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Soc. Sci., Volume 6, Issue 4 (December 2017)

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Open AccessArticle The Child’s Voice in Determining Program Acceptability for a School-Based Mindfulness Intervention
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(4), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci6040155
Received: 28 October 2017 / Revised: 29 November 2017 / Accepted: 14 December 2017 / Published: 20 December 2017
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Abstract
School-based mindfulness interventions have been shown to be effective in reducing mental health symptoms. However, comparatively little research has investigated the acceptability of these programs from the perspective of the children. Program acceptability underpins engagement, and more engaging programs are also more efficacious
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School-based mindfulness interventions have been shown to be effective in reducing mental health symptoms. However, comparatively little research has investigated the acceptability of these programs from the perspective of the children. Program acceptability underpins engagement, and more engaging programs are also more efficacious (Cowan & Sheridan, 2003; Mautone et al., 2009) yet there is little literature which has considered the acceptability of school-based mindfulness programs. To address this gap, semi-structured interviews were conducted with upper primary aged children (N = 30) who had participated in a six week mindfulness program in four Australian primary schools. Thematic analysis of interviews revealed children found the program to be acceptable. Children reported that they enjoyed doing the mindfulness program, would recommend it to others, and learned about relaxing as well as felt relaxed while doing the program. Children also highlighted the use of culturally appropriate teaching materials and possible stigmatisation as threats to the acceptability of the program. The results of the study support the acceptability of mindfulness programs in school settings, grounded in the unique perspective of the child. Full article
Open AccessArticle Effort and Reward Effects: Appreciation and Self-Rated Performance in e-Internships
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(4), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci6040154
Received: 12 November 2017 / Revised: 14 December 2017 / Accepted: 14 December 2017 / Published: 20 December 2017
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Abstract
As new work and internship options arise, educators, employers and students seek information about the learning benefits of these new arrangements. This is also the case in terms of e-internships. The purpose of this study was to assess the merit of the effort-reward
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As new work and internship options arise, educators, employers and students seek information about the learning benefits of these new arrangements. This is also the case in terms of e-internships. The purpose of this study was to assess the merit of the effort-reward imbalance model to understand appreciation and performance as reported by the e-interns (also known as virtual interns). The study involved a cross-sectional sample of e-interns. The sample was recruited using the snowball technique and two specialized internship portals. Participants were grouped into a number of conditions. Effort conditions depended on participants’ reported goal clarity and satisfaction with support. Reward conditions were determined based on the (un-)availability of training and payment in e-internships. When participants fell into high effort or low reward conditions, they reported lower perceived performance. They also felt less valued. The reverse pattern was observed when participants completed their internship under low effort and high reward conditions. By identifying conditions under which e-interns will report higher performance and appreciation, employers are provided with starting points for the design and reward practices. In addition, the results suggest that e-internships may share similar characteristics of traditional internships which may similarly vary in terms of the value and rewards they bring to interns. Full article
Open AccessArticle Bending and Fitting: Disciplinarized Institutionalization of Modern Science in China during the ‘Treaty Century’
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(4), 153; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci6040153
Received: 25 September 2017 / Revised: 30 November 2017 / Accepted: 14 December 2017 / Published: 19 December 2017
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Abstract
This article investigates how Western science established itself through disciplinarized institutionalization in China as the country entered the modern era, delineating China’s science and technology (S&T) enterprises evolving within the social settings primarily decided by Confucianism doctrines including Scholar-bureaucrat virtue. Although the perspective
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This article investigates how Western science established itself through disciplinarized institutionalization in China as the country entered the modern era, delineating China’s science and technology (S&T) enterprises evolving within the social settings primarily decided by Confucianism doctrines including Scholar-bureaucrat virtue. Although the perspective of this study is mainly historical, I also adopt a sociological approach to scientific knowledge production in order to argue that, the socialization of Western science during the ‘Treaty Century’ (1842–1943) has shaped and channeled the growth of modern S&T as well as its governance in contemporary China in a normative manner. It is this sociological interpretation of the history of modern science in China that sheds new light on our understanding of scientific knowledge as a component element of belief system that crosses countries, social structures, and civilizations. The main findings also include the premises on which the S&T governance issues are explored in China’s case, in particular, the increased social mobility at the intrusion of the Western. Full article
Open AccessArticle Research-Based Training: Methodological Characteristics and Results of the Analysis of Educational Programs
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(4), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci6040152
Received: 25 September 2017 / Revised: 30 November 2017 / Accepted: 14 December 2017 / Published: 18 December 2017
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Abstract
The purpose of the article is to determine the peculiarities of using teaching elements of research-based training at the Institute of Human Sciences at Borys Grinchenko Kyiv University. Based on focus group methodology, the authors identify the key methodological characteristics of research-based training,
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The purpose of the article is to determine the peculiarities of using teaching elements of research-based training at the Institute of Human Sciences at Borys Grinchenko Kyiv University. Based on focus group methodology, the authors identify the key methodological characteristics of research-based training, which have comprised the basis of educational program analysis for determining the application of tasks that contribute to the development of students’ research skills. The study used a focus group method. Its purpose was to obtain the necessary information from the participants to describe the methodological basis and justification of methods, forms, indicators, etc. of research-based training systems among people who are competent and have experience in this field. After that, the method of “theoretical sampling” was used, which enabled formulation of generalized characteristics according to the results of focus groups. The practical value of the study is the determination of the methodological characteristics of research-based training, which is the basis for the application of tasks by university teachers that promote the development of research competence in students. The research is one of the first attempts to determine the methodological characteristics of research-based training in Ukraine Full article
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Open AccessArticle Academic Advising and Maintaining Major: Is There a Relation?
