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Animals, Volume 12, Issue 17 (September-1 2022) – 147 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Shelter cats are a growing population in the US and other countries. Shelter cats face unique welfare concerns due to environmental stressors such as loud noises, inadequate enrichment, and social isolation. Foster programs for shelter dogs have become more commonplace and are often perceived as beneficial. However, foster programs for adult shelter cats are far less common. The aim of this research was to evaluate outcomes associated with placing adult shelter cats in a short-term foster environment. Results indicate that cats placed in foster care were not at a disadvantage and did not display decreased social behavior, increased fear or aggression, or increased cortisol levels while in the foster home. This work provides empirical evidence that cats can be placed into foster homes, even for short periods of time, when shelter space is limited. View this paper
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19 pages, 2880 KiB  
Review
The Potential of Understory Production Systems to Improve Laying Hen Welfare
by Shaocong Yan, Chenyujing Yang, Lei Zhu and Yongji Xue
Animals 2022, 12(17), 2305; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12172305 - 5 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2641
Abstract
The welfare of laying hens in cage systems is of increasing concern. Represented by the European Union’s ‘End the Cage Age’ initiative, more and more countries have advocated cage-free farming. China, an important country for poultry farming and consumption in the world, is [...] Read more.
The welfare of laying hens in cage systems is of increasing concern. Represented by the European Union’s ‘End the Cage Age’ initiative, more and more countries have advocated cage-free farming. China, an important country for poultry farming and consumption in the world, is highly dependent on cage systems and lacks confidence in alternative (e.g., free-range) systems. In this context, using China’s abundant woodland resources (including natural forests, plantations, and commercial forests) to facilitate the management of laying hens in a free-range environment may provide highly promising welfare improvement programs. On the basis of the Five Freedoms, we assess the welfare status of understory laying hen management systems with reference to the behavioural needs and preferences of laying hens and the EU standards for free-range and organic production (highest animal welfare standards in the world). The results show that the considered systems meet or even exceed these standards, in terms of key indicators such as outdoor and indoor stocking density, outdoor activity time, and food and drug use. Specifically, the systems provide sufficient organic food for laying hens without using antibiotics. They allow laying hens to avoid beak trimming, as well as to express nesting, foraging, perching, reproductive, dustbathing and other priority behaviours. The presence of roosters and higher use of woodland space allow the laying hens to achieve better feather and bone conditions, thus reducing stress and fear damage. Notably, the predation problem is not yet considered significant. Second, there is evidence that understory laying hen systems are profitable and have been welcomed and supported by farmers and governments in the southwest, south, and north of China. However, whether it can be scaled up is uncertain, and further research is needed. In addition, laying hens in this management system face various risks, such as foot injury, parasitism, and high dependence on consumer markets, which must be considered. Overall, agro-forestry, or accurately, understory poultry raising, provides opportunities and possibilities for free-range laying hens and welfare improvement in China and other countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Behaviour and Welfare of Laying Hens)
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25 pages, 6760 KiB  
Review
Challenges with Assessing and Treating Pain in Research Primates: A Focused Survey and Literature Review
by Emilie A. Paterson and Patricia V. Turner
Animals 2022, 12(17), 2304; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12172304 - 5 Sep 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2675
Abstract
Research primates may undergo surgical procedures making effective pain management essential to ensure good animal welfare and unbiased scientific data. Adequate pain mitigation is dependent on whether veterinarians, technicians, researchers, and caregivers can recognize and assess pain, as well as the availability of [...] Read more.
Research primates may undergo surgical procedures making effective pain management essential to ensure good animal welfare and unbiased scientific data. Adequate pain mitigation is dependent on whether veterinarians, technicians, researchers, and caregivers can recognize and assess pain, as well as the availability of efficacious therapeutics. A survey was conducted to evaluate primate veterinary approaches to pain assessment and alleviation, as well as expressed challenges for adequately managing primate pain. The survey (n = 93 respondents) collected information regarding institutional policies and procedures for pain recognition, methods used for pain relief, and perceived levels of confidence in primate pain assessment. Results indicated that 71% (n = 60) of respondents worked at institutions that were without formal experimental pain assessment policies. Pain assessment methods were consistent across respondents with the majority evaluating pain based on changes in general activity levels (100%, n = 86) and food consumption (97%, n = 84). Self-reported confidence in recognizing and managing pain ranged from slightly confident to highly confident, and there was a commonly expressed concern about the lack of objective pain assessment tools and science-based evidence regarding therapeutic recommendations of analgesics for research primates. These opinions correspond with significant gaps in the primate pain management literature, including limited specific pharmacokinetic data and efficacy testing for commonly used analgesics in research primate species as well as limited research on objective and specific measures of pain in research primates. These results demonstrate that there are inconsistencies in institutional policies and procedures surrounding pain management in research primates and a lack of objective pain assessment methods. Demonstrating the gaps and challenges in primate pain management can inform guideline development and suggest areas for future research. Full article
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15 pages, 2980 KiB  
Article
Comparative Analysis of In Situ Eukaryotic Food Sources in Three Tropical Sea Cucumber Species by Metabarcoding
by Chenghao Jia, Yue Zhang, Qiang Xu, Chunyang Sun, Yanan Wang and Fei Gao
Animals 2022, 12(17), 2303; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12172303 - 5 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1607
Abstract
In this study, the eukaryotic composition of gut contents in three tropical sea cucumber species, Stichopus monotuberculatus, S. chloronotus and Holothuria atra were surveyed and compared by metabarcoding analysis based on 18S rRNA gene V4 region. The sequences were assigned to 21.80 [...] Read more.
In this study, the eukaryotic composition of gut contents in three tropical sea cucumber species, Stichopus monotuberculatus, S. chloronotus and Holothuria atra were surveyed and compared by metabarcoding analysis based on 18S rRNA gene V4 region. The sequences were assigned to 21.80 ± 1.07, 22.60 ± 0.68 and 22.40 ± 0.25 different phyla from the gut contents of S. monotuberculatus, S. chloronotus and H. atra, respectively, and those in sediment samples were assigned to 21.00 ± 1.67 phyla. The results of α-diversity showed that surface sediments had a greater eukaryotic diversity than gut contents, yet the guts of sea cucumbers had an enrichment effect on some microorganisms, including Diatomea and Apicomplex. A comparison of the gut eukaryotic community among the three species suggested that the feeding preference was different: S. monotuberculatus fed mainly on Diatomea and Arthropoda, and the other two species had higher Apicomplexa concentrations, which may be due to differences in the morphology of the tentacles and habitat preferences. Moreover, obvious different eukaryotic community composition in the gut contents of the three sea cucumber species and the surrounding sediments also might result from the animals’ selective feeding for sediment patches. The current study filled in gaps about feeding mechanisms of tropical sea cucumbers and provided a basis for further exploring the mechanism about selective feeding and sea cucumber–sediment interaction in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Aquatic Animals)
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14 pages, 2126 KiB  
Article
Genome-Wide Population Structure Analysis and Genetic Diversity Detection of Four Chinese Indigenous Duck Breeds from Fujian Province
by Ruiyi Lin, Jiaquan Li, Yue Yang, Yinhua Yang, Jimin Chen, Fanglu Zhao and Tianfang Xiao
Animals 2022, 12(17), 2302; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12172302 - 5 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1844
Abstract
The assessment of population genetic structure is the basis for understanding the genetic information of indigenous breeds and is important for the protection and management of indigenous breeds. However, the population genetic differentiation of many local breeds still remains unclear. Here, we performed [...] Read more.
