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Insects, Volume 11, Issue 8 (August 2020) – 92 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Climate change can alter pest and disease pressure and therefore impact future food security. The effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on the interactions among wheat, Barley yellow dwarf virus, and its aphid vector Rhopalosiphum padi were evaluated. Elevated CO2 and temperature conditions increased wheat growth, biomass, and C:N ratio but decreased aphid fecundity and development time. However, virus infection reduced wheat growth and increased aphid fecundity and development time. Regardless of virus infection, aphid growth rates remained unchanged. Aphids will likely continue to have significant importance in the future and this, together with earlier and more distinct virus symptomatology, can have consequences on virus transmission, disease epidemiology, wheat yield, and quality. View this paper.
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Article
Sex-Specific Wolbachia Infection Patterns in Populations of Polygraphus proximus Blandford (Coleoptera; Curculionidae: Scolytinae)
Insects 2020, 11(8), 547; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11080547 - 18 Aug 2020
Viewed by 1087
Abstract
Wolbachia symbionts are maternally inherited bacteria that are widely distributed among Arthropoda hosts. Wolbachia influence their host biology in diverse ways. They may induce reproductive abnormalities, protect hosts against pathogens and parasites, or benefit hosts through metabolic provisioning. The progeny of an infected [...] Read more.
Wolbachia symbionts are maternally inherited bacteria that are widely distributed among Arthropoda hosts. Wolbachia influence their host biology in diverse ways. They may induce reproductive abnormalities, protect hosts against pathogens and parasites, or benefit hosts through metabolic provisioning. The progeny of an infected female are ordinarily infected with Wolbachia; however, Wolbachia have no future in male host progeny because they cannot transmit the symbiont to the next generation. Here, we analyze native and invasive populations of the four-eyed fir bark beetle (Polygraphus proximus) for Wolbachia prevalence and symbiont genetic diversity. This species is a dangerous pest of Siberian fir (Abies sibirica) forests. The native range of P. proximus includes the territories of the Russian Far East, Japan, Korea, and Northeast China, whereas its invasive range includes West Siberia, with further expansion westward. Surprisingly, we revealed a difference in the patterns of Wolbachia prevalence for males and females. Infection rate and Wolbachia titers were higher in females than in males. ST-533, the only haplotype of Wolbachia supergroup B, was associated with a minimum of three out of the five described mitochondrial haplotypes. Full article
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Article
WingMesh: A Matlab-Based Application for Finite Element Modeling of Insect Wings
Insects 2020, 11(8), 546; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11080546 - 18 Aug 2020
Viewed by 1278
Abstract
The finite element (FE) method is one of the most widely used numerical techniques for the simulation of the mechanical behavior of engineering and biological objects. Although very efficient, the use of the FE method relies on the development of accurate models of [...] Read more.
The finite element (FE) method is one of the most widely used numerical techniques for the simulation of the mechanical behavior of engineering and biological objects. Although very efficient, the use of the FE method relies on the development of accurate models of the objects under consideration. The development of detailed FE models of often complex-shaped objects, however, can be a time-consuming and error-prone procedure in practice. Hence, many researchers aim to reach a compromise between the simplicity and accuracy of their developed models. In this study, we adapted Distmesh2D, a popular meshing tool, to develop a powerful application for the modeling of geometrically complex objects, such as insect wings. The use of the burning algorithm (BA) in digital image processing (DIP) enabled our method to automatically detect an arbitrary domain and its subdomains in a given image. This algorithm, in combination with the mesh generator Distmesh2D, was used to develop detailed FE models of both planar and out-of-plane (i.e., three-dimensionally corrugated) domains containing discontinuities and consisting of numerous subdomains. To easily implement the method, we developed an application using the Matlab App Designer. This application, called WingMesh, was particularly designed and applied for rapid numerical modeling of complicated insect wings but is also applicable for modeling purposes in the earth, engineering, mathematical, and physical sciences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insects: Functional Morphology, Biomechanics and Biomimetics)
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Article
Monitoring of Target-Site Mutations Conferring Insecticide Resistance in Spodoptera frugiperda
Insects 2020, 11(8), 545; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11080545 - 18 Aug 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1606
Abstract
Fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda, a major pest of corn and native to the Americas, recently invaded (sub)tropical regions worldwide. The intensive use of insecticides and the high adoption of crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins has led to many cases of [...] Read more.
Fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda, a major pest of corn and native to the Americas, recently invaded (sub)tropical regions worldwide. The intensive use of insecticides and the high adoption of crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins has led to many cases of resistance. Target-site mutations are among the main mechanisms of resistance and monitoring their frequency is of great value for insecticide resistance management. Pyrosequencing and PCR-based allelic discrimination assays were developed and used to genotype target-site resistance alleles in 34 FAW populations from different continents. The diagnostic methods revealed a high frequency of mutations in acetylcholinesterase, conferring resistance to organophosphates and carbamates. In voltage-gated sodium channels targeted by pyrethroids, only one population from Indonesia showed a mutation. No mutations were detected in the ryanodine receptor, suggesting susceptibility to diamides. Indels in the ATP-binding cassette transporter C2 associated with Bt-resistance were observed in samples collected in Puerto Rico and Brazil. Additionally, we analyzed all samples for the presence of markers associated with two sympatric FAW host plant strains. The molecular methods established show robust results in FAW samples collected across a broad geographical range and can be used to support decisions for sustainable FAW control and applied resistance management. Full article
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Article
Honey Bee Queen Replacement: An Analysis of Changes in the Preferences of Polish Beekeepers through Decades
Insects 2020, 11(8), 544; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11080544 - 17 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 978
Abstract
We conducted a survey on honey bee (Apis mellifera) queen management. Data were collected every year from 1980 to 2018. In total, 2964 questionnaires were collected from all over Poland. We examined the trends by decade timeslot, apiary size, and geographical [...] Read more.