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(4), 151; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci6040151
Received: 14 August 2017 / Revised: 27 November 2017 / Accepted: 14 December 2017 / Published: 17 December 2017
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Abstract
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of academic advising on changing or maintaining majors in university degrees. It is also a goal of the study to determine which semester students change their majors and whether advising contributes to that
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The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of academic advising on changing or maintaining majors in university degrees. It is also a goal of the study to determine which semester students change their majors and whether advising contributes to that change. Through this correlational study, the researchers explored students’ perceptions about the academic advising they received and the relationship of its absence on students’ major change. The participants were 1725 undergraduate students from all year levels. The survey used to collect the data for this study is: the Influences on Choice of Major survey. Based on the findings, it was found that university advisors have a very poor effect on students’ decisions to select their majors as 45.6% of the 1725 participants indicated no influence of advising in their survey answers. Whereas career advancement opportunities, students’ interests, and job opportunities indicate a strong effect on their majors’ selections, as they score the highest means of 3.76, 3.73, and 3.64, respectively. In addition, findings show that students are most likely changing their majors in their second year, and specifically in the second semester. Second year major change scored 36.9% in the second semester and 30.9% in the first semester. More importantly, results indicate that there is a positive significant correlation between college advisors and major change in the second year (p = 0.000). It is to researchers’ understanding based on the findings that when students receive enough academic advising in the first year of study, and this advising continues steadily into the next year, the probability of students changing their majors decreases greatly. Full article
Open AccessArticle Collective Identity, Organization, and Public Reaction in Protests: A Qualitative Case Study of Hong Kong and Taiwan
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(4), 150; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci6040150
Received: 24 August 2017 / Revised: 6 December 2017 / Accepted: 14 December 2017 / Published: 15 December 2017
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Abstract
Mainstream structuralist and new social movement theoretical approaches to studying social movements in Western sociological traditions fail to explain why the Sunflower movement fostered solidarity among the Taiwanese while Occupy Central caused public division in Hong Kong. In response, I argue that the
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Mainstream structuralist and new social movement theoretical approaches to studying social movements in Western sociological traditions fail to explain why the Sunflower movement fostered solidarity among the Taiwanese while Occupy Central caused public division in Hong Kong. In response, I argue that the successes and failures of both were a function of the consolidation and division of collective identity. Using a qualitative case study, this article analyzes the discursive constructions of collective identity as they intersect with protest spaces, drawing out the events in their protest cycles and identifying the mechanisms within them that constructed and deconstructed collective identity. In doing so, I illustrate three phases of collective identity construction: the creation of collective claims, recruitment strategies, and expressive decision-making. Ultimately, this explicates the movements’ differing outcomes, and how their decline both narrowed and broadened identity in ways that provide a repertoire of ideological narratives usable as recruitment strategies in future mobilizations. Full article
Open AccessArticle Conceal Carry and Race: A Test of Minority Threat Theory in Law Generation
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(4), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci6040149
Received: 25 September 2017 / Revised: 21 November 2017 / Accepted: 4 December 2017 / Published: 12 December 2017
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Abstract
Conceal carry weapon (CCW) laws have generated a great deal of public discussion in the past decades, but little social science attention. Scholarly work on the topic has been focused on finding potential effects of such laws on crime and victimization; little has
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Conceal carry weapon (CCW) laws have generated a great deal of public discussion in the past decades, but little social science attention. Scholarly work on the topic has been focused on finding potential effects of such laws on crime and victimization; little has attempted to explain the trends behind the adoption of the laws. This paper attempts to fill that gap by testing a series of hypotheses grounded in minority threat approaches. Our paper examines whether changes in the racial and ethnic composition of a county predict the voting outcome of Missouri’s 1999 conceal-carry referendum. Findings fail to reject the null hypothesis and show the best predictor of the vote within a county was how that county voted in the 2000 Presidential election. Full article
Open AccessArticle Becoming Part of an Eco-Community: Social and Environmental Activism or Livelihood Strategy?