The assessment of population genetic structure is the basis for understanding the genetic information of indigenous breeds and is important for the protection and management of indigenous breeds. However, the population genetic differentiation of many local breeds still remains unclear. Here, we performed a genome-wide comparative analysis of Jinding, Liancheng white, Putian black, and Shanma ducks based on the genomic sequences using RAD sequencing to understand their population structure and genetic diversity. The population parameters showed that there were obvious genetic differences among the four indigenous breeds, which were separated groups. Among them, Liancheng white and Shanma ducks may come from the same ancestor because the phylogenetic tree forms three tree trunks. In addition, during the runs of homozygosity (ROH), we found that the average inbreeding coefficient of Liancheng white and Putian black ducks was the lowest and the highest, respectively. Five genomic regions were considered to be the hotspots of autozygosity among these indigenous duck breeds, and the candidate genes involved a variety of potential variations, such as muscle growth, pigmentation, and neuroregulation. These findings provide insights into the further improvement and conservation of Fujian duck breeds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Conservation and Management of Genetic Resources in Animal Breeding)
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21 pages, 4779 KiB  
Article
Intensive Adoption as a Management Strategy for Unowned, Urban Cats: A Case Study of 25 Years of Trap–Assess–Resolve (TAR) in Auckland, New Zealand
by Michael C. Calver, Heather M. Crawford, Fiona R. Scarff, J. Stuart Bradley, Peter Dormon, Samantha Boston and Patricia A. Fleming
Animals 2022, 12(17), 2301; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12172301 - 5 Sep 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3101
Abstract
Globally, unowned urban cats are a major concern because they may suffer from poor welfare and cause problems, including public health risks, nuisances, and urban wildlife predation. While management options are often presented as a choice between culling or trap–neuter–return (TNR), for 25 [...] Read more.
Globally, unowned urban cats are a major concern because they may suffer from poor welfare and cause problems, including public health risks, nuisances, and urban wildlife predation. While management options are often presented as a choice between culling or trap–neuter–return (TNR), for 25 years, the Lonely Miaow (Inc.) charity in Auckland, New Zealand (hereafter LM), has used a third strategy—intensive adoption or trap–assess–resolve (TAR). As of 2019, of 14,611 unowned cats trapped, 64.2% were adopted, 22.2% were euthanized if unsocialised or in grave ill-health, 5.7% were neutered and returned to the site, and 7.9% had other outcomes, such as being transferred to other shelters. Adoption rates increased over this time, exceeding 80.0% in 2018 and 2019. The cost of processing each cat from capture to adoption rose from NZD 58 in 1999 to NZD 234 by 2017. Approximately 80% of colonies (sites where cats were trapped) were around residential areas. Approximately 22% of cats required veterinary treatment after capture; common ailments included respiratory infections, ringworm, dental problems, and trauma. Consistently, 52% of cats were young kittens (<10 weeks old), c. 80% of cats were <1 year old, and only c. 2% were estimated to be >5 years old. TAR avoids euthanasia where possible. Its effectiveness would be enhanced by fewer abandonments of owned cats and kittens, fitting within integrated strategies for the control of unowned cats involving community education. Cat adoptions improve the welfare of cats and, with appropriate husbandry, should alleviate concerns about nuisances, public health, and attacks on wildlife or the cats themselves, essentially benefitting the community and the cats. This case study is relevant to other cities around the world that are seeking to manage unowned cats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animals’ Tenth Anniversary)
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14 pages, 1060 KiB  
Article
Genetic Parameter Estimation and Genome-Wide Association Analysis of Social Genetic Effects on Average Daily Gain in Purebreds and Crossbreds
by Ha-Seung Seong, Young-Sin Kim, Soo-Jin Sa, Yongdae Jeong, Joon-Ki Hong and Eun-Seok Cho
Animals 2022, 12(17), 2300; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12172300 - 5 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1445
Abstract
Average daily gain (ADG) is an important growth trait in the pig industry. The direct genetic effect (DGE) has been studied mainly to assess the association between genetic information and economic traits. The social genetic effect (SGE) has been shown to affect ADG [...] Read more.
Average daily gain (ADG) is an important growth trait in the pig industry. The direct genetic effect (DGE) has been studied mainly to assess the association between genetic information and economic traits. The social genetic effect (SGE) has been shown to affect ADG simultaneously with the DGE because of group housing systems. We conducted this study to elucidate the genetic characteristics and relationships of the DGE and SGE of purebred Korean Duroc and crossbred pigs by single-step genomic best linear unbiased prediction and a genome-wide association study. We used the genotype, phenotype, and pedigree data of 1779, 6022, and 7904 animals, respectively. Total heritabilities on ADG were 0.19 ± 0.04 and 0.39 ± 0.08 for purebred and crossbred pigs, respectively. The genetic correlation was the greatest (0.77 ± 0.12) between the SGE of purebred and DGE of crossbred pigs. We found candidate genes located in the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for the SGE that were associated with behavior and neurodegenerative diseases, and candidate genes in the QTLs for DGE that were related to body mass, size of muscle fiber, and muscle hypertrophy. These results suggest that the genomic selection of purebred animals could be applied for crossbred performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genome-Wide Associations for Growth Traits in Livestock Species)
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12 pages, 753 KiB  
Article
Influence of Water Salinity on the Growth and Survivability of Asp Larvae Leuciscus aspius (Linnaeus, 1758) under Controlled Conditions
by Roman Kujawa and Przemysław Piech
Animals 2022, 12(17), 2299; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12172299 - 5 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2150
Abstract
The effect of water with a salinity 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11 ppt on the growth and survivability of asp Leuciscus aspius (L.) larvae was investigated. A control sample consisted of asp larvae reared up in freshwater (0 ppt). Larvae were fed [...] Read more.
The effect of water with a salinity 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11 ppt on the growth and survivability of asp Leuciscus aspius (L.) larvae was investigated. A control sample consisted of asp larvae reared up in freshwater (0 ppt). Larvae were fed for 21 days with nauplii of the brine shrimp Artemia salina. Water salinity was observed to have a considerable effect on the growth and survivability of asp larvae. In addition, saline water extended the life span of Artemia salina nauplii, which resulted in their prolonged availability to asp larvae. Asp larvae showed low tolerance to the salinity of water, reaching 9–11 ppt. Depending on the degree of salinity, the mean final weight of larvae varied from 122.6 to 139.4 mg, at body lengths from 23.8 to 25.6 mm, respectively. The best body length increments were recorded among asp larvae maintained in water with a salinity of 3 ppt. Depending on the level of water salinity, the final survivability of asp larvae ranged from 16.9 to 94.5%. The highest and increasing mortality was demonstrated among the larvae reared in water of the salinity equal to 11 ppt. It is not recommended to rear asp larvae in water with a salinity above 7 ppt due to the low survivability and large differences in the body size of the larvae that managed to survive. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Early Development and Growth of Fishes)
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12 pages, 1512 KiB  
Article
Antibodies against Two Testudinid Herpesviruses in Pet Tortoises in Europe
by Christoph Leineweber and Rachel E. Marschang
Animals 2022, 12(17), 2298; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12172298 - 5 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1783
Abstract
Herpesviruses are important pathogens of tortoises, and several serologically and genetically distinct virus types have been described in these animals. Virus neutralization testing is commonly used in Europe to determine previous infection with the two types most often found in pet European tortoises, [...] Read more.
