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Soc. Sci., Volume 9, Issue 7 (July 2020) – 16 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Drawing on long-term ethnographic fieldwork, “The Culture of Violent Talk: An Interpretive Approach” investigates how informal conversations among US white supremacists valorize violence. This unique type of data provides valuable insight regarding the micro-interactional dynamics that characterize white supremacists’ relationships across a range of spatial contexts. The article analyzes how this type of talk serves as a rhetorical device that provides these individuals with a sense of doing and an opportunity to express their frustrations and anger. However, violent talk does not necessarily indicate a direct correspondence between words and future behavior. To better understand the culture of violent talk, the article relies on symbolic interactionist concepts such as identity talk and insight gleaned from conversation analysis. View this paper.
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20 pages, 966 KiB  
Review
Territorial Intelligence, a Collective Challenge for Sustainable Development: A Scoping Review
by Miguel-Ángel García-Madurga, Ana-Julia Grilló-Méndez and Miguel-Ángel Esteban-Navarro
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(7), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9070126 - 21 Jul 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 6151
Abstract
Territorial Intelligence is a practice devoted to obtaining, analysing and valuing information and knowledge about a territory and its environment to design and implement territorial plans on strategic matters. The purpose of this article is to provide a broad overview about the meaning [...] Read more.
Territorial Intelligence is a practice devoted to obtaining, analysing and valuing information and knowledge about a territory and its environment to design and implement territorial plans on strategic matters. The purpose of this article is to provide a broad overview about the meaning of Territorial Intelligence in academic literature covering the definitions of the concept and the main topics involved. A scoping review following the PRISMA-ScR method has been carried out. Online databases were used to identify scientific articles and theses published between 2000 and 2020, from which, after screening, 33 key documents were selected, mainly of French origin. Qualitative analyses were performed following the technique of the Seven Key Questions (7W). Territorial Intelligence began in France as an application of Economic Intelligence, but it is becoming an autonomous discipline, expanding to other countries and generating specific applications, such as Tourist Intelligence, in the last decade. It is concluded that three elements characterize current Territorial Intelligence: the consideration as a collective process that involves the participation of multiple agents, the integration of external sources of information with territorial agents’ own internal knowledge and a focus on collaboration to promote sustainable development with a global vision. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social, Legal and Educational Challenges of Contemporary Economics)
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17 pages, 691 KiB  
Article
Correlations Between the Attitudes about Learning of After-School Club Students during School and the Teaching Quality of Elementary School Teachers
by Shih-Hsien Tseng, Huang-Yi Kang, Tien Son Nguyen and Meng-Yun Liu
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(7), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9070125 - 21 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4290
Abstract
In this study, we investigated the correlations between the attitudes about learning of elementary students who attended after-school clubs and the teaching quality of their educators during school. Previously, scholars have focused on service quality and satisfaction from the point of view of [...] Read more.
In this study, we investigated the correlations between the attitudes about learning of elementary students who attended after-school clubs and the teaching quality of their educators during school. Previously, scholars have focused on service quality and satisfaction from the point of view of the parents, while overlooking the attitudes of students and teachers. To investigate the correlation between student enthusiasm and teaching quality, we sent out a questionnaire survey, collected 343 valid responses, and tested the related data via regression analysis. From the teacher’s point of view, this study can be divided into five constructs: learning interest, self-regulated learning, completing homework, interaction with the environment, and preparation for examinations. We also examined the correlations between each construct and teaching quality. We found that learning interest, homework assignments, environment interaction, and preparation for examinations had a positive correlation with the teaching quality of the elementary level teachers. Lastly, based on our findings, we made recommendations on how to improve teaching quality and leaning in the classroom. Full article
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15 pages, 638 KiB  
Article
Direct and Indirect Impacts of Housing Tenure Mix on Antisocial Behavior: A Study of Hong Kong’s Private Housing Communities
by Yung Yau
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(7), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9070124 - 17 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3744
Abstract
The problem of antisocial behavior (ASB) undermines the life quality of urban residents. While many previous studies on ASB focused on the solutions, little effort has been dedicated to finding out the social determinants of the levels of ASB problems in private housing [...] Read more.