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(4), 148; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci6040148
Received: 1 October 2017 / Revised: 25 November 2017 / Accepted: 4 December 2017 / Published: 5 December 2017
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Abstract
Studying grassroots initiatives which aim to respond to environmental and social crisis is of renewed importance nowadays, in the aftermath of the 2008-9 financial crisis in southern Europe. This paper studies people’s motivations for becoming part of an eco-community in Catalonia, Spain, through
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Studying grassroots initiatives which aim to respond to environmental and social crisis is of renewed importance nowadays, in the aftermath of the 2008-9 financial crisis in southern Europe. This paper studies people’s motivations for becoming part of an eco-community in Catalonia, Spain, through interviews with 29 informants. The research is part of a larger study, based on ethnographic data collected between 2013 and 2015 in 27 eco-communities. The paper shows the extent to which people who joined an eco-community were driven by ideological reasons, adopting a livelihood strategy, or by a combination of both factors in the years following the crisis. We argue that the social and economic crisis has had an impact on the factors motivating people to join these communities, with an increase in the number of people driven by materialistic motives, relative to those who joined for ideological reasons. Full article
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Open AccessReview Is Economic Inequality Really a Problem? A Review of the Arguments
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(4), 147; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci6040147
Received: 17 October 2017 / Revised: 21 November 2017 / Accepted: 27 November 2017 / Published: 4 December 2017
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Abstract
Increasing economic inequality in recent years has triggered an outpouring of analysis and reflection on the causes and consequences of these changes. Several commentators have argued that inequality does not merit all the attention it has been receiving noting that the focus on
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Increasing economic inequality in recent years has triggered an outpouring of analysis and reflection on the causes and consequences of these changes. Several commentators have argued that inequality does not merit all the attention it has been receiving noting that the focus on inequality can divert attention from the real problem, which is poverty. This article reviews the arguments for and against this position, highlighting the effects of economic inequality on economic growth and efficiency, politics and democracy, individual behaviors that result in poor health outcomes and social disruption, social cohesion, and environmental degradation. Poverty is, of course, a very important social issue but this review of the arguments about inequality shows that economic inequality in itself is also an important social ill that should be addressed. Full article
Open AccessArticle Casino Business in the Context of Tourism Development (Case: Montenegro)
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(4), 146; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci6040146
Received: 15 October 2017 / Revised: 17 November 2017 / Accepted: 22 November 2017 / Published: 30 November 2017
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Abstract
Special Interest tourism (SIT) represents an answer to mass tourism and its goal is to ensure tourist destination sustainability. The casino industry is growing intensively in the territory of Montenegro and a question arises whether casino tourism development is an opportunity or a
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Special Interest tourism (SIT) represents an answer to mass tourism and its goal is to ensure tourist destination sustainability. The casino industry is growing intensively in the territory of Montenegro and a question arises whether casino tourism development is an opportunity or a danger for Montenegro and its sustainability. The goals of this paper are to show and assess the current offerings and potential for development of casino tourism in Montenegro, to point out advantages and challenges in development of casino tourism in this type of destination. Econometric models were used for the needs of this paper (time series correlations and regression for defining relation between casino business and tourism, ARIMA model for prognosis of casino business in the context of tourism until 2020). For the first time in the territory of Montenegro, 14 anonymous interviews were carried out with casino players to determine the quality of current offerings for development of casino tourism in Montenegro. The main finding suggests that casino tourism in Montenegro is not sufficiently developed, but that we can boast of a high-quality casino offering such as Slovenia. Limitations lie in the lack of data over a long period and the non-existence of the records on number of casino tourists in Montenegro. The emphasis is put on the economic effects of developing casino tourism, rather than the social ones. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Kenya’s Life Lessons through the Lived Experience of Rural Caregivers
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(4), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci6040145
Received: 1 September 2017 / Revised: 18 November 2017 / Accepted: 21 November 2017 / Published: 29 November 2017
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Abstract
This qualitative research study used a phenomenological lens to examine the perspectives of familial caregivers in the Laikipia Region of Kenya. Through the narrative of the caregivers’ lived experience, key factors identified included social supports, rewards of caregiving, and lessons to others. Overarching
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This qualitative research study used a phenomenological lens to examine the perspectives of familial caregivers in the Laikipia Region of Kenya. Through the narrative of the caregivers’ lived experience, key factors identified included social supports, rewards of caregiving, and lessons to others. Overarching basic themes centered on food insecurity, disease, rejection, lack of support, education challenges, inadequate land ownership, the absence of male support and neglect issues. These unique perspectives can contribute towards our understanding of policy and programming needs for orphaned children and familial caregivers in rural Kenya and within the rural areas of the East African context. Full article
Open AccessArticle Diffusion of Electricity Consumption Practices in Mexico
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(4), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci6040144
Received: 1 October 2017 / Revised: 13 November 2017 / Accepted: 21 November 2017 / Published: 24 November 2017
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Abstract