Herpesviruses are important pathogens of tortoises, and several serologically and genetically distinct virus types have been described in these animals. Virus neutralization testing is commonly used in Europe to determine previous infection with the two types most often found in pet European tortoises, testudinid herpesvirus (TeHV) 1 and 3. In this retrospective study, the results of serological testing for antibodies against each of these viruses in serum or plasma samples from 1728 tortoises were evaluated, and antibody detection rates were compared based on virus type, host species, year, season, and country of origin. Antibodies (titer 2 or higher) against at least one of the two viruses used were detected in a total of 122 (7.06%; 95% CI 5.95–8.37%) of the animals tested. The antibody detection rates differed significantly depending on the tortoise species (p < 0.0001) and the year of sampling (TeHV1 p = 0.0402; TeHV3 p = 0.0482) for both virus types. For TeHV1, antibody detection rates differed significantly (p = 0.0384) by season. The highest detection rate was in summer (5.59%; 95% CI 4.10–7.58%), and the lowest was in fall (1.25%; CI 0.53–2.87%). TeHV1 antibody detection rates did not differ significantly (p = 0.7805) by country, whereas TeHV3 antibody detection rates did (p = 0.0090). The highest detection rate, 12.94% (95% CI 7.38–21.70%), was found in samples from Italy. These results support previous hypotheses on the species’ susceptibility to TeHV1 and 3 and the use of serology as a diagnostic test for the detection of herpesvirus-infected tortoises. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Herpetological Medicine and Surgery)
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17 pages, 1849 KiB  
Review
Influence of Heat Stress on Poultry Growth Performance, Intestinal Inflammation, and Immune Function and Potential Mitigation by Probiotics
by Rafiq Ahmad, Yu-Hsiang Yu, Felix Shih-Hsiang Hsiao, Chin-Hui Su, Hsiu-Chou Liu, Isabel Tobin, Guolong Zhang and Yeong-Hsiang Cheng
Animals 2022, 12(17), 2297; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12172297 - 5 Sep 2022
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 6759
Abstract
Heat stress has emerged as a serious threat to the global poultry industry due to climate change. Heat stress can negatively impact the growth, gut health, immune function, and production and reproductive performances of poultry. Different strategies have been explored to mitigate heat [...] Read more.
Heat stress has emerged as a serious threat to the global poultry industry due to climate change. Heat stress can negatively impact the growth, gut health, immune function, and production and reproductive performances of poultry. Different strategies have been explored to mitigate heat stress in poultry; however, only a few have shown potential. Probiotics are gaining the attention of poultry nutritionists, as they are capable of improving the physiology, gut health, and immune system of poultry under heat stress. Therefore, application of probiotics along with proper management are considered to potentially help negate some of the negative impacts of heat stress on poultry. This review presents scientific insight into the impact of heat stress on poultry health and growth performance as well as the application of probiotics as a promising approach to alleviate the negative effects of heat stress in poultry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Inflammation and Health Outcomes in Animals)
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13 pages, 679 KiB  
Article
Reference Values and Repeatability of Pulsed Wave Doppler Echocardiography Parameters in Normal Donkeys
by Mohamed Marzok, Adel I. Almubarak, Zakriya Al Mohamad, Mohamed Salem, Alshimaa M. Farag, Hussam M. Ibrahim, Maged R. El-Ashker and Sabry El-khodery
Animals 2022, 12(17), 2296; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12172296 - 5 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1625
Abstract
In the present study, thirty clinically healthy donkeys were used to establish the reference values and repeatability for Pulsed Wave Doppler echocardiographic variables of the mitral valve, aortic valve and myocardial performance. 2-dimensional Color flow mapping and spectral Doppler modes were performed. For [...] Read more.
In the present study, thirty clinically healthy donkeys were used to establish the reference values and repeatability for Pulsed Wave Doppler echocardiographic variables of the mitral valve, aortic valve and myocardial performance. 2-dimensional Color flow mapping and spectral Doppler modes were performed. For the mitral valve, the mean velocity, pressure gradient and duration of E-wave were 57.7 ± 12.5 cm/s, 1.4 ± 0.7 mmHg and 0.4 ± 0.13 s, respectively. The velocity, pressure gradient and duration of the A-wave were 32.3 ± 9.1 cm/s, 0.3 ± 0.04 mmHg and 0.3 ± 0.1 s, respectively. The mitral valve area, pressure half time, pulsatility index (PI), resistance index (RI) and velocity time integral (VTI) were 1.8 ± 0.5 cm2, 66 ± 17 ms, 2.8 ± 1.4, 0.9 ± 0.03 and 19.1 ± 5.7 cm, respectively. For the aortic valve, the mean velocity was 64.9 ± 10.4 cm/s, pressure gradient was 1.8 ± 0.4 mmHg, pulsatility index was 1.4 ± 0.3, resistance index was 0.9 ± 0.02, VTI was 25.02 ± 6.2 cm, systolic/diastolic was 19 ± 4.7 and heart rate was 95.7 ± 28.9 per minute. For Myocardial Performance Index (LV)–Tei Index, the mean ejection, isovolumic relaxation, isovolumic contraction time and myocardial performance index were 0.24 ± 0.01, 0.14 ± 0.01, 0.14 ± 0.02 and 1.2 ± 0.1 s, respectively. The results of the present study provide the reference values of PW echocardiographic parameter measurements in normal adult donkeys. Such reference values are helpful, especially when confronted with clinical cases with cardiovascular disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Equine Respiratory Medicine and Cardiology)
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11 pages, 724 KiB  
Article
An Approach for Investigating Sexual Maturity in Wild Boar Males: Testosterone and 17β-Estradiol Analysis
by Claudia Maistrelli, Marion Schmicke, Martina Hoedemaker and Ursula Siebert
Animals 2022, 12(17), 2295; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12172295 - 5 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1645
Abstract
Analyses of sexual steroid hormones in wild boars are rarely described. Testosterone (T) and 17β-estradiol (E2) concentrations are useful to recognize sexual maturation. As threshold values for this species are unknown, additional parameters are required. A total of 127 blood samples from wild [...] Read more.
Analyses of sexual steroid hormones in wild boars are rarely described. Testosterone (T) and 17β-estradiol (E2) concentrations are useful to recognize sexual maturation. As threshold values for this species are unknown, additional parameters are required. A total of 127 blood samples from wild boar males were collected to measure T and E2. Age and weight were recorded. Thirty-one epididymides were sampled too. Males were sorted into pre-and postpubertal groups based on the absence/presence of spermatozoa in epididymides and on morphological data following previous results. Forty-four males were prepubertal: the mean age and weight were 10 months and 23 kg, respectively. They showed no spermatozoa. The mean concentrations of T and E2 were 1.2 ± 1.2 ng/mL and 39.7 ± 120.3 pg/mL, respectively. Sixty-six males were postpubertal, twenty-nine of which presented spermatozoa. Their mean concentration of T was 7.6 ± 6.3 ng/mL and E2 was 664.3 ± 250.4 pg/mL. Seventeen samples could not be defined; the hormone concentrations between the two groups suggested a transitional phase consistent with puberty. Wild boars before 12 months of age had high hormone levels like older boars, indicating that they could attempt to reproduce. Hormones at the end of the mating season (January) were high so that reproduction could occur thereafter, shifting farrowing from spring to summer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Reproduction)
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22 pages, 366 KiB  
Article
A Nationwide Survey of Animal Science Students’ Perceptions of Animal Welfare across Different Animal Categories at Institutions in the United States
by Paxton Sullivan, Sage Mijares, Melissa Davis, Katrina Oselinsky, Catie Cramer, Noa Román-Muñiz, Lorann Stallones and Lily Edwards-Callaway
Animals 2022, 12(17), 2294; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12172294 - 5 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4815
Abstract
Animal welfare is an increasingly important topic across multiple academic disciplines; however, few studies have investigated student perceptions of animal welfare outside of veterinary medicine. The objective of the study was to evaluate animal science students’ perceptions of animal welfare to determine if [...] Read more.