The problem of antisocial behavior (ASB) undermines the life quality of urban residents. While many previous studies on ASB focused on the solutions, little effort has been dedicated to finding out the social determinants of the levels of ASB problems in private housing communities, especially in high-rise residential settings in Asian cities. Previous empirical research suggests that ASB seriousness can be a function of poor neighborliness, community detachment and management efficacy. Yet, the link between housing tenure mix and ASB problems has been underexplored in the literature. In this light, a multilevel design with hierarchical modeling was employed to test the hypothesized direct and indirect (moderation) effects of housing tenure mix on the perceived seriousness of ASB in neighborhoods. The dataset came from a structured questionnaire survey of 592 residents living in 17 private high-rise housing communities in Tseung Kwan O, Hong Kong. The results indicated that the seriousness of the ASB problem was largely dependent on poor neighborliness and community detachment. A higher level of renting in a housing community was also found to amplify perceived ASB seriousness, and enhance the influence of poor neighborliness on ASB seriousness. The research findings highlight the importance of tenure mix in predicting the degree of ASB proliferation in a housing community. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Community and Urban Sociology)
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22 pages, 5448 KiB  
Article
“The Theater of the Mind”: The Effect of Radio Exposure on TV Advertising
by Vincenzo Russo, Riccardo Valesi, Anna Gallo, Rita Laureanti and Margherita Zito
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(7), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9070123 - 15 Jul 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 5610
Abstract
Contemporary society requires communication strategies that integrate different media channels in order to improve advertising performance. Currently, there are not many scientific research studies of the various mass media, comparing the results of audiovisual advertising to purely audio or visual messages aimed at [...] Read more.
Contemporary society requires communication strategies that integrate different media channels in order to improve advertising performance. Currently, there are not many scientific research studies of the various mass media, comparing the results of audiovisual advertising to purely audio or visual messages aimed at detecting the best combination of media, especially from a neurophysiological perspective. This study aims to investigate the effects of previous exposure to an advertisement via radio on the consumers’ response to the same advertisement shown on television (TV) or as a banner on a website. A total of seventy participants in a between-subjects experiment watched several television commercials during the advertising break of a documentary or saw some banners during a web surfing task. Half were first exposed to the same advertisements via radio. The results have shown that participants who previously listened to the radio advertisements spent a longer time looking at the brand and had a higher engagement when watching the same advertisements on television. Moreover, they had a different kind of visual attention to the website banners. This pattern of results indicates the effect of mere exposure—that is, the exposure to a radio advertisement enhances the effectiveness of the same advertisement via television or web, offering useful insights for media planning campaigns. Even if mere exposure has been extensively studied, cross-media research is scarcely explored, whereas this study detected the effects of mere exposure in a cross-media communication strategy, showing that it can be measured through psychophysiological methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Economics)
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16 pages, 313 KiB  
Article
Animals as Something More Than Mere Property: Interweaving Green Criminology and Law
by James Gacek and Richard Jochelson
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(7), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9070122 - 12 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 7659
Abstract
Our article argues that non-human animals deserve to be treated as something more than property to be abused, exploited, or expended. Such an examination lies at the heart of green criminology and law—an intersection of which we consider more thoroughly. Drawing upon our [...] Read more.
Our article argues that non-human animals deserve to be treated as something more than property to be abused, exploited, or expended. Such an examination lies at the heart of green criminology and law—an intersection of which we consider more thoroughly. Drawing upon our respective and collective works, we endeavor to engage in a discussion that highlights the significance of green criminology for law and suggests how law can provide opportunities to further green criminological inquiry. How the law is acutely relevant for constituting the animal goes hand in glove with how humanness and animality are embedded deeply in the construction of law and society. We contend that, when paired together, green criminology and law have the potential to reconstitute the animal as something more than mere property within law, shed light on the anthropocentric logics at play within the criminal justice system, and promote positive changes to animal cruelty legislation. Scholarship could benefit greatly from moving into new lines of inquiry that emphasize “more-than-human legalities”. Such inquiry has the power to promote the advocacy-oriented scholarship of animal rights and species justice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Criminology)
24 pages, 313 KiB  
Article
Social Work with Families in Special Distress: Collaborative Practices
by Tatiana Casado, Joan Albert Riera and Josefa Cardona
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(7), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9070121 - 12 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 5393
Abstract
Collaborative practices have emerged as an effective approach for conducting social work interventions with families in special distress. This study aimed to ascertain the perspective of the social workers located in basic community social services, in relation to the development of a collaborative [...] Read more.