In recent decades, residential energy consumption has grown in Mexico despite high poverty levels. While inequalities in energy have been documented, less attention has been paid to practices of consumption. Particularly, we sustain that it is necessary to account for changes in associated
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In recent decades, residential energy consumption has grown in Mexico despite high poverty levels. While inequalities in energy have been documented, less attention has been paid to practices of consumption. Particularly, we sustain that it is necessary to account for changes in associated behaviors, which shape energy use, such as the acquisition of electrical appliances. This paper analyzes if there is evidence of diffusion of energy practices from higher to lower-income households. We hypothesize that more intensive energy practices expand across groups beyond their demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Employing a harmonized dataset of thirteen Income and Expenditure Household Surveys, we assess changes in electrical appliances and electricity consumption. Using latent class analysis, we construct energy profiles that identify underlying consumption behaviors from sociodemographic and residential characteristics. We find support for the argument that intensive energy practices expanded from high to lower socioeconomic groups. While this trend reflects improvements in living conditions in Mexico, it also highlights the environmental challenges that increasing consumption poses for sustainable development goals. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Contrasting the Effect of Risk- and Non Risk-Based Capital Structure on Insurers’ Performance in Nigeria
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(4), 143; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci6040143
Received: 25 October 2017 / Revised: 17 November 2017 / Accepted: 20 November 2017 / Published: 22 November 2017
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Abstract
Literature on capital-based regulation and performance of insurers in emerging market is not only limited; it is incomplete, particularly on a comparative basis. This has continuously attracts researchers’ interest and concerns for practitioners and policy makers. This paper therefore examines the effect of
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Literature on capital-based regulation and performance of insurers in emerging market is not only limited; it is incomplete, particularly on a comparative basis. This has continuously attracts researchers’ interest and concerns for practitioners and policy makers. This paper therefore examines the effect of capital structure on performance of insurers comparatively before and after the implementation of risk-based capital (RBC) policy in Nigeria to determine which policy regime enables insurers to perform better. Descriptive statistics are employed to describe the characteristics of the data while the hypotheses are tested using two-stage estimation procedure of fixed and random effect models. Results reveal that insurance capital structure (measured by technical provision ratio) has a significant positive effect on insurance performance (measured by earnings per share and return on asset) during non-RBC regime when compared to RBC regime. Based on these findings, it is concluded that insurers in Nigeria performed better under non-RBC than RBC era. This finding provides important insight to managers, regulators and investors by fostering more understanding of how to manipulate and regulate insurance capital for performance optimization under RBC scenarios. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Being a “Good” Son and a “Good” Daughter: Voices of Muslim Immigrant Adolescents
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(4), 142; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci6040142
Received: 19 July 2017 / Revised: 13 November 2017 / Accepted: 14 November 2017 / Published: 17 November 2017
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Abstract
In the last decade, a growing empirical work has focused on adaptation processes of immigrants from Muslim-majority countries who live in the West, particularly Muslim youth born and/or educated in Western countries. The current study explored how Muslim boys and girls immigrated from
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In the last decade, a growing empirical work has focused on adaptation processes of immigrants from Muslim-majority countries who live in the West, particularly Muslim youth born and/or educated in Western countries. The current study explored how Muslim boys and girls immigrated from Morocco, Egypt and Pakistan negotiate their identity on the base of interiorized social and cultural in-group norms associated to the representation of a “good” son and a “good” daughter within the resettlement society. Participants were 45 Muslim immigrant adolescents (30 females, 15 males) coming from Morocco, Egypt and Pakistan, who were interviewed through an in-depth semi-structured interview. Thematic analysis carried out on the interview transcripts permitted to identify four themes and thirteen subthemes, revealing interesting differences based on participants’ gender and country of origin. The quality of being obedient and respectful of parents’ desires was a significant common topic among all participants, although it was differently articulated by girls and boys. For girls, norms and expectations were strictly modeled around staying at home and preserving heritage culture. For boys, a heavy mandate—that is, gaining educational success in order to become the breadwinner—weights on them. Implications of these gender-based challenges are discussed in relation to specific vulnerabilities experienced by young Muslims living in Western society. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Understanding Muslim Mobilities and Gender) Printed Edition available
Open AccessEssay Young People and Audiovisual Technologies in Rural Chiloé/Buta Wapi Chilwe: A Personal Path toward a Decolonizing Doing
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(4), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci6040141
Received: 30 September 2017 / Revised: 3 November 2017 / Accepted: 13 November 2017 / Published: 16 November 2017
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Abstract
The aim of this essay is to present my experience attempting to practice some ideas of decolonial thinking within a doctoral research project. In 2010, I lived in a Williche Community in Chiloé/Buta Wapi Chilwe. As a retribution for the possibility of conducting