Animal welfare is an increasingly important topic across multiple academic disciplines; however, few studies have investigated student perceptions of animal welfare outside of veterinary medicine. The objective of the study was to evaluate animal science students’ perceptions of animal welfare to determine if perceptions differ across animal categories. An online survey was distributed to animal science programs at institutions across the United States. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were performed on 624 responses. Almost all respondents agreed welfare was important for all animal categories (≥97%). The survey asked respondents to rate the level of importance of 12 welfare parameters and there was evidence that the level of importance differed by animal category (p < 0.0001), e.g., fewer respondents indicated having positive interactions with humans was important for agricultural animals. In a subset of questions about agricultural animals, fewer respondents agreed that swine (325, 52.1%) and poultry (268, 43.0%) are raised with an appropriate level of welfare compared to dairy (425, 68.1%) and beef cattle (421, 67.5%). Four free-response questions asked respondents to report their general perceptions of welfare. Thematic analysis identified multiple themes, such as basic needs and human interaction, with most responses (75%) including two or more themes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animals’ Tenth Anniversary)
14 pages, 752 KiB  
Article
Conventional Gel Electrophoresis-Resolvable Insertion/Deletion Markers for Individual Identification and Analysis of Population Genetics in Red-Crowned Cranes in Eastern Hokkaido, Japan
by Erika Kawasaki, Dong Wenjing, Akira Sawada, Momoko Nakajima, Kunikazu Momose, Tomoo Yoshino, Tomoko Amano, Daiji Endoh, Nobuyoshi Nakajima and Hiroki Teraoka
Animals 2022, 12(17), 2293; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12172293 - 4 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1464
Abstract
Red-crowned crane Grus japonensis is an endangered species in two separate populations: the mainland population in the Eurasian continent and the island population in eastern Hokkaido, Japan. We found 11 insertion/deletion (InDel) markers in the genome of the red-crowned crane and designed primer [...] Read more.
Red-crowned crane Grus japonensis is an endangered species in two separate populations: the mainland population in the Eurasian continent and the island population in eastern Hokkaido, Japan. We found 11 insertion/deletion (InDel) markers in the genome of the red-crowned crane and designed primer sets across these InDels that can be analyzed with conventional agarose gel electrophoresis. Sixty-six samples of whole blood and skeletal muscle obtained from red-crowned cranes, including 12 families in eastern Hokkaido from 1994 to 2021, showed different patterns in gel images of 11 InDel PCR reactions except for two pairs. The combined non-exclusion probability of the 11 markers indicates that individuals can be determined with a probability of 99.9%. In 39 non-relative chicks, the expected heterozygosity (He) was 0.316, suggesting low genetic diversity. This might not be caused by high levels of inbreeding since the average FIS was not significantly different from zero (0.095, p = 0.075). The results suggest that the 11 InDel primer sets can be used for fairly accurate individual identification as well as genetic population analyses in red-crowned cranes in the island population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Wildlife)
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13 pages, 1194 KiB  
Article
Subspecies Taxonomy and Inter-Population Divergences of the Critically Endangered Yellow-Breasted Bunting: Evidence from Song Variations
by Wenshuang Bao, Atul Kathait, Xiang Li, Kiyoaki Ozaki, Yukihiro Hanada, Alexander Thomas, Geoffrey John Carey, Jun Gou, Batmunkh Davaasuren, Makoto Hasebe, Paul Ian Holt, Lukas Pelikan, Zhongyong Fan, Siyu Wang and Xiaoying Xing
Animals 2022, 12(17), 2292; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12172292 - 4 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2547
Abstract
The critically endangered Yellow-breasted Bunting has undergone population collapse globally because of illegal hunting and habitat deterioration. It was listed as critically endangered (CR) by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) in 2017 and designated a Class I (highest level) national [...] Read more.
The critically endangered Yellow-breasted Bunting has undergone population collapse globally because of illegal hunting and habitat deterioration. It was listed as critically endangered (CR) by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) in 2017 and designated a Class I (highest level) national conservation bird species in China in 2021. Birdsong in the breeding season is the main communicative signal under sexual selection, and song variations have long been considered critical evidence of divergence among subspecies or populations. We compared the songs of 89 males from 18 populations to test subspecies taxonomy. We found that songs of the Yellow-breasted Bunting Emberiza aureola are subspecies specific and that three subspecies can be clearly discriminated by song divergences. Moreover, an analysis of multiple vocal traits supports the claim that insulana is distinct from aureola and ornata. Finally, at the geographic population level, populations can be clearly classified in accordance with the three subspecies, although the aureola population in Xinjiang, China is differentiated from other populations of the same subspecies. The results of this study demonstrate that all populations and subspecies are unique and should be protected to maintain intraspecies song diversity. In addition, several specific populations, such as insulana populations in Japan and the Xinjiang, China population of aureola, need to be paid special attention to prevent the extinction of unique or local taxa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bird Culture: Diversity and Functions of Bird Vocalizations)
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10 pages, 2416 KiB  
Article
Ruminal Bacterial Community Successions in Response to Monensin Supplementation in Goats
by Xi Guo, Yuqin Liu, Yu Jiang, Junhu Yao and Zongjun Li
Animals 2022, 12(17), 2291; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12172291 - 4 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1461
Abstract
Previous studies have demonstrated that the effects of monensin on methanogenesis and ruminal fermentation in ruminants were time-dependent. To elucidate the underlying mechanism, we investigated the ruminal bacterial community successions during the adaptation to monensin supplementation and subsequent withdrawal in goats. The experiment [...] Read more.
Previous studies have demonstrated that the effects of monensin on methanogenesis and ruminal fermentation in ruminants were time-dependent. To elucidate the underlying mechanism, we investigated the ruminal bacterial community successions during the adaptation to monensin supplementation and subsequent withdrawal in goats. The experiment included a baseline period of 20 days followed by a treatment period of 55 days with 32 mg monensin/d and a washout period of 15 days. Monensin supplementation reduced the α diversity and changed the structure of ruminal microflora. The α diversity was gradually restored during adaption, but the structure was still reshaped. The temporal dynamics of 261 treatment- and/or time-associated ruminal bacteria displayed six patterns, with two as monensin-sensitive and four as monensin-resistant. The monensin sensitivity and resistance of microbes do not follow a clear dichotomy between Gram-positive and Gram-negative cell types. Moreover, the temporal dynamic patterns of different bacterial species within the same genus or family also displayed variation. Of note, the relative abundance of the total ruminal cellulolytic bacteria gradually increased following monensin treatment, and that of the total amylolytic bacteria were increased by monensin, independent of the duration. In conclusion, under the pressure of monensin, the ruminal ecosystem was reshaped through a series of succession processes, and the carbohydrate-degrading bacteria presented a higher level of adaptability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients and Feed Additives in Modulating Rumen Microbiome)
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11 pages, 265 KiB  
Article
Effects of Photoperiod on the Performance, Blood Profile, Welfare Parameters, and Carcass Characteristics in Broiler Chickens
by Hee-Jin Kim, Jiseon Son, Jin-Joo Jeon, Hyun-Soo Kim, Yeon-Seo Yun, Hwan-Ku Kang, Eui-Chul Hong and Ji-Hyuk Kim
Animals 2022, 12(17), 2290; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12172290 - 3 Sep 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2294
Abstract
We studied the effects of photoperiods on the growth performance, blood profile, welfare parameters, and carcass characteristics of broilers. A total of 336 male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were randomly allocated into 4 treatments (84 birds per treatment with 4 replicates), based on [...] Read more.