We conducted a survey on honey bee (Apis mellifera) queen management. Data were collected every year from 1980 to 2018. In total, 2964 questionnaires were collected from all over Poland. We examined the trends by decade timeslot, apiary size, and geographical location. Regardless of the decade and the size of the apiary, on average, above 90% of Polish beekeepers replace old queens with new ones in their colonies. In general, during the observed period, beekeepers replaced almost 52% of their queens, 21% of which were purchased. In the last decade, there was an upward trend in the percentage of beekeepers replacing queens throughout the country. The involvement of purchased queens in colony management is associated with the size of the apiary, and it significantly grows with the number of colonies in the apiary. The percentage of purchased queens went up in all the voivodeships over time. Research and education in this area are needed in order to track the trends and further improve Polish beekeepers’ practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Honeybee Breeding)
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Review
Functional Variation in Dipteran Gut Bacterial Communities in Relation to Their Diet, Life Cycle Stage and Habitat
Insects 2020, 11(8), 543; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11080543 - 17 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 878
Abstract
True flies and mosquitos (Diptera) live in habitats and consume diets that pose specific demands on their gut bacterial communities (GBCs). Due to diet specializations, dipterans may have highly diverse and species-specific GBCs. Dipterans are also confronted with changes in habitat and food [...] Read more.
True flies and mosquitos (Diptera) live in habitats and consume diets that pose specific demands on their gut bacterial communities (GBCs). Due to diet specializations, dipterans may have highly diverse and species-specific GBCs. Dipterans are also confronted with changes in habitat and food sources over their lifetime, especially during life history processes (molting, metamorphosis). This may prevent the development of a constant species- or diet-specific GBC. Some dipterans are vectors of several human pathogens (e.g., malaria), which interact with GBCs. In this review, we explore the dynamics that shape GBC composition in some Diptera species on the basis of published datasets of GBCs. We thereby focus on the effects of diet, habitats, and life cycle stages as sources of variation in GBC composition. The GBCs reported were more stage-specific than species- or diet-specific. Even though the presence of GBCs has a large impact on the performance of their hosts, the exact functions of GBCs and their interactions with other organisms are still largely unknown, mainly due to the low number of studies to date. Increasing our knowledge on dipteran GBCs will help to design pest management strategies for the reduction of insecticide resistance, as well as for human pathogen control. Full article
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Article
How Is Fitness of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) Affected When Different Developmental Stages Are Exposed to Chlorfenapyr?
Insects 2020, 11(8), 542; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11080542 - 17 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 708
Abstract
Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) is an important pest of stored products. Insecticidal treatment is a common practice for the control of this notorious insect pest. Most studies are focused on the immediate and/or delayed mortality effects, while there are no data on [...] Read more.
Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) is an important pest of stored products. Insecticidal treatment is a common practice for the control of this notorious insect pest. Most studies are focused on the immediate and/or delayed mortality effects, while there are no data on the effects of insecticides on the population fitness. This study deals with the effect of chlorfenapyr on T. castaneum, investigating the cost of exposure of different developmental stages on population performance, by using life table statistics and a survival analysis method. For this purpose, eggs, larvae, and parental adult females of T. castaneum were exposed to chlorfenapyr and birth or death rates were calculated daily. The exposure of eggs and larvae to chlorfenapyr was detrimental for T. castaneum and they did not complete development. When parental females were exposed to chlorfenapyr, the progeny survival curve, biological features, as well as the life table parameters did not differ significantly compared to the control treatment. Thus, egg hatching, larval and pupal developmental periods, female and male longevities for the control treatment, and the progeny of the females that were exposed to chlorfenapyr were 4.66 and 4.76 days, 25.85 and 25.71 days, 5.00 and 5.26 days, 87.33 and 104.22 days, and 76.87 and 91.87 days, respectively. In addition, the mean values of the net reproductive rate, the intrinsic rate of increase, the mean generation time and the doubling time for the control treatment and the progeny of the parental females which were exposed to chlorfenapyr were 14.3 and 9.3 females/female, 0.038 and 0.028 females/female/day, 1.039 and 1.029, 70.0 and 76.9 days, and 18.5 and 24.9 days, respectively. We expect these results to have bearing on the management of T. castaneum, since the repeatedly insecticidal applications could be reduced in storage facilities. Full article
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Article
Performance of Five Postharvest Storage Methods for Maize Preservation in Northern Benin
Insects 2020, 11(8), 541; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11080541 - 17 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 915
Abstract
Several postharvest technologies are currently being commercialized to help smallholder farmers in sub-Saharan Africa reduce grain storage losses. We carried out a study in Northern Benin to compare the effectiveness of five technologies being sold to protect stored grain. Maize that had been [...] Read more.
Several postharvest technologies are currently being commercialized to help smallholder farmers in sub-Saharan Africa reduce grain storage losses. We carried out a study in Northern Benin to compare the effectiveness of five technologies being sold to protect stored grain. Maize that had been naturally infested by insects was stored in four hermetic storage technologies (SuperGrainbag™, AgroZ® bag, EVAL™, and Purdue Improved Crop Storage-PICS™ bags), an insecticide impregnated bag (ZeroFly®), and a regular polypropylene (PP) woven bag as control. Oxygen levels in hermetic bags fluctuated between 0.5 ± 0.0 (v/v) and 1.0 ± 0.3 (v/v) percent during the seven months of storage. No weight loss or insect damage was observed in grain stored in any of the hermetic storage bags after seven months. However, grain stored in ZeroFly® and PP woven bags had weight losses of 6.3% and 10.3%, respectively. These results will help farmers and development agencies when making decisions to use and/or promote storage technologies to reduce postharvest grain losses. Full article
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Article
Evaluation of the Insecticidal Activities of α-Pinene and 3-Carene on Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)
Insects 2020, 11(8), 540; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11080540 - 17 Aug 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 799
Abstract
Pest management in most sub-Saharan subsistence agriculture involves mainly the use of botanicals that are either applied as powders, solvent extracts, ash or essential oils. Two hydrogenated monoterpenes (α-pinene and 3-carene) from Cupressus sempervirens were tested against Sitophilus zeamais in the laboratory to [...] Read more.