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The aim of this essay is to present my experience attempting to practice some ideas of decolonial thinking within a doctoral research project. In 2010, I lived in a Williche Community in Chiloé/Buta Wapi Chilwe. As a retribution for the possibility of conducting my research there, I fulfilled several tasks defined by the Community’s Health Team. A project revolving around expressive creation with children and teenagers arose: The Weche Folil. After presenting some key features of my personal trajectory and those of the regional context in which Weche Folil is grounded; I propose to think of this project as a practice that points toward the subversion of ways of thinking, feeling and being which express the colonial dimension. I understand coloniality as a key dimension of our collective existence featured by inequality, arrogance, and pain. Love, time, dedication and caring are at the hearth of this decolonizing doing. Ambivalences, contradictions and paradoxes are also part of it. This personal account may be of interest for researchers who are planning to work among indigenous peoples, especially in rural settings and in Chiloé. Full article
Open AccessArticle High Rates of Suicide and Violence in the Lives of Girls and Young Women in Bangladesh: Issues for Feminist Intervention
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(4), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci6040140
Received: 6 September 2017 / Revised: 20 October 2017 / Accepted: 3 November 2017 / Published: 14 November 2017
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Abstract
Deaths by suicide in Bangladesh have an atypical sex ratio, with higher rates in females than in males—a characteristic shared with several countries in Southern Asia. Reasons for this are explored in this paper. An examination of the social structure of Bangladesh suggests
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Deaths by suicide in Bangladesh have an atypical sex ratio, with higher rates in females than in males—a characteristic shared with several countries in Southern Asia. Reasons for this are explored in this paper. An examination of the social structure of Bangladesh suggests that girls and women are subjected to higher rates of sexual and physical violence compared with males, especially in rural and urban slum areas. This violence is often linked to the enforced marriage of young girls to older men. A systematic review of 24 studies on suicide and suicidal behaviors in Bangladesh has shown that suicide death rates are exceptionally high in younger women, at a rate of about 20 per 100,000, more than twice the rate in males aged less than 49. In girls aged 15 to 17, the estimated suicide rate is 14 per 100,000, 50% higher than in males. Because of problems in obtaining systematic data on deaths by suicide, these rates are likely to be underestimates. Extreme poverty and lack of education have been recorded as factors in deaths by suicide, although there are methodological problems in reaching such conclusions. We speculate that some of the “suicides” (especially those using poison) may in fact be cases of murder. A dowry system (not sanctioned by Islam) is thought to be a major cause of family poverty, and violence experienced by young girls. In proposing solutions, we argue the case (as Muslims) for the support of an Islamic feminism which urges better support for girls growing up in extreme poverty. Full article
Open AccessArticle Normative Characteristics of Perceived Self-Efficacy
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(4), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci6040139
Received: 6 September 2017 / Revised: 2 November 2017 / Accepted: 10 November 2017 / Published: 11 November 2017
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Abstract
Globalization leads to an extension of the performance content demanded of employees. Consequently, the latter are confronted with an increase of requirements to fulfil, of obstacles to overcome, and, in this context, it seems that to consider oneself capable to respond to such
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Globalization leads to an extension of the performance content demanded of employees. Consequently, the latter are confronted with an increase of requirements to fulfil, of obstacles to overcome, and, in this context, it seems that to consider oneself capable to respond to such demands is as important as one’s objectively possessed abilities. Numerous research has shown the beneficial aspects of a high perceived self-efficacy. These beneficial aspects and the variable distribution of the level of this feeling among populations led us to hypothesize the normative nature of this perceived self-efficacy. Three populations (line managers, non-managerial employees and students) have responded to a questionnaire on perceived self-efficacy. The executives were asked to indicate, for each item, whether they would appreciate (or not) an employee adopting the behaviour listed in the item; the non-executives were required to indicate the degree to which each proposal corresponded to their usual behaviour, and the students were asked to select the items that an employee should tick off in order to be well seen (vs. badly seen) by their supervisor. Our results confirm our hypothesis: managers significantly appreciate employees who show a high level of perceived self-efficacy (SEP). We also note that adopting such behaviours is effective among non-executives, meaning that, if we take into consideration the fact that self-presentation with neutral instructions often produces socially desirable responses, the employees are aware of this valorisation. Finally, we see that such awareness is directly confirmed by our third population, i.e., by the fact that the future employees, in this case the students, are indeed aware of this valorisation. Full article
Open AccessArticle Sending a Dear John Letter: Public Information Campaigns and the Movement to “End Demand” for Prostitution in Atlanta, GA
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(4), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci6040138
Received: 20 September 2017 / Revised: 31 October 2017 / Accepted: 8 November 2017 / Published: 10 November 2017
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Abstract
This paper examines “Dear John”, a public information campaign that ran from 2006–2008 in Atlanta, GA, to ask what narrative it conveys about commercial sex and those who engage in it, in order to understand the gendered (and other) discursive constructions it produces,
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This paper examines “Dear John”, a public information campaign that ran from 2006–2008 in Atlanta, GA, to ask what narrative it conveys about commercial sex and those who engage in it, in order to understand the gendered (and other) discursive constructions it produces, reflects, and complicates about these activities and subjects. Drawing from both policy and sex work/trafficking scholarship, this paper argues that Dear John used symbolic images and direct and consequential text to convey a “male demand” narrative, which holds that men’s demand for sexual services harms girls and young women and will not be tolerated. Yet, in so doing, Dear John also reinforced particularly gendered characterizations of individuals who trade sex, while de-emphasizing other factors that increase young peoples’ vulnerabilities to and within sex work. The paper concludes by discussing Dear John’s outcomes and significance for scholars concerned with sex work, policy, and social change. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Coercive Population Control and Asylum in the U.S.