We studied the effects of photoperiods on the growth performance, blood profile, welfare parameters, and carcass characteristics of broilers. A total of 336 male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were randomly allocated into 4 treatments (84 birds per treatment with 4 replicates), based on the following lighting regimen: 24 h continuous light (24L), 18 h continuous light (18L:6D), 8 h continuous light (8L:16D), and intermittent light (4L:2D). Body weight and feed intake of 7- and 35-day-old broilers were measured. At 5 weeks of age, 12 birds per treatment were selected for blood collection and carcass analysis. Body weight, body weight gain, and feed intake were the lowest in the 8L:16D treatment (p < 0.05). The heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, aspartate aminotransferase, interleukin-6, and corticosterone levels in the 24L treatment increased significantly when compared to that in the 18L:6D treatment (p < 0.05). The footpad dermatitis score was significantly lower in the 18L:6D and 8L:16D treatments than in the 24L and 4L:2D treatments (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in the carcass and meat characteristics, except for the shear force of breast meat (Pectoralis major), which was the lowest in the 8L:16D treatment (p < 0.05). These results indicate that a photoperiod of 18 h resulted in an improvement in the performance and welfare of birds and a simultaneous decrease in stress level. However, further research is needed to establish a lighting regimen that satisfies both the productivity and welfare requirements of broilers in different feeding phases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Welfare)
10 pages, 712 KiB  
Article
A High Prevalence of Cardiopulmonary Worms Detected in the Iberian Wolf (Canis lupus): A Threat for Wild and Domestic Canids
by Efrén Estévez-Sánchez, Rocío Checa, Ana Montoya, Juan Pedro Barrera, Ana María López-Beceiro, Luis Eusebio Fidalgo and Guadalupe Miró
Animals 2022, 12(17), 2289; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12172289 - 3 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2061
Abstract
Cardiopulmonary nematodes are highly pathogenic parasites affecting domestic and wild canids. As the result of conservation programs, the Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus) population has recently expanded, and its distribution range covers lands from where it had long disappeared. However, the [...] Read more.
Cardiopulmonary nematodes are highly pathogenic parasites affecting domestic and wild canids. As the result of conservation programs, the Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus) population has recently expanded, and its distribution range covers lands from where it had long disappeared. However, the exact epidemiological role of the wolf in the life cycle of zoonotic parasites causing diseases transmissible to pets and/or humans is largely unknown. This study sought to determine the diversity of cardiopulmonary nematode parasite species that affect wolves inhabiting northwestern areas of the Iberian Peninsula, and to estimate their prevalence and the relationship between these parasites and several epidemiological variables. For this purpose, we examined the cardiopulmonary systems of 57 wolves from Galicia (from the provinces A Coruña n = 15, Lugo n = 21, Ourense n =15 and Pontevedra n = 6) using techniques of dissection and cup sedimentation. Collected worms were then identified under a light microscope according to their morphological features. Three species of nematodes were detected: Angiostrongylus vasorum (the “French-heartworm”), Crenosoma vulpis and Eucoleus aerophilus, the latter being of zoonotic interest. The prevalence was 24.5% (14/57; 95% CI 13.3–35.6%) overall, 19.3% for A. vasorum (11/57; 95% CI 8.8–29.2%), 7% for C. vulpis (4/57; 95% CI 0.4–13.6%) and 3.5% for E. aerophilus (2/57; CI −1.1–9.1%). A significant relationship (p = 0.002) was found between age and the presence of C. vulpis, which was only found in juvenile animals. Furthermore, a higher prevalence of A. vasorum and/or C. vulpis was observed in wolves with a lower body condition score (40% and 20%, respectively), though the difference was not significant (p = 0.221 and p = 0.444, respectively). Our findings indicate a high “French-heartworm” and lungworm burden in the wolf population of northern Spain, and they identify a need for studies designed to elucidate the epidemiological role played by the Iberian wolf and to identify possible risks for veterinary and public health. Full article
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14 pages, 2486 KiB  
Article
Prolactin Expression in the Baboon (Papio hamadryas) Eye
by María Lourdes Garza-Rodríguez, Iram Pablo Rodríguez-Sanchez, Rafael González-Álvarez, Maricela Luna, Carlos Horacio Burciaga-Flores, Fernando Alcorta-Nuñez, Orlando Solis-Coronado, Víctor Manuel Bautista de Lucio, Genaro A. Ramírez-Correa, Oscar Vidal-Gutiérrez and Diana Cristina Pérez-Ibave
Animals 2022, 12(17), 2288; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12172288 - 3 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1592
Abstract
Prolactin (PRL) is a hormone expressed in lactotrophs cells of the pituitary gland in primates. Extra pituitary expression of PRL has been reported, including the eye; however, expression in the developing eye of primates is limited. The aim of the study was determining [...] Read more.
Prolactin (PRL) is a hormone expressed in lactotrophs cells of the pituitary gland in primates. Extra pituitary expression of PRL has been reported, including the eye; however, expression in the developing eye of primates is limited. The aim of the study was determining the expression of PRL and PRL receptor (PRLR) (mRNAs and proteins) in adult and fetal baboon (Papio hamadryas) ocular tissues. Methods: We analyzed PRL and PRLR in baboon eyes tissues by immunofluorescence. The mRNAs of PRL and PRLR were detected by RT-PCR, cDNA was cloned, and sequenced. Furthermore, we performed a phylogenetic analysis to identify the evolutionary forces that underlie the divergence of PRL and PRLR primate genes. Results: We observed the expression of PRL and PRLR (mRNAs and proteins) in all retinal cell lineages of fetal and adult baboon. PRL and PRLR fit the hypothesis of evolutionary purifying gene selection. Conclusions: mRNA and protein of PRL and PRLR are expressed in fetal and adult baboon retinal tissue. PRL may trigger autocrine and paracrine-specific actions in retinal cell lines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mammals)
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8 pages, 1281 KiB  
Article
Propagation of Babesia bigemina in Rabbit Model and Evaluation of Its Attenuation in Cross-Bred Calves
by Naimat Ullah, Kamran Ashraf, Abdul Rehman, Muhammad Suleman and Muhammad Imran Rashid
Animals 2022, 12(17), 2287; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12172287 - 3 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1401
Abstract
Bovine babesiosis (BB) is a vector-borne disease (VBD) that affects cattle in tropical and subtropical areas, caused by the haemoprotozoa Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina. It is transmitted by tick bites belonging to the genus Rhipicephalus and is clinically characterized by high [...] Read more.