Pest management in most sub-Saharan subsistence agriculture involves mainly the use of botanicals that are either applied as powders, solvent extracts, ash or essential oils. Two hydrogenated monoterpenes (α-pinene and 3-carene) from Cupressus sempervirens were tested against Sitophilus zeamais in the laboratory to evaluate the contact and fumigation effects on the mortality of adult and immature weevils, progeny production, and grain damage. Contact toxicity of the terpenes was investigated at these concentrations: 0.08, 4, 8 and 12 ppm (terpene/maize), while fumigant action was studied at the following doses: 1, 2, 3, and 4 ppm. The results indicate that insecticidal effects were concentration-dependent since mortality increased with dosage and exposure periods. After a 14-day exposure period at the concentration of 12 ppm of α-pinene and 3-carene/grain, more than 98% mortality of the mature weevils was observed at concentrations of 4.1333 and 1.642 ppm respectively and progeny production was reduced by 98% and 100%, respectively. When α-pinene and 3-carene were applied as fumigants, LC50s (lethal concentrations that generate 50% mortality) of 1.402 and 0.610 ppm were obtained after 24 h of exposure, respectively. At concentrations above 3 ppm, both monoterpenes acted as repellents to weevils and reduced grain damage by 80%. Both monoterpenes inhibited the development of immature stages of the weevil and reduced progeny by up to 94%. These compounds are very promising and effective and could be exploited as novel phytoinsecticides against the maize weevil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Postharvest Pest Biology and Management)
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Article
Genetic Differentiation of a New World Screwworm Fly Population from Uruguay Detected by SNPs, Mitochondrial DNA and Microsatellites in Two Consecutive Years
Insects 2020, 11(8), 539; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11080539 - 16 Aug 2020
Viewed by 832
Abstract
The New World screwworm (NWS) fly, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Diptera: Calliphoridae), is an economically important ectoparasite currently distributed in South America and in the Caribbean basin. The successful eradication of this species in USA, Mexico and continental Central America was achieved by a control [...] Read more.
The New World screwworm (NWS) fly, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Diptera: Calliphoridae), is an economically important ectoparasite currently distributed in South America and in the Caribbean basin. The successful eradication of this species in USA, Mexico and continental Central America was achieved by a control program based on the sterile insect technique (SIT). In order to implement a genetic control strategy over the NWS fly’s current area of occurrence, first, it is necessary to understand the species dynamics and population structure. In order to address this objective, the spatial genetic structure of the NWS fly was previously reported in South America based on different genetic markers; however, to date, no study has investigated temporal changes in the genetic composition of its populations. In the current study, the temporal genetic structure of a NWS fly population from Uruguay was investigated through two consecutive samplings from the same locality over an interval of approximately 18 generations. The genetic structure was accessed with neutral and under selection SNPs obtained with genotyping-by-sequencing. The results gathered with these data were compared to estimates achieved with mitochondrial DNA sequences and eight microsatellite markers. Temporal changes in the genetic composition were revealed by all three molecular markers, which may be attributed to seasonal changes in the NWS fly’s southern distribution. SNPs were employed for the first time for estimating the genetic structure in a NWS fly population; these results provide new clues and perspectives on its population genetic structure. This approach could have significant implications for the planning and implementation of management programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Population Genetics of Insects)
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Article
Synergism between Hydramethylnon and Metarhizium anisopliae and Their Influence on the Gut Microbiome of Blattella germanica (L.)
Insects 2020, 11(8), 538; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11080538 - 15 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 835
Abstract
(1) Background: The widespread use of insecticides has cause extensive resistance in German cockroach (Blattella germanica) populations globally. Biological control has the potential to mitigate insecticide resistance, and Metarhizium anisopliae (Meschn.) Sorokin, an entomopathogenic fungus, alone and in combination with various [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The widespread use of insecticides has cause extensive resistance in German cockroach (Blattella germanica) populations globally. Biological control has the potential to mitigate insecticide resistance, and Metarhizium anisopliae (Meschn.) Sorokin, an entomopathogenic fungus, alone and in combination with various insecticides, has shown good effects against cockroaches. (2) Methods: This experiment compared the cumulative mortality after infecting B. germanica with M. anisopliae conidia by two routes, per os and topical application. To probe the mechanisms that underlie the synergism between M. anisopliae and hydramethylnon, we conducted dose–response assays with cockroaches fed combinations of M. anisopliae and hydramethylnon and characterized the gut microbiomes of the treated cockroaches. (3) Results: The study showed that the mortality with per os infection was lower than that with topical application. In addition, the combination of M. anisopliae and hydramethylnon had a synergistic effect in 16 treatments. The gut microbiome was also altered by hydramethylnon treatment. The abundance of Parabacteroides and Enterococcus declined with the hydramethylnon and combination treatments, which are known to have anti-inflammatory and antifungal activities. The abundance of Alistipes, which is a fungal cell wall component, significantly increased in these treatments. (4) Conclusions: Therefore, we speculate that the major mechanism underlying this synergism is hydramethylnon promoting the survival of M. anisopliae in the harsh gut environment and enhancing its virulence for German cockroaches by altering the gut microbiome. This may provide a method for the fight against B. germanica and lay the foundation for the development of new baits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Control and Insect Pathology)
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Communication
Comparison of Static and Dynamic Assays When Quantifying Thermal Plasticity of Drosophilids
Insects 2020, 11(8), 537; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11080537 - 15 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 792
Abstract
Numerous assays are used to quantify thermal tolerance of arthropods including dynamic ramping and static knockdown assays. The dynamic assay measures a critical temperature while the animal is gradually heated, whereas the static assay measures the time to knockdown at a constant temperature. [...] Read more.
