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Behav. Sci., Volume 10, Issue 3 (March 2020) – 9 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Insufficient sleep quality is highly prevalent in modern societies and has major health consequences. In this article, we propose that self-compassion as a warm and caring attitude towards one´s own shortcomings can make people less vulnerable to sleep problems and can help them to deal with psychosocial stressors responsible for poor sleep quality. In a seven-year research program conducted in Germany, we investigated whether self-compassion (as a disposition or as an intervention-based inner attitude) can increase sleep quality. Across nine studies, our review supports both correlational and causal relationships between self-compassion and increased subjective sleep quality across diverse operationalizations and samples. Future research should focus on the moderating effects of intervention type, duration of intervention effects, and target population. View this paper.
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Article
The Relationship of Thinking Style and Motivation Features of Sales and Advertising Managers
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(3), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10030068 - 15 Mar 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2186
Abstract
The thinking of a manager is conditioned by their motivational features which determine their personal professional success and the effectiveness of the organization’s activities. In this study, we assumed that two groups of sales and advertising managers had differences in the relationships between [...] Read more.
The thinking of a manager is conditioned by their motivational features which determine their personal professional success and the effectiveness of the organization’s activities. In this study, we assumed that two groups of sales and advertising managers had differences in the relationships between thinking style and their motivational qualities, as well as their individual need for achievement. We used the following sources: The methodology of A. Belousova for the diagnosis of thinking styles, the “scale of control over action” by J. Kuhl, and “the need for achievement” by Yu.A. Orlov. The selection consisted of 61 people, 25 to 30 years of age, of which 41 were men and 20 were women, from organizations engaged in the sale of a technical group of goods (also known as Group A) and advertising services (also known as Group B), in Rostov-on-Don. The Spearman rank correlation method was used for quantitative data processing. In group Group A, the analysis showed the presence of statistically significant connections. A critical style of thinking has a significant relationship with the level of clarity about the need for achievements and practical thinking is statistically significantly interrelated with control over action in a situation of failure. Whereas, in Group B, an initiative, managerial, and practical style of thinking has a significant correlation with the need for achievement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Article
Self-Regulation and Psychological Well-Being in Early Adolescence: A Two-Wave Longitudinal Study
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(3), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10030067 - 10 Mar 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2548
Abstract
This paper addresses the question of whether self-regulation capacities are a significant psychological resource of schoolchildren’s psychological well-being. The study contributes to the search of significant predictors of the students’ psychological well-being. Moscow secondary schools pupils (N = 239) participated in a two-wave [...] Read more.
This paper addresses the question of whether self-regulation capacities are a significant psychological resource of schoolchildren’s psychological well-being. The study contributes to the search of significant predictors of the students’ psychological well-being. Moscow secondary schools pupils (N = 239) participated in a two-wave longitudinal study, the procedure being made in the 4th grade and repeated in the 5th grade, six months after the first measurement. The results are presented describing the dynamics of manifestations of the psychological well-being and the conscious self-regulation of the schoolchildren during their transition from the primary to the middle school. Using the cross-lagged panel analysis allowed concluding that the level of conscious self-regulation of the learning activity of the 4th graders significantly predicts their psychological well-being not only in the 4th grade, but also in the 5th grade. The study revealed the specific regulatory predictors characteristic of different manifestations of the schoolchildren’ psychological well-being. The obtained results highlight the significance of research on the conscious self-regulation of learning activities as a resource for pupils’ psychological well-being, which is predictive for its maturation in the subsequent ages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
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Article
Schwartz Value Clusters in Modern University Students
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(3), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10030066 - 08 Mar 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2470
Abstract
People differ in their value hierarchies, i.e., in the importance they attach to basic personal values. A large number of studies were performed to establish similarities and differences between national, ethnic, or professional groups in terms of Schwartz’s values structure. In addition to [...] Read more.
People differ in their value hierarchies, i.e., in the importance they attach to basic personal values. A large number of studies were performed to establish similarities and differences between national, ethnic, or professional groups in terms of Schwartz’s values structure. In addition to this sample-level approach, we found it useful to disclose a number of subgroups within those larger social groups, which are more homogeneous in themselves and reflect the individual-level types of personal values systems. The study was performed on university students (n = 1237) who were asked to fill in the SVS и PVQ Schwartz’s questionnaires. The sample was then treated with the K-means cluster analysis, which resulted in the division of the initial sample into three subgroups or clusters according to their values hierarchy being measured separately at the (1) Normative Ideals scale and (2) the scale of Behavioral Priorities. These clusters were equally common among male and female students, but they were unequally found in young people coming from different ethnic groups and regions, demonstrating the role of socio-cultural environment in building up personal values. The results may extend our capabilities for the prediction of the social, economic, and political behavior of the younger generation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
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Article
Exploring the Effects of Guided vs. Unguided Art Therapy Methods
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(3), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10030065 - 07 Mar 2020
Viewed by 2709
Abstract
Art therapy has become known by its psychosocial and affective impact, but not so much by its effects on cognitive functioning. Based on a comparison between art therapy and music-making programs, we hypothesized that guided methods—dominant in music-making programs and characterized by an [...] Read more.
