in associations of volunteers for the assistance of oncological patients. The exploration was focused on the way they relate to patients who are not aware of their real health conditions and their consequences. Particular attention was paid to their opinions concerning what could be done in order to manage such problematic situations in the near future. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Attachment and Images of Parents and of the Romantic Partner of Russian Young Men and Women
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(5), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10050087 - 08 May 2020
Viewed by 865
Abstract
The study investigated young adults’ perceptions of their parents and romantic partners with respect to the quality of attachment to the loved ones. The sample consisted of 78 young Russian men and women aged 19–25 involved in a romantic relationship for at least [...] Read more.
The study investigated young adults’ perceptions of their parents and romantic partners with respect to the quality of attachment to the loved ones. The sample consisted of 78 young Russian men and women aged 19–25 involved in a romantic relationship for at least for 12 months. The employed instruments were the Attachment to Close People Questionnaire (ACOQ), based on the Experiences in Close Relationships (ECR) questionnaire, the Adolescents’ Report of Parental Behavior Inventory, and Leary’s Interpersonal Behavior Measure. Regression analysis was used to analyze the data. The results indicated that the attachment to the mother contributed to attachment to the romantic partner more than the attachment to the father. The attachment security with the partner was associated with the image of the partner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Open AccessArticle
Impact of Films: Changes in Young People’s Attitudes after Watching a Movie
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(5), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10050086 - 02 May 2020
Viewed by 912
Abstract
Nowadays films occupy a significant portion of the media products consumed by people. In Russia, cinema is being considered as a means of individual and social transformation, which makes a contribution to the formation of the Russian audience’s outlook, including their attitudes towards [...] Read more.
Nowadays films occupy a significant portion of the media products consumed by people. In Russia, cinema is being considered as a means of individual and social transformation, which makes a contribution to the formation of the Russian audience’s outlook, including their attitudes towards topical social issues. At the same time, the question of the effectiveness of films’ impact remains an open question in psychological science. According to the empirical orientation of our approach to the study of mass media influence, our goal was to obtain new data on the positive impact of films based on specific experimental research. The task was to identify changes in the attitudes of young people, as the most active viewers, towards topical social issues after watching a specifically selected film. Using a psychosemantic technique that included 25 scales designed to identify attitudes towards elderly people, respondents evaluated their various characteristics before and after watching the film. Using a number of characteristics related to the motivational, emotional and cognitive spheres, significant changes were revealed. At the same time, significant differences were found in assessments of the elderly between undergraduate students and postgraduate students. After watching the film, postgraduate students’ attitudes towards elderly people changed in a positive way, while undergraduate students’ negative assessments only worsened. The revealed opposite trends can be explained by individual differences of respondents, which include age, educational status as an indicator of individual psychological characteristics, the experience of interaction with elderly people and, as a result, attitudes towards elderly people at the time before watching the movie. The finding that previous attitudes mediate the impact of the film complements the ideas of the contribution of individual differences to media effects. Most of the changes detected immediately after watching the movie did not remain over time. A single movie viewing did not have a lasting effect on viewers’ attitudes, and it suggests the further task of identifying mechanisms of the sustainability of changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Open AccessArticle
Comparing Psychopathological Symptoms in Portuguese Football Fans and Non-fans
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(5), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10050085 - 01 May 2020
Viewed by 1219
Abstract
The present study aims to characterize football fans and non-fans and to compare their psychopathological symptoms with the latest normative values for the Portuguese population from Canavarro in 2007. Results showed that football fans and non-fans are mostly male, have an affective relationship, [...] Read more.
The present study aims to characterize football fans and non-fans and to compare their psychopathological symptoms with the latest normative values for the Portuguese population from Canavarro in 2007. Results showed that football fans and non-fans are mostly male, have an affective relationship, are childless, have secondary education or a high degree, and are employed or students; fans are more likely to be male, dating, unemployed, to have elementary education and be younger than non-fans. Football fans present significantly higher psychopathological symptoms than non-fans in somatization, interpersonal sensitivity, anxiety, hostility, paranoid ideation and psychoticism and all psychopathological indexes. Football fans present values very close to those of populations with emotional distress in hostility and are above the mean of the general population in obsession–compulsion, hostility, paranoid ideation and psychoticism. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Role of the Size of the Small Group and Informal Subgroups in Intragroup Conflicts
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(5), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10050084 - 28 Apr 2020
Viewed by 786
Abstract
This study examines the relationship between (a) the size of groups and the number of informal subgroups in them with conflicts in the context of the group, and (b) the size of the informal subgroups with conflicts in the context of the subgroup. [...] Read more.