Bovine babesiosis (BB) is a vector-borne disease (VBD) that affects cattle in tropical and subtropical areas, caused by the haemoprotozoa Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina. It is transmitted by tick bites belonging to the genus Rhipicephalus and is clinically characterized by high fever, depression, anorexia, decreased milk and meat production, haemoglobinemia, haemoglobinuria, jaundice, and pregnancy loss. In this study, the propagation of B. bigemina was evaluated by intraperitoneally inoculating 3 × 106 red blood cells infected with B. bigemina into rabbits. The study showed that variations in rabbit body temperatures are related to induced bovine babesiosis. A significant increase in temperature (39.20 ± 0.23 °C) was observed from day 4 onwards, with the maximum temperature (40.80 ± 1.01 °C) on day 9 post-inoculation. This study included susceptible cross-bred calves for in vivo attenuation, and they were compared with an infected group. The calves in the infected group showed a significant increase in temperature (38.79 ± 0.03 °C) from day 3 onwards and a maximum temperature (41.3 ± 0.17 °C) on day 11. Inoculated calves showed a gradual rise in temperature post-inoculation, but the difference was not significant. Inoculated calves did not show parasitaemia, whereas 32% of infected calves displayed parasitaemia. As compared to inoculated calves post-inoculation, packed cell volume (PCV) decreased (16.36 ± 1.30) for infected calves. However, there were statistically significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) in temperatures, parasitaemia, and PCV in both inoculated and infected calves. The current study aimed to attenuate B. bigemina in rabbit models and evaluate the pathogenic potential of this organism in naive calves. In conclusion, B. bigemina proliferation was attenuated in rabbits. The rabbit model can be used to study B. bigemina in vivo in order to reduce its pathogenicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Cattle Diseases)
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16 pages, 662 KiB  
Article
Air Quality, Management Practices and Calf Health in Italian Dairy Cattle Farms
by Serena Bonizzi, Giulia Gislon, Milena Brasca, Stefano Morandi, Anna Sandrucci and Maddalena Zucali
Animals 2022, 12(17), 2286; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12172286 - 3 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2967
Abstract
Among factors that can affect calf health, microbial quality of the pen air is poorly studied. In 25 Italian dairy farms, data concerning air quality in the calf pens, hygiene of pens and equipment, microclimatic conditions, calf health and management were collected during [...] Read more.
Among factors that can affect calf health, microbial quality of the pen air is poorly studied. In 25 Italian dairy farms, data concerning air quality in the calf pens, hygiene of pens and equipment, microclimatic conditions, calf health and management were collected during the winter season (January-March 2020 and December-March 2021). The average air Standard Plate Count (SPC) of 85 pens was 4.51 (SD = 0.52) log10 cfu/m3 whereas the average air ammonia concentration was 0.66 (SD = 0.53) ppm. Positive correlations were found between average Temperature Humidity Index (THI) in the pen and air SPC, night maximum THI and air SPC and between SPC and yeast, mould and ammonia concentration in the pen air. The concentrations of E. coli, Enterobacteriaceae and yeasts in the pen air were higher and calf cough increased as the renewal interval of bedding material became longer. High bedding dry matter and low THI were associated with low air SPC, good calf health scores and low mortality. Maintaining low bedding humidity and controlling microclimatic conditions can contribute to enhancing air microbiological quality in the pen and reduce calf diseases and mortality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal System and Management)
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28 pages, 17264 KiB  
Review
The Role of Socialisation in the Taming and Management of Wild Dingoes by Australian Aboriginal People
by Adam Brumm and Loukas Koungoulos
Animals 2022, 12(17), 2285; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12172285 - 3 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 5091
Abstract
Historical sources and Indigenous oral traditions indicate that Australian Aboriginal people commonly reared and kept the wild-caught pups of dingoes (C. dingo) as tamed companion animals. A review of the available evidence suggests Indigenous communities employed an intense socialisation process that [...] Read more.
Historical sources and Indigenous oral traditions indicate that Australian Aboriginal people commonly reared and kept the wild-caught pups of dingoes (C. dingo) as tamed companion animals. A review of the available evidence suggests Indigenous communities employed an intense socialisation process that forged close personal bonds between humans and their tame dingoes from an early age. This was complemented by oral traditions which passed down awareness of the dangers to children posed by wild or unfamiliar dingoes, and which communicated the importance of treating dingoes with respect. Together, these practices resulted in what can be interpreted as substantially altered behaviours in tamed dingoes, which, despite their naturally high prey drive, were not considered a serious threat to children and were thus able to be maintained as companion animals in the long term. This relationship is of importance for understanding the original domestication of the dog, as it demonstrates a means by which careful and deliberate socialisation by foragers could both manage risks to children’s safety posed by keeping wild canids in the domestic realm and retain them well into reproductive maturity—both issues which have been highlighted as obstacles to the domestication of dogs from wolves. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Companion Animals)
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12 pages, 1452 KiB  
Article
Chemical Characterization of the Marking Fluid of Breeding and Non-Breeding Male Cheetahs
by Alexia Tommasi, Andreas G. J. Tredoux, Jacek A. Koziel and Giulia Esposito
Animals 2022, 12(17), 2284; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12172284 - 3 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1826
Abstract
Scent is known to play an important role in the reproduction of cheetahs and other felids. In fact, the presence/odor of a male cheetah has been noted to trigger the estrous cycle in females. The objective of this study was to analyze the [...] Read more.
Scent is known to play an important role in the reproduction of cheetahs and other felids. In fact, the presence/odor of a male cheetah has been noted to trigger the estrous cycle in females. The objective of this study was to analyze the marking fluid (MF) of male cheetahs from different breeding groups to determine the composition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present, with the aim of identifying potential pheromones relating to sexual behavior/attraction in this species. Four breeding (B; age: 8.9 ± 1.3 years old) and four non-breeding (NB; age: 5.5 ± 0.8 years old) males were selected for this study. Samples were collected into a glass beaker, transferred immediately into a 20 mL glass screw-cap vial with a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) coated silicone septum, and stored until analyzed by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. A contingency test with Fisher’s exact test, using the frequency (FREQ) procedure of SAS 9.4, was conducted to determine the difference between the number of VOCs identified per breeding group; furthermore, differences in relative concentration (RC) of the identified VOCs between breeding groups were analyzed using ANOVA for repeated measures with the GLIMMIX procedure. From the 13 MF samples analyzed, 53 VOCs were identified, and 12 were identified in all the samples. Five of these (dimethyl disulfide, benzaldehyde, acetophenone, phenol, and indole) are known to be involved in attraction/sexual behavior in mammals. Between the two groups, the RC of indole was significantly higher in the NB group, whereas the RC of dodecanoic acid was significantly higher in the B group. Although not significant, the RC of benzaldehyde was higher in the B versus the NB group. The results of this study do support the hypothesis of differences in VOCs’ between B and NB male cheetahs. However, the overlapping of age and breeding status and the diet differences could not be controlled. Still, the evidence of changes in MF composition in male cheetahs necessitates further studies on possible strategies to improve reproduction in captivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Senses in Vertebrates)
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17 pages, 2719 KiB  
Article
Generation and Characterization of Bovine Testicular Organoids Derived from Primary Somatic Cell Populations
by Jahaira Cortez, Barbara Leiva, Cristian G. Torres, Víctor H. Parraguez, Mónica De los Reyes, Albert Carrasco and Oscar A. Peralta
Animals 2022, 12(17), 2283; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12172283 - 3 Sep 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2088
Abstract
Organoids are 3D-culture systems composed of tissue-specific primary cells that self-organize and self-renew, creating structures similar to those of their tissue of origin. Testicular organoids (TOs) may recreate conditions of the testicular niche in domestic and wild cattle; however, no previous TO studies [...] Read more.