Numerous assays are used to quantify thermal tolerance of arthropods including dynamic ramping and static knockdown assays. The dynamic assay measures a critical temperature while the animal is gradually heated, whereas the static assay measures the time to knockdown at a constant temperature. Previous studies indicate that heat tolerance measured by both assays can be reconciled using the time × temperature interaction from “thermal tolerance landscapes” (TTLs) in unhardened animals. To investigate if this relationship remains true within hardened animals, we use a static assay to assess the effect of heat hardening treatments on heat tolerance in 10 Drosophila species. Using this TTL approach and data from the static heat knockdown experiments, we model the expected change in dynamic heat knockdown temperature (CTmax: temperature at which flies enter coma) and compare these predictions to empirical measurements of CTmax. We find that heat tolerance and hardening capacity are highly species specific and that the two assays report similar and consistent responses to heat hardening. Tested assays are therefore likely to measure the same underlying physiological trait and provide directly comparable estimates of heat tolerance. Regardless of this compliance, we discuss why and when static or dynamic assays may be more appropriate to investigate ectotherm heat tolerance. Full article
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Article
Deterrent Effects of Essential Oils on Spotted-Wing Drosophila (Drosophila suzukii): Implications for Organic Management in Berry Crops
Insects 2020, 11(8), 536; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11080536 - 15 Aug 2020
Viewed by 1118
Abstract
Due to concerns about frequent applications of spinosad and other broad spectrum insecticides for managing spotted-wing drosophila (Drosophila suzukii Matsumura, SWD), we investigated the use of essential oils as an alternative to current insecticides. Essential oils from a number of plant species [...] Read more.
Due to concerns about frequent applications of spinosad and other broad spectrum insecticides for managing spotted-wing drosophila (Drosophila suzukii Matsumura, SWD), we investigated the use of essential oils as an alternative to current insecticides. Essential oils from a number of plant species have been studied for their attraction and deterrence of SWD. However, these botanical products have not been thoroughly tested in the field. We conducted laboratory and field studies to determine the efficacy of botanical products, including lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) oil, catnip (Nepeta cataria L.) oil, KeyPlex Ecotrol® PLUS, and KeyPlex Sporan® EC2 on preventing SWD infestation in raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) and blueberry (Vacciniumcorymbosum L.) crops. In a two-choice laboratory bioassay, lavender oil, Ecotrol, and Sporan treatments deterred SWD from a yeast-cornmeal-sugar based fly diet. In the field trials, raspberry fruit treated with Ecotrol had lower SWD infestation (6%), compared to the control (17%), and was comparable to spinosad (6%). No differences were seen in blueberry infestation. The combination of essential oils in Ecotrol may work to decrease SWD fruit infestation under certain conditions in the field, however more research is needed on the longevity of these products. Full article
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Article
Impacts of Dietary Nutritional Composition on Larval Development and Adult Body Composition in the Yellow Fever Mosquito (Aedes aegypti)
Insects 2020, 11(8), 535; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11080535 - 15 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1042
Abstract
Background: the mosquito Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) is an important vector of arboviruses, including Zika, Dengue, and Chikungunya. The dietary requirements of larval Ae. aegypti are not well understood and likely impact developmental and physiological parameters knowledge of which could be [...] Read more.
Background: the mosquito Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) is an important vector of arboviruses, including Zika, Dengue, and Chikungunya. The dietary requirements of larval Ae. aegypti are not well understood and likely impact developmental and physiological parameters knowledge of which could be important for vector control. This study examines the effects nutrition has on growth and development of larval Ae. aegypti of laboratory-reared Rockefeller strain mosquitoes. Methods: mosquito larvae were split into five feeding groups with diets providing different ratios of protein and carbohydrates. Each group received autolyzed Brewer’s yeast (AY - high-protein), and/or rice flour (RF—high-carbohydrate). The groups were monitored to record larval developmental times, adult sizes and nutritional stores. Results: the 100% AY group failed to pupate, suggesting the AY alone is either lacking in critical nutrients or is toxic at higher concentrations. The 100% RF group resulted in the smallest adults that took the longest time to reach pupation. Of the remaining groups, the 25% AY/75% RF (Med–low) diet yielded adult mosquitoes with highest average weight, wing length, and lipid stores relative to the other diets. Conclusions: the dietary requirements for development, body size, and nutrient stores of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes appear to be dependent on a relatively low but essential proportion of dietary protein to carbohydrates to achieve optimal developmental outcomes. Full article
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Article
Characterization of the Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Drabescus ineffectus and Roxasellana stellata (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Deltocephalinae: Drabescini) and Their Phylogenetic Implications
Insects 2020, 11(8), 534; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11080534 - 14 Aug 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 860
Abstract
To explore the mitogenome characteristics and shed light on the phylogenetic relationships and molecular evolution of Drabescini species, we sequenced and analyzed the complete mitochondrial genome of two species including Drabescus ineffectus and Roxasellana stellata. The complete mitogenomes of D. ineffectus and [...] Read more.
To explore the mitogenome characteristics and shed light on the phylogenetic relationships and molecular evolution of Drabescini species, we sequenced and analyzed the complete mitochondrial genome of two species including Drabescus ineffectus and Roxasellana stellata. The complete mitogenomes of D. ineffectus and R. stellata are circular, closed and double-stranded molecules with a total length of 15744 bp and 15361 bp, respectively. These two newly sequenced mitogenomes contain the typical 37 genes. Most protein-coding genes (PCGs) began with the start codon ATN and terminated with the terminal codon TAA or TAG, with an exception of a special initiation codon of ND5, which started with TTG, and an incomplete stop codon T-- was found in the Cytb, COX2, ND1 and ND4. All tRNAs could be folded into the canonical cloverleaf secondary structure except for the trnS1, which lacks the DHU arm and is replaced by a simple loop. The multiple tandem repeat units were found in A + T-control region. The sliding window, Ka/Ks and genetic distance analyses indicated that the ATP8 presents a high variability and fast evolutionary rate compared to other PCGs. Phylogenetic analyses based on three different datasets (PCG123, PCG12R and AA) using both Bayesian inference (BI) and maximum likelihood (ML) methods showed strong support for the monophyly of Drabescini. Full article
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Review
From Diverse Origins to Specific Targets: Role of Microorganisms in Indirect Pest Biological Control
Insects 2020, 11(8), 533; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11080533 - 14 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1208
Abstract
Integrated pest management (IPM) is today a widely accepted pest management strategy to select and use the most efficient control tactics and at the same time reduce over-dependence on chemical insecticides and their potentially negative environmental effects. One of the main pillars of [...] Read more.