Collaborative practices have emerged as an effective approach for conducting social work interventions with families in special distress. This study aimed to ascertain the perspective of the social workers located in basic community social services, in relation to the development of a collaborative approach with families in special distress. The main objective was to find out the level of importance and the level of implementation that participants (N = 121) gave to the different intervention criteria included in an Inventory of Collaborative Practices. The results indicate that criteria related to basic issues in social case work (active listening, respect, and empathy) as well as the management and bureaucracy of the specific case are the most valued and performed by social workers. The least valued and performed criteria have to do with issues that involve reflective processes in the helping relationship, both with the family and with the rest of the professionals. Implications for practice and quality enhancement are discussed, as they are key aspects in the development of collaborative interventions in social work. Full article
16 pages, 260 KiB  
Article
The Culture of Violent Talk: An Interpretive Approach
by Pete Simi and Steven Windisch
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(7), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9070120 - 10 Jul 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 5708
Abstract
One of the defining characteristics of extremist movements is the adherence to an ideology highly antagonistic to the status quo and one that permits or explicitly promotes the use of violence to achieve stated goals and to address grievances. For members of extremist [...] Read more.
One of the defining characteristics of extremist movements is the adherence to an ideology highly antagonistic to the status quo and one that permits or explicitly promotes the use of violence to achieve stated goals and to address grievances. For members of extremist groups, talk is one of the most concrete manifestations of how adherents communicate their ideas to each other and the general public. These discussions, however, do not necessarily involve a direct correspondence between words and future behavior. To better understand the culture of violent talk, we investigate how white supremacist extremists use these discussions as a rhetorical device that provides them with a sense of doing and an opportunity to express their frustrations and anger. Our analysis is grounded primarily in the ethnographic data we collected on a variety of US white supremacists since 1997. Our investigation offers important insight regarding the interactional qualities of extremist culture as well as policy implications regarding the assessment process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Global Rise of the Extreme Right)
19 pages, 582 KiB  
Article
A Practical Guide for Managing Interdisciplinary Teams: Lessons Learned from Coupled Natural and Human Systems Research
by V. Reilly Henson, Kelly M. Cobourn, Kathleen C. Weathers, Cayelan C. Carey, Kaitlin J. Farrell, Jennifer L. Klug, Michael G. Sorice, Nicole K. Ward and Weizhe Weng
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(7), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9070119 - 9 Jul 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 5253
Abstract
Interdisciplinary team science is essential to address complex socio-environmental questions, but it also presents unique challenges. The scientific literature identifies best practices for high-level processes in team science, e.g., leadership and team building, but provides less guidance about practical, day-to-day strategies to support [...] Read more.
Interdisciplinary team science is essential to address complex socio-environmental questions, but it also presents unique challenges. The scientific literature identifies best practices for high-level processes in team science, e.g., leadership and team building, but provides less guidance about practical, day-to-day strategies to support teamwork, e.g., translating jargon across disciplines, sharing and transforming data, and coordinating diverse and geographically distributed researchers. This article offers a case study of an interdisciplinary socio-environmental research project to derive insight to support team science implementation. We evaluate the project’s inner workings using a framework derived from the growing body of literature for team science best practices, and derive insights into how best to apply team science principles to interdisciplinary research. We find that two of the most useful areas for proactive planning and coordinated leadership are data management and co-authorship. By providing guidance for project implementation focused on these areas, we contribute a pragmatic, detail-oriented perspective on team science in an effort to support similar projects. Full article
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12 pages, 243 KiB  
Article
How Good Are Child Vulnerability Assessment Tools in China?
by Di Qi and Shiyou Wu
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(7), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9070118 - 8 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3208
Abstract
Accurately assessing children’s vulnerabilities and needs is important for child service delivery in social work. In China, different agencies (including international non-governmental organizations, government sectors and social organizations) utilize different tools for assessing children’s needs. However, the advantages and disadvantages of these tools [...] Read more.
Accurately assessing children’s vulnerabilities and needs is important for child service delivery in social work. In China, different agencies (including international non-governmental organizations, government sectors and social organizations) utilize different tools for assessing children’s needs. However, the advantages and disadvantages of these tools have been rarely discussed, leaving their quality and effectiveness unknown. As a result, it is difficult to realize the goal of improving the well-being of Chinese children. This paper contributes to existing knowledge through the use of semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders of different types of agencies, along with an in-depth exploration, analysis and comparison of their practical assessment tools. Full article
23 pages, 1056 KiB  
Discussion
Non-Permanent Employment and Employees’ Health in the Context of Sustainable HRM with a Focus on Poland
by Katarzyna Piwowar-Sulej and Dominika Bąk-Grabowska
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(7), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9070117 - 7 Jul 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4045
Abstract
This study is focused on the assumption that the analyses focused on sustainable human resource management (HRM) should include the problem of unstable forms of employment. Reference was also made to Poland, the country where the share of unstable forms of employment is [...] Read more.
