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Exploring the Effects of Guided vs. Unguided Art Therapy Methods

Center for Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Education Sciences, University of Porto, 4200-135 Porto, Portugal
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(3), 65;
Received: 6 February 2020 / Revised: 4 March 2020 / Accepted: 6 March 2020 / Published: 7 March 2020
Art therapy has become known by its psychosocial and affective impact, but not so much by its effects on cognitive functioning. Based on a comparison between art therapy and music-making programs, we hypothesized that guided methods—dominant in music-making programs and characterized by an emphasis on execution (play the piece, produce the visual object) rather than ideation (conceive the visual object)—could boost the cognitive effects of art-making. We also hypothesized that removing ideation from the process with guided methods could decrease psychosocial/affective benefits. In order to test our hypotheses, we compared the effects of two art therapy methods on cognitive vs. psychosocial/affective domains. We implemented a short-term longitudinal study with patients with schizophrenia showing both psychosocial/affective and cognitive deficits. The sample was divided into two groups: unguided, instructed to ideate art pieces and execute them without external guidance, vs. guided, instructed to execute predefined art pieces following externally provided guidelines. There was no evidence that guided methods boost cognitive effects, since these were equivalent across groups. However, psychosocial/affective benefits were enhanced by unguided methods, suggesting that therapeutic methods can make a difference. Our study contributes to raising important new questions concerning the therapeutic mechanisms of art therapy. View Full-Text
Keywords: art; program evaluation; wellness; neuropsychology art; program evaluation; wellness; neuropsychology
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MDPI and ACS Style

Costa, A.M.; Alves, R.; Castro, S.L.; Vicente, S.; Silva, S. Exploring the Effects of Guided vs. Unguided Art Therapy Methods. Behav. Sci. 2020, 10, 65.

AMA Style

Costa AM, Alves R, Castro SL, Vicente S, Silva S. Exploring the Effects of Guided vs. Unguided Art Therapy Methods. Behavioral Sciences. 2020; 10(3):65.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Costa, Ana M., Rui Alves, São L. Castro, Selene Vicente, and Susana Silva. 2020. "Exploring the Effects of Guided vs. Unguided Art Therapy Methods" Behavioral Sciences 10, no. 3: 65.

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