Integrated pest management (IPM) is today a widely accepted pest management strategy to select and use the most efficient control tactics and at the same time reduce over-dependence on chemical insecticides and their potentially negative environmental effects. One of the main pillars of IPM is biological control. While biological control programs of pest insects commonly rely on natural enemies such as predatory insects, parasitoids and microbial pathogens, there is increasing evidence that plant, soil and insect microbiomes can also be exploited to enhance plant defense against herbivores. In this mini-review, we illustrate how microorganisms from diverse origins can contribute to plant fitness, functional traits and indirect defense responses against pest insects, and therefore be indirectly used to improve biological pest control practices. Microorganisms in the rhizosphere, phyllosphere and endosphere have not only been shown to enhance plant growth and plant strength, but also promote plant defense against herbivores both above- and belowground by providing feeding deterrence or antibiosis. Also, herbivore associated molecular patterns may be induced by microorganisms that come from oral phytophagous insect secretions and elicit plant-specific responses to herbivore attacks. Furthermore, microorganisms that inhabit floral nectar and insect honeydew produce volatile organic compounds that attract beneficial insects like natural enemies, thereby providing indirect pest control. Given the multiple benefits of microorganisms to plants, we argue that future IPMs should consider and exploit the whole range of possibilities that microorganisms offer to enhance plant defense and increase attraction, fecundity and performance of natural enemies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biopesticide Development in Multitrophic Era)
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Article
Plant-Derived Insecticides Under Meta-Analyses: Status, Biases, and Knowledge Gaps
Insects 2020, 11(8), 532; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11080532 - 14 Aug 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1075
Abstract
Plant-derived or botanical insecticides are biopesticides experiencing substantial ongoing increase in interest. The 74 years of our literature survey tracked over 2500 papers on botanical insecticides published between 1945 and 2019 (Web of Science database). Such a survey allowed meta-analyses to recognize current [...] Read more.
Plant-derived or botanical insecticides are biopesticides experiencing substantial ongoing increase in interest. The 74 years of our literature survey tracked over 2500 papers on botanical insecticides published between 1945 and 2019 (Web of Science database). Such a survey allowed meta-analyses to recognize current status and biases of the studies providing important insights into the research topic. They include the recognition of the exponential growth of such studies since the 1990s, the prevalent interest on the Meliaceae plant species and a dozen additional families, although some 190 families have been investigated. The arthropods targeted by such studies were pest species (ca. 95%) with rather little attention devoted to non-target species (p < 0.001). This bias is followed by another one—mortality assessments are prevalent among target and non-target arthropod species when contrasted with sublethal assessments (p < 0.01). These omissions are pivotal, as they fail to recognize that sublethal effects may be as important or even more important than mortality, and that initial insecticide deposits quickly degrade over time leading to prevailing sublethal exposure. Furthermore, although the target of control is limited to few species, non-target species will be exposed and as such need to be factored into consideration. Thus, these biases in studies of botanical insecticides incur in knowledge gaps with potential consequences for the practical use of these compounds as pest management tools. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Substances against Insect Pests: Assets and Liabilities)
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Article
Molecular Cloning and Expression Profiles of Thermosensitive TRP Genes in Agasicles hygrophila
Insects 2020, 11(8), 531; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11080531 - 13 Aug 2020
Viewed by 742
Abstract
Global warming has gradually reduced the control efficacy of Agasicles hygrophila against the invasive weed Alternanthera philoxeroides. To better understand the summer collapse of A. hygrophila populations, we cloned the cDNA sequences of the high temperature-sensing TRPA1, Painless, and Pyrexia [...] Read more.
Global warming has gradually reduced the control efficacy of Agasicles hygrophila against the invasive weed Alternanthera philoxeroides. To better understand the summer collapse of A. hygrophila populations, we cloned the cDNA sequences of the high temperature-sensing TRPA1, Painless, and Pyrexia from A. hygrophila, and analyzed their temporal expressions and the impacts of high temperatures on their expression in eggs, the most vulnerable stage of A. hygrophila to hot temperatures. All the three genes obtained had the signature domains of TRPA channels and were constitutively expressed in eggs, larvae (L1, L2, L3), pupae, and adults, but AhPainless had the highest expression, followed by AhPyrexia, and AhTRPA1. The lowest and highest expression stages were adult and pupae for AhTRPA1, egg and L3 for AhPainless, and pupae/adult and L2 for AhPyrexia. The expressions of AhTRPA1, AhPainless, and AhPyrexia remained low at the preferred temperature range of 25–28 °C, elevated to their peak levels at 37.5, 30, and 30 °C, respectively, then fell to their 25–28 °C levels (AhTRPA1, AhPainless) or a lower level (AhPyrexia) at one or more temperatures >30 or 37.5 °C. These results suggest that their temperature-sensing roles and importance may be different, stage-specific, and their expression may be decoupled from their activation. Full article
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Article
Cellular Localization of Two Rickettsia Symbionts in the Digestive System and within the Ovaries of the Mirid Bug, Macrolophous pygmaeus
Insects 2020, 11(8), 530; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11080530 - 13 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1341
Abstract
Bacterial symbionts in arthropods are common, vary in their effects, and can dramatically influence the outcome of biological control efforts. Macrolophus pygmaeus (Heteroptera: Miridae), a key component of biological control programs, is mainly predaceous but may also display phytophagy. M. pygmaeus hosts symbiotic [...] Read more.