This study is focused on the assumption that the analyses focused on sustainable human resource management (HRM) should include the problem of unstable forms of employment. Reference was also made to Poland, the country where the share of unstable forms of employment is the highest in the European Union. The authors based their findings on the literature and the data published, i.e., by Eurostat, OECD and Statistics Poland, accompanied by CSR reports. Insecure forms of employment have negative impact on employees’ health, primarily regarding their mental health. Statistically significant correlations were found between the expectation rate of possible job loss and non-standard employment variables, and the rate of reporting exposure to risk factors that affect mental wellbeing and precarious employment rates. However, conducting statistical analyses at the macro level is associated with limitations resulting from leaving out many important factors characteristic of the given countries and affecting the presented data. Current guidelines, relevant to reporting the use of non-standard forms of employment by enterprises, are inconsistent. Companies voluntarily demonstrate the scope of using non-permanent forms of employment and not referring to the issue of employees’ choice of a given type of employment and employees’ health. Future research projects should be focused on developing a comprehensive, coherent and universal tool allowing for an assessment of the implementation level of sustainable HRM ideas in an organization, including standardized reporting of non-permanent employment and employees’ health, and making comparisons not only between organizations, but also between countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Work, Employment and the Labor Market)
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17 pages, 919 KiB  
Article
Help and Solidarity Interactions in Interactive Groups: A Case Study with Roma and Immigrant Preschoolers
by Andrea Khalfaoui, Rocío García-Carrión, Lourdes Villardón-Gallego and Elena Duque
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(7), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9070116 - 7 Jul 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4927
Abstract
Peer interactions in early childhood education play a key role in establishing the first structures of social relationships and foundations for future development. Engaging in social exchanges with different people enriches children’s concurrent and future learning opportunities. Building on the importance of diversifying [...] Read more.
Peer interactions in early childhood education play a key role in establishing the first structures of social relationships and foundations for future development. Engaging in social exchanges with different people enriches children’s concurrent and future learning opportunities. Building on the importance of diversifying interactions, interactive groups (IGs) are a specific dialogue-based classroom organization format that creates an inclusive learning environment by allocating students to small heterogeneous groups with an adult volunteer per group. This classroom organization format has produced reported evidence of enhancing social cohesion and academic achievement, mainly in elementary education. However, its potential to foster positive peer interactions in Early Childhood Education among disadvantaged children remains unexplored. Therefore, this case study explores in depth the type and frequency of positive peer interactions in interactive groups in a preschool classroom serving mainly Roma and immigrant children with a very low SES. The results show that in this context, children acknowledge each other’s work and provide help, guidance, and solidarity interactions when solving academic tasks. Our analysis reveals that children internalize the rules and functioning of the IG since those aspects emerge in their conversations during the activity. Implications for practitioners and policymakers are also discussed. Full article
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12 pages, 250 KiB  
Article
The Lived Experience of Gender and Gender Equity Policies at a Regional Australian University
by Jennifer Manyweathers, Jessie Lymn, Geraldine Rurenga, Katie Murrell-Orgill, Shara Cameron and Cate Thomas
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(7), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9070115 - 6 Jul 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4057
Abstract
The research question driving this project was ‘what is the congruence between the lived experience of gender and a policy designed to improve gender equity in a university environment?’ The study used mixed methods to investigate the question. These methods included analysis of [...] Read more.