Organoids are 3D-culture systems composed of tissue-specific primary cells that self-organize and self-renew, creating structures similar to those of their tissue of origin. Testicular organoids (TOs) may recreate conditions of the testicular niche in domestic and wild cattle; however, no previous TO studies have been reported in the bovine species. Thus, in the present study, we sought to generate and characterize bovine TOs derived from primary testicular cell populations including Leydig, Sertoli and peritubular myoid cells. Testicular cells were isolated from bovine testes and cultured in ultra-low attachment (ULA) plates and Matrigel. TOs were cultured in media supplemented from day 3 with 100 ng/mL of BMP4 and 10 ng/mL of FGF2 and from day 7 with 15 ng/mL of GDNF. Testicular cells were able to generate TOs after 3 days of culture. The cells positive for STAR (Leydig) and COL1A (peritubular myoid) decreased (p < 0.05), whereas cells positive for WT1 (Sertoli) increased (p < 0.05) in TOs during a 28-day culture period. The levels of testosterone in media increased (p < 0.05) at day 28 of culture. Thus, testicular cells isolated from bovine testes were able to generate TOs under in vitro conditions. These bovine TOs have steroidogenic activity characterized by the production of testosterone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Reproductive Biotechnologies)
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20 pages, 3763 KiB  
Article
Horses in the Early Medieval (10th–13th c.) Religious Rituals of Slavs in Polish Areas—An Archaeozoological, Archaeological and Historical Overview
by Daniel Makowiecki, Wojciech Chudziak, Paweł Szczepanik, Maciej Janeczek and Edyta Pasicka
Animals 2022, 12(17), 2282; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12172282 - 3 Sep 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2863
Abstract
Knowledge about horses from early medieval (10th–13th c.) Poland has been largely based on historical and archaeological data. Archaeozoological information has only been used to a limited extent. Therefore, this article aims to present the current state of knowledge on this subject, drawing [...] Read more.
Knowledge about horses from early medieval (10th–13th c.) Poland has been largely based on historical and archaeological data. Archaeozoological information has only been used to a limited extent. Therefore, this article aims to present the current state of knowledge on this subject, drawing on archaeozoological data from studies of horse bones. Apart from confirming earlier reflections regarding the sacred significance of the horse, additional information was obtained about specific individuals who were the subject of magical treatments. It turned out that sites with horse skeletons and skulls are few compared to the familiar presence of horse remains among kitchen waste. This contrasts with the neighbouring regions, where horses were buried more frequently among the Germans, Scandinavians and Prussians. Some new data have been obtained thanks to taphonomic analyses, which demonstrated that horse skulls of apotropaic status were not only exposed to public viewing but were also deposited under stronghold ramparts. Horses suffering from infectious diseases could also be buried under such ramparts. Considerations in the article lead to conclusions that horses were used in religious rituals as sacrificial animals, apotropaic deposits, as fortune-telling animals and cosmological figures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends on Prehistoric and Historical Zooarchaeology)
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14 pages, 3544 KiB  
Article
Dietary Garlic Powder Alleviates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Response and Oxidative Stress through Regulating the Immunity and Intestinal Barrier Function in Broilers
by Ruiqiang Zhang, Jinsong Liu, Yulan Liu, Yanping Wu, Yinglei Xu and Jie Feng
Animals 2022, 12(17), 2281; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12172281 - 2 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1782
Abstract
Garlic powder (GP) has the outstanding antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anti-parasitic and antioxidant characteristics because of its various contained bioactive components, such as alliin, allicin, and polysaccharide, etc. It has been widely used as a native medicine and shown to prevent a variety of [...] Read more.
Garlic powder (GP) has the outstanding antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anti-parasitic and antioxidant characteristics because of its various contained bioactive components, such as alliin, allicin, and polysaccharide, etc. It has been widely used as a native medicine and shown to prevent a variety of diseases. This research was performed to determine the positive effects of GP on growth and intestinal function in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenged broilers. A total of 480 one-day-old male Ross 308 broilers of similar initial body weight were randomly divided into four groups with 8 replicates per treatment and 15 chicks each replicate. LPS challenge enhanced the weight loss rate, decreased the immunity and antioxidant capability, increased the intestinal permeability in broilers. When compared with LPS group, broilers fed with GP exhibited improved weight loss rate and jejunum villus height, enhanced ileum antioxidant function, and ameliorated intestinal barrier function. The LPS-challenged broilers in GP group had higher immunity than that of broilers in antibiotics group. GP supplementation could act as a natural alternative to antibiotic additive to alleviate the LPS-induced weight loss rate, inflammatory responses, and oxidative stress in broilers by improving the immunity and intestinal function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Nutrition)
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14 pages, 655 KiB  
Article
Effect of Gardenia Pomace Supplementation on Growth Performance, Blood Metabolites, Immune and Antioxidant Indices, and Meat Quality in Xiangcun Pigs
by Sen Zou, Changchao Sun, Feng Li, Yingjie Xie, Tong Liang, Yuqing Yang, Baoming Shi, Qingquan Ma, Zhuo Shi, Sa Chai and Anshan Shan
Animals 2022, 12(17), 2280; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12172280 - 2 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1527
Abstract
To investigate the effect of gardenia pomace (GP) as an unconventional feed of antioxidants, 180 Xiangcun pigs were randomly divided into 3 groups during the finishing period, with 6 replicates per group and 10 pigs per replicate. During the 47-day feeding period, the [...] Read more.
To investigate the effect of gardenia pomace (GP) as an unconventional feed of antioxidants, 180 Xiangcun pigs were randomly divided into 3 groups during the finishing period, with 6 replicates per group and 10 pigs per replicate. During the 47-day feeding period, the pigs were fed either a control diet based on corn and soybean meal (control group), or the control diet added with 50 g/kg or 100 g/kg GP (groups GP5 and GP10, respectively). Feed and water were provided ad libitum. One pig per replicate was slaughtered and sampled. The effects on growth performance, meat quality, digestibility, metabolism, and immunity and antioxidant properties of the pigs were investigated. The results showed that GP had no significant effect on the growth performance of Xiangcun pigs. Compared with the control group, the digestibility of crude ash, phosphorus, and crude fibre of pigs in the GP groups improved (p < 0.01), and the content of inosinic acid in the longissimus dorsi muscle increased (p < 0.05). The addition of GP to the diet significantly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels in the liver and spleen, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity in the longissimus dorsi muscle and spleen (p < 0.05). Additionally, it significantly reduced the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the liver and spleen (p < 0.05). The GP5 group had a higher inosinic acid content in the longissimus dorsi and lower levels of the inflammatory factor interleukin-2 and interleukin-8 than those in the other groups (p < 0.05). The GP10 group had a higher IgA level (p < 0.05). Adding different proportions of GP to the diet improved the a* and b* of the longissimus dorsi muscles of Xiangcun pigs (p < 0.05). In summary, GP, as an unconventional feed, improved the apparent digestibility of the diet and body antioxidant capacity in Xiangcun pigs during the finishing period and did not negatively affect the growth performance or meat quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Nutrition)
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12 pages, 660 KiB  
Article
Comparative Study of the Use of Doxycycline and Oxytetracycline to Treat Anaplasmosis in Fattening Lambs
by Delia Lacasta, Héctor Ruiz, Aurora Ortín, Sergio Villanueva-Saz, Agustín Estrada-Peña, José María González, Juan José Ramos, Luis Miguel Ferrer, Alfredo Ángel Benito, Raquel Labanda, Carlos Malo, María Teresa Verde, Antonio Fernández and Marta Ruiz de Arcaute
Animals 2022, 12(17), 2279; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12172279 - 2 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1497
Abstract
Lamb icteric carcasses condemnation due to Anaplasma ovis is causing relevant economic losses. A comparative study was developed on the effects of different antibiotics to treat ovine anaplasmosis in fattening lambs. A total of 100 A. ovis naturally infected lambs were selected and [...] Read more.