Bacterial symbionts in arthropods are common, vary in their effects, and can dramatically influence the outcome of biological control efforts. Macrolophus pygmaeus (Heteroptera: Miridae), a key component of biological control programs, is mainly predaceous but may also display phytophagy. M. pygmaeus hosts symbiotic Wolbachia, which induce cytoplasmic incompatibility, and two Rickettsia species, R. bellii and R. limoniae, which are found in all individuals tested. To test possible involvement of the two Rickettsia species in the feeding habits of M. pygmaeus, we first showed that the microbiome of the insect is dominated by these three symbionts, and later described the distribution pattern of the two Rickettsia species in its digestive system. Although both Rickettsia species were located in certain gut bacteriocyes, in caeca and in Malpighian tubules of both sexes, each species has a unique cellular occupancy pattern and specific distribution along digestive system compartments. Infrequently, both species were found in a cell. In females, both Rickettsia species were detected in the germarium, the apical end of the ovarioles within the ovaries, but not in oocytes. Although the cause for these Rickettsia distribution patterns is yet unknown, it is likely linked to host nutrition while feeding on prey or plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insect Symbionts: Evolution and Application)
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Article
Characterization of Sodium Channel Mutations in the Dengue Vector Mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus within the Context of Ongoing Wolbachia Releases in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Insects 2020, 11(8), 529; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11080529 - 13 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 897
Abstract
Specific sodium channel gene mutations confer target site resistance to pyrethroid insecticides in mosquitoes and other insects. In Aedes mosquito species, multiple mutations that contribute to resistance vary in their importance around the world. Here, we characterize voltage sensitive sodium channel (Vssc [...] Read more.
Specific sodium channel gene mutations confer target site resistance to pyrethroid insecticides in mosquitoes and other insects. In Aedes mosquito species, multiple mutations that contribute to resistance vary in their importance around the world. Here, we characterize voltage sensitive sodium channel (Vssc) mutations in populations of Aedesaegypti from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, and look at their persistence in populations affected by ongoing Wolbachia releases (a dengue control measure). We also describe a Vssc mutation in Aedesalbopictus (F1534L) found for the first time in Malaysia. We show that there are three predominant Vssc haplotypes in Aedesaegypti in this region, which all persist with regular backcrossing, thereby maintaining the original genetic composition of the populations. We identify changes in genotype frequency in closed populations of Ae. aegypti maintained for multiple generations in laboratory culture, suggesting different fitness costs associated with the genotypes, some of which may be associated with the sex of the mosquito. Following population replacement of Ae. aegypti by Wolbachia in the target area, however, we find that the Vssc mutations have persisted at pre-release levels. Mosquitoes in two genotype classes demonstrate a type I pyrethroid resistance advantage over wildtype mosquitoes when exposed to 0.25% permethrin. This resistance advantage is even more pronounced with a type II pyrethroid, deltamethrin (0.03%). The results point to the importance of these mutations in pyrethroid resistance in mosquito populations and the need for regular backcrossing with male mosquitoes from the field to maintain similarity of genetic background and population integrity during Wolbachia releases. Full article
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Article
Social Fever or General Immune Response? Revisiting an Example of Social Immunity in Honey Bees
Insects 2020, 11(8), 528; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11080528 - 13 Aug 2020
Viewed by 1364
Abstract
Honey bees use several strategies to protect themselves and the colony from parasites and pathogens. In addition to individual immunity, social immunity involves the cumulative effort of some individuals to limit the spread of parasites and pathogens to uninfected nestmates. Examples of social [...] Read more.
Honey bees use several strategies to protect themselves and the colony from parasites and pathogens. In addition to individual immunity, social immunity involves the cumulative effort of some individuals to limit the spread of parasites and pathogens to uninfected nestmates. Examples of social immunity in honey bees that have received attention include hygienic behavior, or the removal of diseased brood, and the collection and deposition of antimicrobial resins (propolis) on interior nest surfaces. Advances in our understanding of another form of social immunity, social fever, are lacking. Honey bees were shown to raise the temperature of the nest in response to temperature-sensitive brood pathogen, Ascosphaera apis. The increase in nest temperature (−0.6 °C) is thought to limit the spread of A. apis infection to uninfected immatures. We established observation hives and monitored the temperature of the brood nest for 40 days. This observation period was broken into five distinct segments, corresponding to sucrose solution feedings—Pre-Feed, Feed I, Challenge, Feed II, and Post-Feed. Ascosphaera apis was administered to colonies as a 1% solution of ground sporulating chalkbrood mummies in 50% v/v sucrose solution, during the Challenge period. Like previous reports, we observed a modest increase in brood nest temperature during the Challenge period. However, all hives presented signs of chalkbrood disease, suggesting that elevation of the nest temperature was not sufficient to stop the spread of infection among immatures. We also began to explore the molecular mechanisms of temperature increase by exposing adult bees in cages to A. apis, without the presence of immatures. Compared to adult workers who were given sucrose solution only, workers exposed to A. apis showed increased expression of the antimicrobial peptides abaecin (p = 0.07) and hymenoptaecin (p = 0.04), but expression of the heat shock response protein Hsp 70Ab-like (p = 0.76) and the nutritional marker vitellogenin (p = 0.72) were unaffected. These results indicate that adult honey bee workers exposed to a brood pathogen elevate the temperature of the brood nest and initiate an immune response, but the effect of this fever on preventing disease requires further study. Full article
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Review
The Longevity of Colonies of Fungus-Growing Termites and the Stability of the Symbiosis
Insects 2020, 11(8), 527; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11080527 - 13 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1195
Abstract
The agricultural mutualistic symbiosis between macrotermitine termites and Termitomyces fungi is obligate for both partners. The termites provide a protective growth environment for the fungus by cultivating it inside their colony and providing it with foraged plant material. The termites use the fungus [...] Read more.