Art therapy has become known by its psychosocial and affective impact, but not so much by its effects on cognitive functioning. Based on a comparison between art therapy and music-making programs, we hypothesized that guided methods—dominant in music-making programs and characterized by an emphasis on execution (play the piece, produce the visual object) rather than ideation (conceive the visual object)—could boost the cognitive effects of art-making. We also hypothesized that removing ideation from the process with guided methods could decrease psychosocial/affective benefits. In order to test our hypotheses, we compared the effects of two art therapy methods on cognitive vs. psychosocial/affective domains. We implemented a short-term longitudinal study with patients with schizophrenia showing both psychosocial/affective and cognitive deficits. The sample was divided into two groups: unguided, instructed to ideate art pieces and execute them without external guidance, vs. guided, instructed to execute predefined art pieces following externally provided guidelines. There was no evidence that guided methods boost cognitive effects, since these were equivalent across groups. However, psychosocial/affective benefits were enhanced by unguided methods, suggesting that therapeutic methods can make a difference. Our study contributes to raising important new questions concerning the therapeutic mechanisms of art therapy. Full article
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Review
The Relationship between Self-Compassion and Sleep Quality: An Overview of a Seven-Year German Research Program
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(3), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10030064 - 06 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2657
Abstract
Poor sleep quality is highly prevalent in modern societies and negatively linked to various health outcomes. While previous research has demonstrated preliminary evidence for self-compassion as a tool for improving sleep quality, this review provides a meta-analysis of respective published and unpublished results [...] Read more.
Poor sleep quality is highly prevalent in modern societies and negatively linked to various health outcomes. While previous research has demonstrated preliminary evidence for self-compassion as a tool for improving sleep quality, this review provides a meta-analysis of respective published and unpublished results of our own research group using German samples. A total of nine studies are included (N = 956 participants), consisting of both correlational and experimental data. Across these studies, there was a medium correlation between self-compassion and subjective sleep quality, r = 0.303, 95% CI (0.244; 0.360). In three experimental studies, a small increase in participants’ self-reported sleep quality emerged, in comparison to control conditions, Hedges’ s g = 0.484, 95% CI (0.148; 0.821). Limitations on study level concern both the small sample sizes and short-term analyses of intervention effects. As a conclusion, this review supports both the correlational and causal relationship between self-compassion and increased subjective sleep quality across diverse operationalizations and samples. Future research should focus on the moderating effects of intervention type, duration of intervention effects, and type of target population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
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Article
Empathy Mediates the Relations between Working Memory and Perpetration of Intimate Partner Violence and Aggression
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(3), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10030063 - 05 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2548
Abstract
Deficits in executive functioning have been associated with aggressive and violent behavior toward intimate partners. However, it is unclear what specific mechanisms are being affected by cognitive deficits that increase an individual’s tendency to become aggressive. The current study examined empathy as a [...] Read more.
Deficits in executive functioning have been associated with aggressive and violent behavior toward intimate partners. However, it is unclear what specific mechanisms are being affected by cognitive deficits that increase an individual’s tendency to become aggressive. The current study examined empathy as a mediating factor between deficits in working memory and perpetration of intimate partner aggression and violence. Men in heterosexual relationships (N = 49) were administered a measure of visual-spatial working memory, and questionnaire measures of head injury and empathy. During a second session, men participated in a conflict discussion with their female partner that was coded for aggressive behavior. Female partners also reported on men’s physical and psychological abuse. Working memory was positively related to cognitive and affective empathy, and negatively related to men’s physical abuse perpetration and observed aggression during the conflict discussion. The effects of working memory on observed aggression during the conflict were fully mediated by cognitive and affective empathy. Additionally, the effects of working memory on reported physical IPV frequency were fully mediated by affective empathy. Deficits in working memory may decrease men’s ability to use empathetic processes, resulting in increased aggression and violence toward their intimate partners. Clinically, incorporating empathy training in battering intervention programs may be helpful, especially among men with deficits in cognitive functioning. Full article
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Article
Random Forest Classification of Alcohol Use Disorder Using EEG Source Functional Connectivity, Neuropsychological Functioning, and Impulsivity Measures
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(3), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10030062 - 01 Mar 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 6054
Abstract
Individuals with alcohol use disorder (AUD) manifest a variety of impairments that can be attributed to alterations in specific brain networks. The current study aims to identify features of EEG-based functional connectivity, neuropsychological performance, and impulsivity that can classify individuals with AUD (N [...] Read more.