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(4), 137; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci6040137
Received: 15 June 2017 / Revised: 27 September 2017 / Accepted: 2 November 2017 / Published: 7 November 2017
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Abstract
In 1980, China implemented one of the most controversial population policies in modern times. China’s one-child policy shaped population politics for thirty-five years until its dissolution in 2015. During this time, many women were subjected to routine gynecological examinations, pregnancy testing, abortions, and
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In 1980, China implemented one of the most controversial population policies in modern times. China’s one-child policy shaped population politics for thirty-five years until its dissolution in 2015. During this time, many women were subjected to routine gynecological examinations, pregnancy testing, abortions, and sterilizations, which were often forced upon them by family planning officials. Some women fled China and sought refuge in the United States after having experienced a forced abortion or forced sterilization or feared that they would be subjected to a forced abortion or forced sterilization. This article focuses on how the U.S. government responded to China’s one-child policy through the passage of immigration laws and policies that made asylum a viable option for Chinese nationals who had been persecuted or feared persecution because of coercive population control policies. Based on observations of asylum hearings and interviews with immigration judges and immigration attorneys, this article uses feminist ethnographic methods to show how China’s one-child policy and U.S. asylum laws shape the gender politics of reproduction and migration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women, Gender and Politics: An International Overview)
Open AccessArticle Measuring the Efficiency of Education and Technology via DEA approach: Implications on National Development
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(4), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci6040136
Received: 1 October 2017 / Revised: 27 October 2017 / Accepted: 27 October 2017 / Published: 6 November 2017
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Abstract
The aim of this paper is to provide a new approach for assessing the input–output efficiency of education and technology for national science and education department. We used the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method to analyze the efficiency sharing activities in education and
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The aim of this paper is to provide a new approach for assessing the input–output efficiency of education and technology for national science and education department. We used the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method to analyze the efficiency sharing activities in education and technology sector, and classify input variables and output variables accordingly. Using the panel data in the education and technology sector of 53 countries, we found that the countries with significant progress in educational efficiency and technological efficiency mainly concentrated in East Asia, especially in Japan, Korea, Taiwan and some other developing countries. We further evaluate the effect of educational and technological efficiencies on national competitiveness, balanced development of the country, national energy efficiency, export, and employment. We found that the efficiency of science and technology has an effect on the balanced development of the country, but that of education has played a counter-productive role; Educational efficiency has a large role and related the country’s educational development. In addition, using the panel data analysis, we showed that educational and technological efficiency has different degrees of contributions to the development from 2000 to 2014. It mainly depends on the economic development progress and the push for the education and technological policy. The proposed approach in this paper provides the decision-making support for the education and technological policy formulation, specially the selection of the appropriate education and technological strategies for resource allocation and process evaluation. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Digital Ecologies of Youth Mental Health: Apps, Therapeutic Publics and Pedagogy as Affective Arrangements
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(4), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci6040135
Received: 4 August 2017 / Revised: 19 October 2017 / Accepted: 3 November 2017 / Published: 6 November 2017
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Abstract
In this paper, we offer a new conceptual approach to analyzing the interrelations between formal and informal pedagogical sites for learning about youth mental (ill) health with a specific focus on digital health technologies. Our approach builds on an understanding of public pedagogy
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In this paper, we offer a new conceptual approach to analyzing the interrelations between formal and informal pedagogical sites for learning about youth mental (ill) health with a specific focus on digital health technologies. Our approach builds on an understanding of public pedagogy to examine the pedagogical modes of address (Ellsworth 1997) that are (i) produced through ‘expert’ discourses of mental health literacy for young people; and (ii) include digital practices created by young people as they seek to publicly address mental ill health through social media platforms. We trace the pedagogic modes of address that are evident in examples of digital mental health practices and the creation of what we call therapeutic publics. Through an analysis of mental health apps, we examine how these modes of address are implicated in the affective process of learning about mental (ill) health, and the affective arrangements through which embodied distress is rendered culturally intelligible. In doing so, we situate the use of individual mental health apps within a broader digital ecology that is mediated by therapeutic expertise and offer original contributions to the theorization of public pedagogy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pedagogies of Health: The Role of Technology)
Open AccessArticle What Motivates Student Environmental Activists on College Campuses? An In-Depth Qualitative Study
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(4), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci6040134
Received: 23 August 2017 / Revised: 9 October 2017 / Accepted: 2 November 2017 / Published: 5 November 2017
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Abstract
Public concern for the natural environment continues to grow as complex environmental problems emerge. One avenue where concern for the environment has been expressed is through activism. However, research on environmental activism, often aimed at understanding the motivations behind activist behavior, has largely