The agricultural mutualistic symbiosis between macrotermitine termites and Termitomyces fungi is obligate for both partners. The termites provide a protective growth environment for the fungus by cultivating it inside their colony and providing it with foraged plant material. The termites use the fungus for plant substrate degradation, and the production of asexual fruiting bodies for nourishment and re-inoculation of the fungus garden. The termite colony can reach an age of up to several decades, during which time it is believed that a single fungal monoculture is asexually propagated by the offspring of a single founding royal pair. The termite-fungus mutualism has a long evolutionary history dating back more than 30 million years. Both on the time-scale of a termite colony lifespan and that of the mutualistic symbiosis, questions arise about stability. We address the physical stability of the mound, the termite colony and the monoculture fungal garden during a colony’s lifetime. On the long-term evolutionary scale, we address the stability of the symbiosis, where horizontal transmission of the symbiotic fungus raises the question of how the mutualistic interaction between host and symbiont persists over generations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insects-Environment Interaction)
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Article
Radioprotective Effects on Late Third-Instar Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) Larvae in Low-Oxygen Atmospheres
Insects 2020, 11(8), 526; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11080526 - 12 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 616
Abstract
Ionizing radiation creates free radicals, the effect of which is enhanced by the presence of oxygen; a low oxygen level produces radioprotective effects for insects compared with irradiation in ambient air. Modified (controlled) atmosphere packaging is used for maintaining quality and shelf-life extension; [...] Read more.
Ionizing radiation creates free radicals, the effect of which is enhanced by the presence of oxygen; a low oxygen level produces radioprotective effects for insects compared with irradiation in ambient air. Modified (controlled) atmosphere packaging is used for maintaining quality and shelf-life extension; therefore, treatment efficacy may be affected, and there is a need to determine the critical O2 levels that may cause radioprotective effects. Late third-instar Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) larvae were irradiated in bags filled with ambient or low-oxygen air (0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% O2) and were exposed to radiation doses of 8 to 64 Gy with intervals of 8 Gy. Efficacy was measured by the prevention of adult emergence. Dose–response data on mortality (failure of adult emergence) were analyzed via two-way ANOVA (analysis of variance), ANCOVA (analysis of covariance), and probit regression. The difference in radiotolerance was only significant in 0% O2 atmospheres through two-way ANOVA; therefore, the 95% confidence limits (CLs) of lethal dose ratios at LD99 were used to determine significant differences between treatments at different O2 levels. The differences in radiotolerance were significant in 0% and 2% O2 but insignificant in 4%, 6%, and 8% O2 environments when compared with radiation in ambient air. The critical threshold of radioprotective effects for late third-instar B. dorsalis larvae is an O2 level of ≥4% and <6%, but a maximum radiation dose of 14 Gy can compensate for this effect during phytosanitary irradiation treatment. Full article
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Article
Spatial Distribution of Pollinating Butterflies in Yunnan Province, Southwest China with Resource Conservation Implications
Insects 2020, 11(8), 525; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11080525 - 12 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 818
Abstract
Pollinating butterflies are an important asset to agriculture, which still depends on wild resources. Yunnan Province in Southwest China is a region with typical montane agriculture, but this resource is poorly investigated. From literature reference and specimen examination, the present study identified 554 [...] Read more.
Pollinating butterflies are an important asset to agriculture, which still depends on wild resources. Yunnan Province in Southwest China is a region with typical montane agriculture, but this resource is poorly investigated. From literature reference and specimen examination, the present study identified 554 species of pollinating butterflies (50.8% of the total butterflies) from Yunnan, with family Nymphalidae possessing the least number of pollinators (80 species, 16.0%), while the remaining four families are pollinator-rich (>73%). Tropical lowlands and mountain-valley areas possess higher species richness than those with plain terrains. The species richness of pollinating butterflies in Yunnan does not simply decline with the increase of latitude, nor is significantly different between West and East Yunnan. Zonation of pollinating butterflies using the parsimony analysis of endemicity (PAE) identified nine distribution zones and ten subzones. Most areas of endemism (AOE) are found in lowlands or mountain-valley areas, complexity of terrains, climates, and vegetation types are believed to be the main causes of such endemicity. The potential pollinating service of these butterflies could be great to montane agriculture with expanding areas of cash crops and fruit horticulture. Conservation strategies for pollinating butterflies may consist of preserving habitats and establishing butterfly-friendly agriculture based on local traditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Butterfly Biodiversity and Conservation)
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Communication
Interactive Effects of an Herbivore-Induced Plant Volatile and Color on an Insect Community in Cranberry
Insects 2020, 11(8), 524; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11080524 - 12 Aug 2020
Viewed by 1244
Abstract
Synthetic herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) could be used to monitor insect populations in agroecosystems, including beneficial insects such as natural enemies of herbivores. However, it is unknown whether insect responses to HIPVs are influenced by visual cues, e.g., color. We hypothesized that the [...] Read more.
Synthetic herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) could be used to monitor insect populations in agroecosystems, including beneficial insects such as natural enemies of herbivores. However, it is unknown whether insect responses to HIPVs are influenced by visual cues, e.g., color. We hypothesized that the HIPV methyl salicylate (MeSA) interacts with color to affect insect captures on sticky traps. To test this, we conducted a 5 × 2 factorial field experiment in a commercial cranberry farm to monitor numbers of insect predators, parasitoids, and herbivores by using five colored sticky traps that were either baited with a MeSA lure (named ‘PredaLure’) or unbaited. At the community level, PredaLure increased captures of predators. At the individual-taxon level, captures of the hoverfly Toxomerus marginatus (Diptera: Syrphidae) and thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) were higher on PredaLure-baited traps. However, only captures of T. marginatus on PredaLure-baited traps interacted significantly with color such that the numbers of this hoverfly on yellow and white traps were 2–4 times higher when baited with PredaLure. This study is the first to document the interactive effects of synthetic HIPVs and color on an insect community. Our findings have implications for optimal selection of HIPV-baited colored traps to monitor natural enemy populations in agroecosystems. Full article
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Article
Expressional Localization and Functionally Identifying an RNA Editing Enzyme BmADARa of the Silkworm Bombyx mori
Insects 2020, 11(8), 523; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11080523 - 12 Aug 2020
Viewed by 737
Abstract
The most common type of RNA editing in metazoans is the deamination of adenosine into inosine (A-to-I) catalyzed by the adenosine deaminase acting on the RNA (ADAR) family of proteins. The deletion or dysfunction of ADAR enzymes in higher eukaryotes can affect the [...] Read more.