The research question driving this project was ‘what is the congruence between the lived experience of gender and a policy designed to improve gender equity in a university environment?’ The study used mixed methods to investigate the question. These methods included analysis of organisational travel data, and a collaborative autoethnography of participants engaging with claims for dependent care support expenses while travelling for work. The research found four key themes influencing the relationship between gender equity policies and the lived experience of staff. These include gatekeeping, organisation-wide funding of gender equity policies, policy development processes and gender equity as a concept. This article presents a series of transferable recommendations for organisations looking to improve gender equity. Full article
18 pages, 580 KiB  
Article
COVID-19 Infects Real Estate Markets: Short and Mid-Run Effects on Housing Prices in Campania Region (Italy)
by Vincenzo Del Giudice, Pierfrancesco De Paola and Francesco Paolo Del Giudice
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(7), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9070114 - 5 Jul 2020
Cited by 70 | Viewed by 16600
Abstract
The COVID-19 (also called “SARS-CoV-2”) pandemic is causing a dramatic reduction in consumption, with a further drop in prices and a decrease in workers’ per capita income. To this will be added an increase in unemployment, which will further depress consumption. The real [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 (also called “SARS-CoV-2”) pandemic is causing a dramatic reduction in consumption, with a further drop in prices and a decrease in workers’ per capita income. To this will be added an increase in unemployment, which will further depress consumption. The real estate market, as for other productive and commercial sectors, in the short and mid-run, will not tend to move independently from the context of the aforementioned economic variables. The effect of pandemics or health emergencies on housing markets is an unexplored topic in international literature. For this reason, firstly, the few specific studies found are reported and, by analogy, studies on the effects of terrorism attacks and natural disasters on real estate prices are examined too. Subsequently, beginning from the real estate dynamics and economic indicators of the Campania region before the COVID-19 emergency, the current COVID-19 scenario is defined (focusing on unemployment, personal and household income, real estate judicial execution, real estate dynamics). Finally, a real estate pricing model is developed, evaluating the short and mid-run COVID-19 effects on housing prices. To predict possible changes in the mid-run of real estate judicial execution and real estate dynamics, the economic model of Lotka–Volterra (also known as the “prey–predator” model) was applied. Results of the model indicate a housing prices drop of 4.16% in the short-run and 6.49% in the mid-run (late 2020–early 2021). Full article
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22 pages, 6561 KiB  
Article
Metapolitical New Right Influencers: The Case of Brittany Pettibone
by Ico Maly
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(7), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9070113 - 2 Jul 2020
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 19138
Abstract
Far-right movements, activists, and political parties are on the rise worldwide. Several scholars connect this rise of the far-right at least partially to the affordances of digital media and to a new digital metapolitical battle. A lot has been written about the far-right’s [...] Read more.
Far-right movements, activists, and political parties are on the rise worldwide. Several scholars connect this rise of the far-right at least partially to the affordances of digital media and to a new digital metapolitical battle. A lot has been written about the far-right’s adoption of trolling, harassment, and meme-culture in their metapolitical strategy, but researchers have focused less on how far-right vloggers are using the practices of influencer culture for metapolitical goals. This paper tries to fill this gap and bring new theoretical insights based on a digital ethnographic case study. By analyzing political YouTuber and #pizzagate propagator Brittany Pettibone, this paper contributes to our understanding of radicalization processes in relation to the use of digital media. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Global Rise of the Extreme Right)
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11 pages, 239 KiB  
Article
Food Crime: A Review of the UK Institutional Perception of Illicit Practices in the Food Sector
by Alice Rizzuti
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(7), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9070112 - 2 Jul 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 5681
Abstract
Food offers highly profitable opportunities to criminal actors. Recent cases, from wine and meat adulteration to milk powder contaminations, have brought renewed attention to forms of harmful activities which have long occurred in the food sector. Despite several scandals over the last few [...] Read more.
Food offers highly profitable opportunities to criminal actors. Recent cases, from wine and meat adulteration to milk powder contaminations, have brought renewed attention to forms of harmful activities which have long occurred in the food sector. Despite several scandals over the last few decades, food has so far received scant criminological attention and the concept of food crime remains subject to different definitions. This article assesses regulations in the United Kingdom (UK) and UK authorities’ official reports published between 2013 and 2018 through a review of academic literature published in English. It charts the evolution of the food crime concept, its various meanings, and different harmful activities associated with food crime, which originate from unlawful acts and omissions. This article also points out that further criminological research needs to address the definitional issue of food crime and inform a more integrated policy approach by considering activities beyond food fraud and the protection of food safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Criminology)
14 pages, 273 KiB  
Article
Social Investment in Aotearoa/New Zealand: Meaning and Implications
by Michael O’Brien
Soc. Sci. 2020, 9(7), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9070111 - 30 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4633
Abstract
Social investment has been the leit motif for the development of a range of social service provisions in Aotearoa/New Zealand for the last decade. It involves a particular approach, using data to target decisions and inform directions for such key areas as social [...] Read more.
Social investment has been the leit motif for the development of a range of social service provisions in Aotearoa/New Zealand for the last decade. It involves a particular approach, using data to target decisions and inform directions for such key areas as social security, care and protection of children and delivery of social services. There are serious questions about the statistical base which informs the approach and the implications for disadvantaged, marginalised and targeted populations, while poverty is neglected, sidelined and/or treated as resulting from individual failure. The Aotearoa/New Zealand model of social investment represents a significant departure from needs based, equity informed welfare provision. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Policy and Welfare)
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