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Article

Monitoring of Target-Site Mutations Conferring Insecticide Resistance in Spodoptera frugiperda

1
Institute of Crop Science and Resource Conservation, University of Bonn, 53115 Bonn, Germany
2
Bayer AG, Crop Science Division, R&D Pest Control, 40789 Monheim, Germany
3
Department of Agronomy, Food, Natural Resources, Animals and Environment, University of Padova, 35020 Padova, Italy
4
Department of Entomology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Insects 2020, 11(8), 545; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11080545
Received: 22 July 2020 / Revised: 12 August 2020 / Accepted: 13 August 2020 / Published: 18 August 2020
Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, is an invasive moth species and one of the most destructive pests of maize. It is native to the Americas but recently invaded (sub)tropical regions in Africa, Asia and Oceania. Fall armyworm larvae feeding on maize plants cause substantial economic damage and are usually controlled by the application of insecticides and genetically modified (GM) maize expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins, selectively targeting fall armyworm. It has developed resistance to many different classes of insecticides and Bt proteins as well; therefore, it is important to check field populations for the presence of mutations in target proteins conferring resistance. Here, we developed molecular diagnostic tools allowing us to test the frequency of resistance alleles in field-collected populations, either alive or preserved in alcohol. We tested 34 different populations collected on four different continents for the presence of mutations conferring resistance to common classes of insecticides and Bt proteins. We detected resistance mutations which are quite widespread, whereas others are restricted to certain geographies or even completely absent. The established molecular methods show robust results in samples collected across a broad geographical range and can be used to support decisions for sustainable fall armyworm control and applied resistance management.
Fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda, a major pest of corn and native to the Americas, recently invaded (sub)tropical regions worldwide. The intensive use of insecticides and the high adoption of crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins has led to many cases of resistance. Target-site mutations are among the main mechanisms of resistance and monitoring their frequency is of great value for insecticide resistance management. Pyrosequencing and PCR-based allelic discrimination assays were developed and used to genotype target-site resistance alleles in 34 FAW populations from different continents. The diagnostic methods revealed a high frequency of mutations in acetylcholinesterase, conferring resistance to organophosphates and carbamates. In voltage-gated sodium channels targeted by pyrethroids, only one population from Indonesia showed a mutation. No mutations were detected in the ryanodine receptor, suggesting susceptibility to diamides. Indels in the ATP-binding cassette transporter C2 associated with Bt-resistance were observed in samples collected in Puerto Rico and Brazil. Additionally, we analyzed all samples for the presence of markers associated with two sympatric FAW host plant strains. The molecular methods established show robust results in FAW samples collected across a broad geographical range and can be used to support decisions for sustainable FAW control and applied resistance management. View Full-Text
Keywords: fall armyworm; insecticide resistance; target-site mutations; Bt resistance; corn strain; rice strain; resistance management; Indonesia; Kenya fall armyworm; insecticide resistance; target-site mutations; Bt resistance; corn strain; rice strain; resistance management; Indonesia; Kenya
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MDPI and ACS Style

Boaventura, D.; Martin, M.; Pozzebon, A.; Mota-Sanchez, D.; Nauen, R. Monitoring of Target-Site Mutations Conferring Insecticide Resistance in Spodoptera frugiperda. Insects 2020, 11, 545. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11080545

AMA Style

Boaventura D, Martin M, Pozzebon A, Mota-Sanchez D, Nauen R. Monitoring of Target-Site Mutations Conferring Insecticide Resistance in Spodoptera frugiperda. Insects. 2020; 11(8):545. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11080545

Chicago/Turabian Style

Boaventura, Debora, Macarena Martin, Alberto Pozzebon, David Mota-Sanchez, and Ralf Nauen. 2020. "Monitoring of Target-Site Mutations Conferring Insecticide Resistance in Spodoptera frugiperda" Insects 11, no. 8: 545. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11080545

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