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Public concern for the natural environment continues to grow as complex environmental problems emerge. One avenue where concern for the environment has been expressed is through activism. However, research on environmental activism, often aimed at understanding the motivations behind activist behavior, has largely focused on older adults. In this study, we extend the state of knowledge on environmental activism further by focusing on college students. We use qualitative methods (in-depth interviews and observations) to examine the motivations behind student involvement in environmental activism on a state university campus. Our findings underscore that young people’s activist motivations are not stand-alone phenomena; they work in tandem with other processes and factors in a dynamic way and are influenced by an individual’s history, previous experiences and passion, a sense of community, existing incentives, and self-satisfaction derived from activist behavior. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Eco-Governmentality: A Discursive Analysis of State-NGOs-Youth Relations in Singapore
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(4), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci6040133
Received: 21 September 2017 / Revised: 19 October 2017 / Accepted: 27 October 2017 / Published: 1 November 2017
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Abstract
This article seeks to address the gap in representing micro-level civil society voices and contribute to literature on state-society relations in Singapore’s environmental movement. Given the present constraints of state-NGO communication and cooperation, the state and NGOs negotiate the restrictions by grooming youths
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This article seeks to address the gap in representing micro-level civil society voices and contribute to literature on state-society relations in Singapore’s environmental movement. Given the present constraints of state-NGO communication and cooperation, the state and NGOs negotiate the restrictions by grooming youths as agents of change. Through in-depth interviews, it explores how environmentalism is represented differently through various discourses by the social actors; state, NGOs and youths. By using eco-governmentality as a framework and through discursive analysis, we argue that state-society cooperation in environmentalism is hindered by lack of clear and effective communication channels, as well as expertise and knowledge barriers. In addition, investing in youths has led to an altered dynamic of state-society relations and a greater variety in discourses on environmental advocacy. Owing to the youths’ capability for spreading social awareness and ideas, this is an area that requires open discussion in order to achieve better state-civil society cooperation. Full article
Open AccessArticle Not Haitian: Exploring the Roots of Dominican Identity
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(4), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci6040132
Received: 21 September 2017 / Revised: 13 October 2017 / Accepted: 27 October 2017 / Published: 31 October 2017
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Abstract
A literature review supplemented by interview data from a small sample of Haitian and Dominican immigrants living in Miami, Florida elucidates the complexities of Afrolatino-Dominican identity. The data include Dominican recollections of childhood warnings about threats posed by Haitians allegedly willing to cast
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A literature review supplemented by interview data from a small sample of Haitian and Dominican immigrants living in Miami, Florida elucidates the complexities of Afrolatino-Dominican identity. The data include Dominican recollections of childhood warnings about threats posed by Haitians allegedly willing to cast spells and act as agents of punishment for misbehaving Dominican children. These data are consistent with antihaitianismo and the tendency for Dominicans to deny their African heritage in favor of their European Hispanic roots. The paper also explains how Dominicans’ ethnic flexibility in navigating “racialized” social space in the US is relevant to future census measurement of race and ethnicity. Full article
Open AccessArticle Transnationalism among Second-Generation Muslim Americans: Being and Belonging in Their Transnational Social Field
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(4), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci6040131
Received: 15 June 2017 / Revised: 20 October 2017 / Accepted: 25 October 2017 / Published: 30 October 2017
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Abstract
An increase in transnationalism, the ability of individuals and families to travel and maintain relationships across national borders, has led to questions about its impact on identity especially for the children of migrants. When combined with concerns about global and national security such
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An increase in transnationalism, the ability of individuals and families to travel and maintain relationships across national borders, has led to questions about its impact on identity especially for the children of migrants. When combined with concerns about global and national security such as those that are associated with Muslims and Islam, then questions about the strength national identity are particularly pertinent. This analysis uses the theories of transnational social fields and intersectionality to examine the transnational experiences of second-generation Muslim Americans. It relies on qualitative interview data. The data show the intersection of their national, religious, and gender identities. It demonstrates that they experience transnational being in their parents’ country of origin and belonging in the United States. Nationality, religion, and gender influence what they experience in each location. The analysis demonstrates the stability and centrality of American national identity in what second-generation Muslims experience in both locations. Moreover, their belonging in the United States rests squarely on their perceptions of themselves as Americans and their construction of their Muslim identity as an American religious identity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Understanding Muslim Mobilities and Gender) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle Risk for Researchers Studying Social Deviance or Criminal Behavior
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(4), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci6040130
Received: 20 September 2017 / Revised: 23 October 2017 / Accepted: 27 October 2017 / Published: 28 October 2017
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Abstract
Abstract: Researchers often encounter dangerous situations while conducting social research. The concept of risk to researchers refers to the possible harm that may occur to researchers while in the field or after leaving a research project. This study explores issues experienced by
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Abstract: Researchers often encounter dangerous situations while conducting social research. The concept of risk to researchers refers to the possible harm that may occur to researchers while in the field or after leaving a research project. This study explores issues experienced by social scientists engaged in research on social deviance or criminal behavior. The goal of this research was to discover the types of risk experienced by social scientists and any mediating factors affecting the experience of risk. An online survey was conducted to gather data on issues experienced by social scientists. This study found that researchers experienced a variety of risks within the categories of physical/health, emotional, legal, and personal/professional. Each of the survey options for risk were reported by at least one respondent; however, the greatest number of risks reported were of an emotional or personal/professional nature. There were no mediating factors found to be significant in relation to the experience of risk. This was a surprising finding especially for the variable of gender as it is suggested that gender plays a role in the experience of difficulties. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle The Impact of Syrian Refugees on the Turkish Economy: Regional Labour Market Effects
