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Article

Toxicity, Sublethal and Low Dose Effects of Imidacloprid and Deltamethrin on the Aphidophagous Predator Ceratomegilla undecimnotata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

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Laboratory of Agricultural Entomology and Zoology, Department of Agriculture, Kalamata Campus, University of the Peloponnese, 24100 Antikalamos, Greece
2
Department of Agriculture, Kalamata Campus, University of the Peloponnese, 24100 Antikalamos, Greece
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Laboratory of Plant Protection, Department of Agriculture, Kalamata Campus, University of the Peloponnese, 24100 Antikalamos, Greece
4
Department of Plant Protection, Institute of Industrial and Fodder Crops, Hellenic Agricultural Organization “DEMETER”—NAGREF, 38446 Volos, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Guillaume Minard and Patricia Gibert
Insects 2021, 12(8), 696; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12080696
Received: 8 June 2021 / Revised: 28 July 2021 / Accepted: 30 July 2021 / Published: 3 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insects Ecology and Biocontrol Applications)
Chemical insecticides are used to control agricultural pests all over the world. However, extensive use of chemical insecticides can be harmful to human health and negatively impact the environment and biological control agents. We studied the toxicity and sublethal effects of imidacloprid and deltamethrin on the aphidophagous coccinellid predator Ceratomegilla undecimnotata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). We evaluated one low (LD30) and one sublethal dose (LD10) for both insecticides. Lethal and sublethal effects of both insecticides negatively affected survival, development, reproduction, and longevity, and reduced the intrinsic (r) and finite (λ) rate of increase and the net reproduction rate (R0) of treated populations compared to the control. Our findings indicate that the use of imidacloprid and deltamethrin in combination with C. undecimnotata in the context of IPM should be taken with caution due to the toxic effects of the chemicals in the biocontrol agent under laboratory conditions.
Ceratomegilla undecimnotata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is a common aphidophagous coccinellid predator used in biological control against aphid pests. Knowing toxicity, lethal, and sublethal effects of insecticides on natural enemies is essential in order to incorporate them into Integrated Pest Management (IPM). In the present study, the lethal and sublethal effects of imidacloprid and deltamethrin were evaluated on the fourth instar larvae of C. undecimnotata and subsequently on the full life cycle. Our results strongly suggest that sublethal and low doses of imidacloprid and deltamethrin at LD10 and LD30 affected fourth instar larvae duration time, adult preoviposition period, total preoviposition period, and fecundity. Moreover, the intrinsic (r) and finite (λ) rate of increase and the net reproduction rate (R0) significantly decreased in populations treated with imidacloprid compared to the control population. The data clearly suggest that imidacloprid and deltamethrin have a negative influence on population growth parameters of C. undecimnotata at sublethal and low doses and, therefore, these insecticides should be used with caution within the context of IPM. View Full-Text
Keywords: biological control; biological control agents; ecotoxicology; integrated pest management; neonicotinoid; pesticide toxicity; pyrethroids; side effects biological control; biological control agents; ecotoxicology; integrated pest management; neonicotinoid; pesticide toxicity; pyrethroids; side effects
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MDPI and ACS Style

Skouras, P.J.; Darras, A.I.; Mprokaki, M.; Demopoulos, V.; Margaritopoulos, J.T.; Delis, C.; Stathas, G.J. Toxicity, Sublethal and Low Dose Effects of Imidacloprid and Deltamethrin on the Aphidophagous Predator Ceratomegilla undecimnotata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Insects 2021, 12, 696. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12080696

AMA Style

Skouras PJ, Darras AI, Mprokaki M, Demopoulos V, Margaritopoulos JT, Delis C, Stathas GJ. Toxicity, Sublethal and Low Dose Effects of Imidacloprid and Deltamethrin on the Aphidophagous Predator Ceratomegilla undecimnotata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Insects. 2021; 12(8):696. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12080696

Chicago/Turabian Style

Skouras, Panagiotis J., Anastasios I. Darras, Marina Mprokaki, Vasilios Demopoulos, John T. Margaritopoulos, Costas Delis, and George J. Stathas 2021. "Toxicity, Sublethal and Low Dose Effects of Imidacloprid and Deltamethrin on the Aphidophagous Predator Ceratomegilla undecimnotata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)" Insects 12, no. 8: 696. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12080696

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