Lamb icteric carcasses condemnation due to Anaplasma ovis is causing relevant economic losses. A comparative study was developed on the effects of different antibiotics to treat ovine anaplasmosis in fattening lambs. A total of 100 A. ovis naturally infected lambs were selected and randomly divided into four groups of 25 lambs: Group ID, treated with injectable doxycycline; Group OD, oral doxycycline; Group O, injectable oxytetracycline; and Group C, untreated animals for the control group. Clinical, haematological, and molecular analyses were performed before the treatment and 12 and 45 days after the beginning of the treatments, and carcass condemnation was followed after slaughter. The A. ovis bacterial load was high before the treatments in the four groups and decreased significantly 45 days after treatment in the ID and O Groups (p < 0.001). The parameters that were related to haemolysis showed similar results. At the abattoir, 15 out of the 47 examined carcasses were condemned; 7 of C Group, 6 of OD Group, 2 of O Group, and 0 of ID Group. It can be concluded that injectable doxycycline and oxytetracycline significantly reduce A. ovis bacterial load in blood and carcass condemnation at the abattoir. Further studies are needed in order to confirm these encouraging findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anaemia Associated Disorders in Sheep)
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12 pages, 849 KiB  
Review
Dietary Phytogenic Extracts Favorably Influence Productivity, Egg Quality, Blood Constituents, Antioxidant and Immunological Parameters of Laying Hens: A Meta-Analysis
by Arif Darmawan, Widya Hermana, Dwi Margi Suci, Rita Mutia, Sumiati, Anuraga Jayanegara and Ergin Ozturk
Animals 2022, 12(17), 2278; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12172278 - 2 Sep 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2521
Abstract
The present study aimed to assess the impact of dietary phytogenic extracts on laying hen productivity, egg quality, blood constituents, antioxidant, and immunological parameters through a meta-analytical approach. A total of 28 articles (119 data points) reporting the influence of dietary phytogenic extracts [...] Read more.
The present study aimed to assess the impact of dietary phytogenic extracts on laying hen productivity, egg quality, blood constituents, antioxidant, and immunological parameters through a meta-analytical approach. A total of 28 articles (119 data points) reporting the influence of dietary phytogenic extracts on the productive performance, egg quality, blood constituents, immunological, and antioxidant parameters of laying hens were embedded into a database. Statistical analysis was performed using a mixed model, with different studies treated as random effects and phytogenic extract levels treated as fixed effects. This meta-analysis revealed that dietary phytogenic extracts quadratically (p < 0.05) improved egg production and egg mass as well as decreased (p < 0.05) the feed conversion ratio (FCR) with no adverse effect on egg weight and egg quality. Feed intake and egg yolk percentage tended to increase linearly (p < 0.1). Total serum cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) declined quadratically (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05, respectively), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) increased linearly (p < 0.001), and malondialdehyde (MDA) decreased linearly (p < 0.01), with increasing levels of dietary phytogenic extract. In addition, immunoglobulin G (IgG), immunoglobulin A (IgA), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and total superoxide dismutase (TSOD) increased linearly (p < 0.05) in line with the increase in dietary phytogenic extract level. It was concluded that the inclusion of phytogenic extracts in the diet of laying hens had a positive effect on productive performance, feed efficiency, egg mass, immunity, and antioxidant activity without interfering with egg quality. The optimum level of feed photogenic extract for egg production and feed efficiency was determined to be around 300 mg/kg feed. Full article
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12 pages, 339 KiB  
Review
Effect of Sperm Cryopreservation in Farm Animals Using Nanotechnology
by Muhammad Faheem Akhtar, Qingshan Ma, Yan Li, Wenqiong Chai, Zhenwei Zhang, Liangliang Li and Changfa Wang
Animals 2022, 12(17), 2277; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12172277 - 2 Sep 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2860
Abstract
Sperm cryopreservation is one of the sublime biotechnologies for assisted reproduction. In recent decades, there has been an increasing trend in the use of preserved semen. Post-thaw semen quality and values vary among animals of the same species. Similarly, there are species-specific variations [...] Read more.
Sperm cryopreservation is one of the sublime biotechnologies for assisted reproduction. In recent decades, there has been an increasing trend in the use of preserved semen. Post-thaw semen quality and values vary among animals of the same species. Similarly, there are species-specific variations in sperm morphology, i.e., sperm head, kinetic properties, plasma membrane integrity, and freezability. Similarly, the viability of sperm varies in the female reproductive tract, i.e., from a few hours (in cattle) to several days (in chicken). Various steps of sperm cryopreservation, i.e., male health examination, semen collection, dilution, semen centrifugation, pre- and post-thaw semen quality evaluation, lack standardized methodology, that result in differences in opinions. Assisted reproductive technologies (ART), including sperm preservation, are not applied to the same extent in commercial poultry species as in mammalian species for management and economic reasons. Sperm preservation requires a reduction in physiological metabolism by extending the viable duration of the gametes. Physiologically and morphologically, spermatozoa are unique in structure and function to deliver paternal DNA and activate oocytes after fertilization. Variations in semen and sperm composition account for better handling of semen, which can aid in improved fertility. This review aims to provide an update on sperm cryopreservation in farm animals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Status and Advances in Semen Preservation)
28 pages, 1552 KiB  
Article
Traditional Use of Wild and Domestic Fauna among Different Ethnic Groups in the Western Himalayas—A Cross Cultural Analysis
by Musheerul Hassan, Shiekh Marifatul Haq, Riyaz Ahmad, Muhammad Majeed, Hakim Ali Sahito, Madeeha Shirani, Iqra Mubeen, Muhammad Abdul Aziz, Andrea Pieroni, Rainer W. Bussmann, Abed Alataway, Ahmed Z. Dewidar, Mohamed Al-Yafrsi, Hosam O. Elansary and Kowiyou Yessoufou
Animals 2022, 12(17), 2276; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12172276 - 2 Sep 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2872
Abstract
Animal-derived products have an important role in treating many health conditions and have widely been used across cultures. In South Asia, ethnozoological research has been conducted only by a small number of researchers. Therefore, this area of research needs further exploration in order [...] Read more.
Animal-derived products have an important role in treating many health conditions and have widely been used across cultures. In South Asia, ethnozoological research has been conducted only by a small number of researchers. Therefore, this area of research needs further exploration in order to preserve the eroding ethnozoological knowledge of medicinal animals severely affected by ongoing social change. This study was conducted in the region of Jammu and Kashmir from February 2019 to August 2021. The study was carried out among eight different ethnic groups living in the region. A total of 374 informants were selected and data were collected through semi-structured interviews and verified through group discussions. Data was analyzed using different statistical tools, including R 4.0.0. The cross-cultural data were compared through Bioinformatics and Evolutionary Genomics software and later subjected to further analysis, applying Pearson correlation and ordination techniques (Principal Component Analysis). We recorded a total of 79 animal species being used by the eight studied ethnic groups in the region. Wild animal species were mainly used for therapeutic purposes. Chest infections, sexual problems, and paralysis were frequently treated diseases. Flesh was the most commonly part used. The cross-cultural comparison showed a remarkable heterogeneity in the use of the animals among the different groups, which could be an effect to the historical sociocultural stratifications, as well as different religious affiliation of certain groups preventing them to forage or hunt certain animals. Some groups however showed prominent overlap of uses of some recorded species. For instance, Lerwalerwa and Bubalus bubalis were commonly used by both Gujjar and Pahari, which could be referred to the fact that they have gone through significant socio-cultural contact, and they are exogamous to each other. The Pearson correlation coefficient supported the strength and direction of an association between ethnic groups and regions. The study makes an important contribution to the field of ethnozoology in the Himalayas by providing insights to understand the historical human and nature relationships and supplying a baseline for developing future conservation efforts in the region to protect the wild fauna Full article
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