This study examines the relationship between (a) the size of groups and the number of informal subgroups in them with conflicts in the context of the group, and (b) the size of the informal subgroups with conflicts in the context of the subgroup. A multidimensional model of intragroup conflict was used, which includes two dimensions: five levels of conflict (i.e., interpersonal (individual–individual), micro-group (individual–subgroup), group (individual–group), subgroup–subgroup, and subgroup–group) and two types of conflict (activity-oriented and subject-oriented). Each level of conflict contains two types. Forty-one small work groups (334 employees) took part in the study. In the group as a whole, both the size of the group and the number of informal subgroups in it have a positive relationship with subgroup–subgroup conflict in both types and subgroup–group subject-oriented conflict, and have a negative connection with micro-group subject-oriented conflict. In turn, the size of the subgroup is positively associated with the two types of subgroup–group conflict and negatively connected with the two types of micro-group conflict, as well as with interpersonal activity-oriented conflict at the level of the informal subgroup. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
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Open AccessReview
Hidden Realities of Infant Feeding: Systematic Review of Qualitative Findings from Parents
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(5), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10050083 - 27 Apr 2020
Viewed by 1102
Abstract
A growing, global conversation, regarding realities and challenges that parents experience today is ever-present. To understand recent parent’s attitudes, beliefs, and perceptions regarding infant feeding, we sought to systematically identify and synthesize original qualitative research findings. Following the Enhancing Transparency in Reporting the [...] Read more.
A growing, global conversation, regarding realities and challenges that parents experience today is ever-present. To understand recent parent’s attitudes, beliefs, and perceptions regarding infant feeding, we sought to systematically identify and synthesize original qualitative research findings. Following the Enhancing Transparency in Reporting the Synthesis of Qualitative Research (ENTREQ) framework, electronic databases were searched with a priori terms applied to title/abstract fields and limited to studies published in English from 2015 to 2019, inclusive. Study quality assessment was conducted using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) checklist, and thematic analyses performed. Of 73 studies meeting inclusion criteria, four major themes emerged. (1) Breastfeeding is best for an infant; (2) Distinct attitudes, beliefs, and perceptions of mothers that breastfeed, and those that could not or chose not to breastfeed, are evident; (3) Infant feeding behaviors are influenced by the socio-cultural environment of the family, and (4) Parent’s expectations of education and support addressing personal infant feeding choices from health care providers are not always met. This systematic review, guided by constructs within behavioral models and theories, provides updated findings to help inform the development of nutrition education curricula and public policy programs. Results can be applied within scale-up nutrition and behavioral education interventions that support parents during infant feeding. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Italian Adaption of Self-Perceived Employability Scale: Psychometric Properties and Relations with the Career Adaptability and Well-Being
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(5), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10050082 - 27 Apr 2020
Viewed by 1112
Abstract
The recent transformation of the workplaces and labor market, characterized by rapid technological changes, social and economic instability, has greatly influenced the construction of people’s career paths. These paths cannot be viewed more as linear, but multifaceted and unstable. In organizational context, the [...] Read more.
The recent transformation of the workplaces and labor market, characterized by rapid technological changes, social and economic instability, has greatly influenced the construction of people’s career paths. These paths cannot be viewed more as linear, but multifaceted and unstable. In organizational context, the psychological contract has changed from long term to short term. In this scenario, the construct of employability becomes central: people need to maintain and improve their ability to be attractive to the labor market to get or keep a job. The study presents the adaptation of the Self-Perceived Employability Scale to the Italian context. The participants are 660 Italian workers. The instruments used to verify the concurrent validity of the scale were the Employability Scale, the Flourishing Scale, the Satisfaction With Life Scale, the Organizational Satisfaction Questionnaire and the Career Adapt-Abilities Scale. Results showed good psychometric properties of the Italian version in terms of internal consistency, construct and concurrent validity, with significant correlations with all the other measures. The CFA highlights some dissimilarity in the scale’s structure compared to the UK version, probably due to cultural differences among the samples. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Are there Metacognitivists in the Fox Hole? A Preliminary Test of Information Seeking in an Arctic Fox (Vulpes lagopus)
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(5), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10050081 - 26 Apr 2020
Viewed by 946
Abstract
Over the last two decades, evidence has accrued that at least some nonhuman animals possess metacognitive abilities. However, of the carnivores, only domestic dogs have been tested. Although rarely represented in the psychological literature, foxes are good candidates for metacognition given that they [...] Read more.
Over the last two decades, evidence has accrued that at least some nonhuman animals possess metacognitive abilities. However, of the carnivores, only domestic dogs have been tested. Although rarely represented in the psychological literature, foxes are good candidates for metacognition given that they cache their food. Two experiments assessed metacognition in one male arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) for the first time. An information-seeking paradigm was used, in which the subject had the opportunity to discover which compartment was baited before making a choice by looking through a transparent window in the apparatus. In the first experiment, choice accuracy during seen trials was equal to choice accuracy on unseen trials. Importantly, there was no significant difference between the subject’s looking behavior on seen versus unseen trials. In the second experiment, with chance probabilities reduced, the subject’s choice accuracy on both seen and unseen trials was below chance. The subject did not exhibit looking behavior in any of the trials. Latencies to choose were not influenced by whether he witnessed baiting. Although we did not obtain evidence of metacognition in our tests of a single subject, we maintain that foxes may be good candidates for further tests using similar methodologies to those introduced here. Full article
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