Individuals with alcohol use disorder (AUD) manifest a variety of impairments that can be attributed to alterations in specific brain networks. The current study aims to identify features of EEG-based functional connectivity, neuropsychological performance, and impulsivity that can classify individuals with AUD (N = 30) from unaffected controls (CTL, N = 30) using random forest classification. The features included were: (i) EEG source functional connectivity (FC) of the default mode network (DMN) derived using eLORETA algorithm, (ii) neuropsychological scores from the Tower of London test (TOLT) and the visual span test (VST), and (iii) impulsivity factors from the Barratt impulsiveness scale (BIS). The random forest model achieved a classification accuracy of 80% and identified 29 FC connections (among 66 connections per frequency band), 3 neuropsychological variables from VST (total number of correctly performed trials in forward and backward sequences and average time for correct trials in forward sequence) and all four impulsivity scores (motor, non-planning, attentional, and total) as significantly contributing to classifying individuals as either AUD or CTL. Although there was a significant age difference between the groups, most of the top variables that contributed to the classification were not significantly correlated with age. The AUD group showed a predominant pattern of hyperconnectivity among 25 of 29 significant connections, indicating aberrant network functioning during resting state suggestive of neural hyperexcitability and impulsivity. Further, parahippocampal hyperconnectivity with other DMN regions was identified as a major hub region dysregulated in AUD (13 connections overall), possibly due to neural damage from chronic drinking, which may give rise to cognitive impairments, including memory deficits and blackouts. Furthermore, hypoconnectivity observed in four connections (prefrontal nodes connecting posterior right-hemispheric regions) may indicate a weaker or fractured prefrontal connectivity with other regions, which may be related to impaired higher cognitive functions. The AUD group also showed poorer memory performance on the VST task and increased impulsivity in all factors compared to controls. Features from all three domains had significant associations with one another. These results indicate that dysregulated neural connectivity across the DMN regions, especially relating to hyperconnected parahippocampal hub as well as hypoconnected prefrontal hub, may potentially represent neurophysiological biomarkers of AUD, while poor visual memory performance and heightened impulsivity may serve as cognitive-behavioral indices of AUD. Full article
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Article
Effect of Mindfulness on Empathy and Self-Compassion: An Adapted MBCT Program on Filipino College Students
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(3), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10030061 - 27 Feb 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4090
Abstract
Attending college is meaningful for many young adults. This period is marked by physical, emotional, and psychological changes that can have both positive and negative effects on college students. The last two decades have seen an alarming increase in the number of college [...] Read more.
Attending college is meaningful for many young adults. This period is marked by physical, emotional, and psychological changes that can have both positive and negative effects on college students. The last two decades have seen an alarming increase in the number of college students who suffer from mental health conditions, such as depression, suicide, anxiety, and alcohol abuse. It is recommended that actions to support the students’ wellbeing must be creative and evidence-based. Research suggests that a mindfulness-based intervention may be an effective strategy to address mental health conditions among college students. This study was done to examine the efficacy of an adapted mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) program that was implemented in a classroom setting in the Philippines and to explore how mindfulness practice can affect empathy and self-compassion on senior Filipino college students aged 19–22 years old. Two classes were used to compare the effects of mindfulness intervention. One class underwent the adapted MBCT program while the other class underwent the same kind of class without mindfulness interventions. Self-report measures of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire, Perspective Taking subscale and Empathic Concern subscale of Interpersonal Reactivity Index, and Self-compassion scale—short form were administered before undergoing the adapted MBCT and after the program. After going through the adapted MBCT, college students’ mindfulness significantly improved. Empathy and self-compassion also significantly improved after undergoing the program. This corroborates previous studies done on mindfulness and its efficacy with adolescents and suggests how practicing mindfulness can improve empathy and self-compassion with Filipino college students. It provides a promising groundwork for the emerging interest and research in Asia, particularly in the Philippines, on how the practice of mindfulness can help with the mental health of college students. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Article
Compressed Life Review: Extreme Manifestation of Autobiographical Memory in Eye-Tracker
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(3), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10030060 - 26 Feb 2020
Viewed by 2573
Abstract
The compressed life review (CLR) is a mnemonic illusion of having “your entire life flashing before your eyes”. This research was guided by concerns over the retrospective methodology used in CLR studies. To depart from this methodology, I considered the long-term working memory [...] Read more.
The compressed life review (CLR) is a mnemonic illusion of having “your entire life flashing before your eyes”. This research was guided by concerns over the retrospective methodology used in CLR studies. To depart from this methodology, I considered the long-term working memory (WM), “concentric”, and “activation-based” models of memory. A novel theoretically rooted laboratory-based experimental technique aimed to elicit the CLR-like experience with no risk to healthy participants was developed. It consists of listening to superimposed audio recordings of previously trained verbal cues to an individually composed set of self-defining memories (SDMs). The technique evoked a self-reported CLR-like experience in 10 out of 20 participants. A significant similarity in eye movement patterns between a single SDM condition and a choir of SDM conditions in self-reported CLR experiencers was confirmed. In both conditions, stimuli caused relative visual immobilization, in contrast to listening to a single neutral phrase, and a choir of neutral phrases that led to active visual exploration. The data suggest that CLR-like phenomenology may be successfully induced by triggering short-term access to the verbally cued SDMs and may be associated with specific patterns of visual activity that are not reportedly involved with deliberate autobiographical retrieval. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
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