The most common type of RNA editing in metazoans is the deamination of adenosine into inosine (A-to-I) catalyzed by the adenosine deaminase acting on the RNA (ADAR) family of proteins. The deletion or dysfunction of ADAR enzymes in higher eukaryotes can affect the efficiency of substrate editing and cause neurological disorders. However, the information concerning A-to-I RNA editing and ADAR members in the silkworm, Bombyx mori (BmADAR), is limited. In this study, a first molecular comprehensive cloning and sequence analysis of BmADAR transcripts was presented. A complete open reading frame (ORF) (BmADARa) was obtained using RT-PCR and RACE and its expression pattern, subcellular localization and A-to-I RNA-editing function on the silkworm synaptotagmin I (BmSyt I) were investigated. Subcellular localization analysis observed that BmADARa was mainly localized in the nucleus. To further study the A-to-I RNA-editing function of BmADARa, BmSyt I-pIZ-EGFP was constructed and co-transfected with BmADARa-pIZ-EGFP into BmN cells. The result demonstrates that BmADARa can functionally edit the specific site of BmSyt I. Taken together, this study not only provides insight into the function of the first ADAR enzyme in B. mori, but also lays foundations for further exploration of the functional domain of BmADARa and its editing substrates and target sites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insect Molecular Biology)
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Article
Gamma Irradiation and Male Glossina austeni Mating Performance
Insects 2020, 11(8), 522; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11080522 - 11 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 745
Abstract
An area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) strategy with a sterile insect technique (SIT) component has been proposed for the management of African animal trypanosomosis (AAT) in South Africa. In preparation for the SIT, the mating performance of colony reared Glossina austeni males under [...] Read more.
An area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) strategy with a sterile insect technique (SIT) component has been proposed for the management of African animal trypanosomosis (AAT) in South Africa. In preparation for the SIT, the mating performance of colony reared Glossina austeni males under influencing factors such as radiation dose and the development stage that is exposed to radiation, was assessed under laboratory and semi-field conditions. The radiation sensitivity of G. austeni colonized 37 years ago when treated as adults and late-stage pupae was determined. Radiation doses of 80 Gy and 100 Gy induced 97–99% sterility in colony females that mated with colony males treated as adults or pupae. Males irradiated either as adults or pupae with a radiation dose of 100 Gy showed similar insemination ability and survival as untreated males. Walk-in field cage assessments indicated that a dose of up to 100 Gy did not adversely affect the mating performance of males irradiated as adults or late stage pupae. Males irradiated as adults formed mating pairs faster than fertile males and males irradiated as pupae. The mating performance studies indicated that the colonized G. austeni males irradiated as adults or late stage pupae will still be suited for SIT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) and Its Applications)
Correction
Correction: Wu, Q.-L.; et al. Estimation of the Potential Infestation Area of Newly-Invaded Fall Armyworm Spodoptera Frugiperda in the Yangtze River Valley of China. Insects 2019, 10, 298
Insects 2020, 11(8), 521; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11080521 - 11 Aug 2020
Viewed by 584
Abstract
The authors wish to make the following correction to this paper [...] Full article
Article
Resilin Distribution and Sexual Dimorphism in the Midge Antenna and Their Influence on Frequency Sensitivity
Insects 2020, 11(8), 520; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11080520 - 11 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 880
Abstract
Small-scale bioacoustic sensors, such as antennae in insects, are often considered, biomechanically, to be not much more than the sum of their basic geometric features. Therefore, little is known about the fine structure and material properties of these sensors—even less so about the [...] Read more.
Small-scale bioacoustic sensors, such as antennae in insects, are often considered, biomechanically, to be not much more than the sum of their basic geometric features. Therefore, little is known about the fine structure and material properties of these sensors—even less so about the degree to which the well-known sexual dimorphism of the insect antenna structure affects those properties. By using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), we determined material composition patterns and estimated distribution of stiffer and softer materials in the antennae of males and females of the non-biting midge Chironomus riparius. Using finite element modelling (FEM), we also have evidence that the differences in composition of these antennae can influence their mechanical responses. This study points to the possibility that modulating the elastic and viscoelastic properties along the length of the antennae can affect resonant characteristics beyond those expected of simple mass-on-a-spring systems—in this case, a simple banded structure can change the antennal frequency sensitivity. This constitutes a simple principle that, now demonstrated in another Dipteran group, could be widespread in insects to improve various passive and active sensory performances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insects: Functional Morphology, Biomechanics and Biomimetics)
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Article
The Rare Richardsitas Betsch (Collembola, Symphypleona, Sminthuridae): A New Species from Australia with Comments on the Genus and on the Sminthurinae
Insects 2020, 11(8), 519; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11080519 - 11 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 796
Abstract
Richardsitas Betsch is a small genus of Sminthurinae with only two species described so far, both from Madagascar. It resembles other Sminthurinae with long antennae, especially Temeritas Richards. Here we provide the first record of Richardsitas from Australia, Richardsitas subferoleum sp. nov., which [...] Read more.
Richardsitas Betsch is a small genus of Sminthurinae with only two species described so far, both from Madagascar. It resembles other Sminthurinae with long antennae, especially Temeritas Richards. Here we provide the first record of Richardsitas from Australia, Richardsitas subferoleum sp. nov., which is similar to R. najtae Betsch and R. griveaudi Betsch in males’ large abdomen chaetotaxy and presence of tenent-hairs on tibiotarsi II–III, but lacks mucronal chaeta and has 28 segments on the fourth antennal segment plus a unique pair of sensilla on the second. We also provide an updated genus diagnosis to Richardsitas, a key to its species, a discussion of the affinities of Temeritas and Richardsitas to other Sminthurinae, and an updated key to this subfamily. Full article
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Erratum
Erratum: Skowron Volponi, M. A Vivid Orange New Genus and Species of Braconid-Mimicking Clearwing Moth (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) Found Puddling on Plecoptera Exuviae. Insects 2020, 11, 425
Insects 2020, 11(8), 518; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11080518 - 10 Aug 2020
Viewed by 602
Abstract
The author wishes to make the following corrections to this paper [...] Full article
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