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(4), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci6040129
Received: 8 September 2017 / Revised: 25 October 2017 / Accepted: 26 October 2017 / Published: 28 October 2017
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Abstract
The Syrian civil war resulted in mass migration out of Syria into the neighboring countries. Turkey has received the greatest number of refugees from Syria. The Syrian refugees mostly initially settled in refugee camps in Southeastern Turkey. As the Syrian conflict intensified and
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The Syrian civil war resulted in mass migration out of Syria into the neighboring countries. Turkey has received the greatest number of refugees from Syria. The Syrian refugees mostly initially settled in refugee camps in Southeastern Turkey. As the Syrian conflict intensified and lengthened, the number of Syrian refugees in Turkey increased and the Syrian population started to reside in the neighboring provinces and started to have important effects on the local economy. In 2016, Syrian refugees were allowed to receive work permits and they became more dispersed geographically. This paper investigates the impact of Syrian refugees on regional labour markets. Panel data for the years 2004 through 2016 is utilized for 26 regions in Turkey. Syrian refugees are found to increase unemployment and decrease informal and formal employment. Full article
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Open AccessBrief Report An Analysis of Revenue and Expenses for Providers of Intellectual Disability Supports and Services
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(4), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci6040128
Received: 13 September 2017 / Revised: 10 October 2017 / Accepted: 19 October 2017 / Published: 27 October 2017
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Abstract
The 990 tax forms submitted by Pennsylvania intellectual disability providers were analyzed in an effort to quantify the fiscal health of the providers in this business segment. Tax forms from 2012, 2013, and 2014 from 85 agencies were studied. In each of the
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The 990 tax forms submitted by Pennsylvania intellectual disability providers were analyzed in an effort to quantify the fiscal health of the providers in this business segment. Tax forms from 2012, 2013, and 2014 from 85 agencies were studied. In each of the tax years and overall across the three periods, roughly one-third of the provider agencies had expenses that exceeded revenue. Despite this negative finding, net assets continued to increase. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Comprehensive Definition of Technology from an Ethological Perspective
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(4), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci6040126
Received: 11 June 2017 / Revised: 25 September 2017 / Accepted: 12 October 2017 / Published: 23 October 2017
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Abstract
Definitions, uses, and understanding of technology have varied tremendously since Jacob Bigelow’s Elements of Technology in 1829. In addition to providing a frame of reference for understanding technology, the purpose of this study was to define or describe it conceptually. A determination of
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Definitions, uses, and understanding of technology have varied tremendously since Jacob Bigelow’s Elements of Technology in 1829. In addition to providing a frame of reference for understanding technology, the purpose of this study was to define or describe it conceptually. A determination of dimensions comprising technology was made by critiquing historical and contemporary examples of definition by Bigelow and Volti. An analytic-synthetic method was employed to deconstruct both definitions spanning two centuries to derive aspects of technology. Definitions relying on an anthropocentric “how humans use technology” viewpoint failed to account for different perspectives that were found when an ethological perspective inquiring “how technology is used” served as a framework. Findings support qualification of insulin as technology according to the following comprehensive definition: something inherently intelligent enough to either function, be used to function, or be interpreted as having a function that intelligent beings—human or otherwise—can appreciate, something devised, designed (by primary intention), or discovered (by secondary intention) serving particular purposes from a secular standpoint without humankind creating it, or a significant beneficiary of rationally derived knowledge that is “used for” a purpose without itself necessarily being translated into something material that “does” autonomously, or dependently when used. Full article
Open AccessArticle Feed-in Tariff Pricing and Social Burden in Japan: Evaluating International Learning through a Policy Transfer Approach
Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(4), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci6040127
Received: 25 August 2017 / Revised: 11 October 2017 / Accepted: 17 October 2017 / Published: 20 October 2017
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Abstract
Feed-in tariff (FiT) policy approaches for renewable energy (RE) deployment are employed in many nations around the world. Although FiTs are considered effective in boosting RE deployment, the issue of increasing energy bills and social burden is an often-reported negative impact of their
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Feed-in tariff (FiT) policy approaches for renewable energy (RE) deployment are employed in many nations around the world. Although FiTs are considered effective in boosting RE deployment, the issue of increasing energy bills and social burden is an often-reported negative impact of their use. The FiT has been employed in Japan since 2012, following after many developed countries, and, as was experienced in other nations, led to a social burden imparted on society significantly higher than initial government estimates. Although policy decision making does not necessarily reflect international policy experience, it is still prudent to ask how international policy experiences of social burden increase were considered within the Japanese approach. In this research, we analyzed the transfer process by adapting a conventional model to develop more objective observations than was previously possible, by setting a benchmark for evaluation based on prior international experiences. We identified two streams of policy transfer, each led by different actors; the government and representatives of the National Diet of Japan (Diet). Both actors were exposed to the same experiences, however the interpretation, application to policy development and priority settings employed were vastly different. Although the framework can only assess policy learning processes, we have found that the government undertook a reasonable and rational process toward learning, while, on the other hand, the modified bill developed by the Diet members did not thoroughly derive learnings in the same way, due to cognitive and political reasons, and specifically, the issue of limiting social burden was not addressed. Full article
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